Genetics2

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Genetics2

  1. 1. Genetic Engineering for Treatment and Cure of Genetic Diseases By: Livy Bartels 6th Period, Science Mrs. Morgan
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><ul><ul><li>How are traits controlled by dominant and recessive alleles? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Take the trait height in plants. Tall is dominant, small is recessive. You inherit 2 genes, one from each parent. You can either inherit TT, Tt, or tt, which are in order, Tall purebred, Tall hybrid, and small. Depending upon which allele combination you get, you receive different traits. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>How are traits controlled with co-dominant alleles? </li></ul><ul><li>Traits are then ‘shared’ or you will show a mix of traits. Let’s say you were a calf, and you had two co-dominant alleles – one for red, one for white. You would turn out roan because you wouldn’t have a dominant allele. If you looked closely, you would have white and red hairs, but you would appear roan. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how the alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The alleles of parent combine to express traits in offspring because their sex cells went through meiosis, and therefore have half the number of chromosomes they should have. When the two sides of DNA (Chromosomes) combine, called fertilization, then the alleles have combined and the offspring have unique traits each to their own. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Human Genome Project <ul><ul><ul><li>When did the project start and how did scientists hope to use this information (what were the goals in the beginning)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Started in 1990 between DOE and NIH. (US Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health) Ended early, in 2003, but was supposed to end 2005. They wanted to map out the human genome, with all of the genes (About 100,000) that make the human body work, function. Also, they would be able to treat diseases and diagnose patients with this information. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Human Genome Project <ul><ul><ul><li>What are the implications of the Human Genome project in regards to Ethical, legal and Social implications (address each of these in your explanation) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This means that legally speaking, people can’t turn you away a job, or fire you if you already have one. </li></ul><ul><li>Socially it means that if they find cures, people can live better lives by not having to always beware of snide comments or hurtful acts. Also they won’t have the threat of death or pain over them any longer. Socially it also implies that people would be able to change their looks so that they are no longer in the minority. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethically it mixes with lots of people’s beliefs, as to religion or right. If your child is going to be born with AIDS or Down Syndrome you have a moral right to fix it. Or should you let the child be, as your god(s) created it? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Human Genome Project <ul><li>How did the human genome project change current laws such as GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current law, GINA, makes sure insurance companies cannot tell you that you that you can’t have insurance due to genetic disorders. Also the 2000 Executive Order ensures you cannot be turned away for a job just because of genetic disorders. Also, the Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001, passed by the House of Representatives, ensured that humans are not allowed to be cloned. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Compare and contrast the three different types of genetic disorders: </li></ul><ul><li>1.    single gene disorder – discover which gene has been mutated and how. One gene is affected. </li></ul><ul><li>2.    chromosome abnormalities – some break off, or are lost, or grow weirdly. </li></ul><ul><li>3.    multifactorial disorders – Combination of environment and mutation. </li></ul><ul><li>They are similar in the way that they are all disorders, but they differ on that which they all have different genetic factors affected, or different factors that affect the disorder, whether it is the environment, genes, or chromosomes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>How can genetic counseling help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children? </li></ul><ul><li>They can have germ cell genetic counseling in which their genes in sex cells will be altered and therefore their children’s genes are altered, eliminating that which you wish to eliminate, such as a genetic disorder. Genetic Counseling tells the parents how to deal with the disorder and help the child through their life. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders? </li></ul><ul><li>They can see the karyotypes, or pictures, of your chromosomes and DNA and if there is one too many, a broken one, or a mutated gene, they can see you have a genetic disorder. </li></ul>
  11. 11. #1) Pro: Genetic Engineering for Curing Diseases
  12. 12. #2) Pro: Medication and Genetic Engineering <ul><ul><ul><li>They can create better medications. These are able to combat genetic diseases and illness so the symptoms are less, or get rid of the sickness. They want to created fruits and hormones that will fix a lot of disorders. Parents who have genetic disorders can take medication to prevent their child from getting the disorders. This is called gene therapy. They are also able to test your drug, or medication capacity, by seeing your genetic code. &quot;The next step is to achieve higher doses of vaccines in plants, ensure that the human immune system recognizes the vaccine and develop vaccine-producing banana trees, which take three years to grow. If all goes well,” says Yasmin Thanavala (of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York), “banana vaccines may be ready to peel in five years.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. #3) Pro: Altering the Vectors <ul><ul><ul><li>In Africa malaria has gotten so bad scientists are thinking of altering the vectors, mosquitoes, to prevent diseases. &quot;I would have to see an example of modified mosquitoes reducing malaria in another village before I believe this claim of the foreign organization. In agriculture, you have to see something before you believe it. &quot; (Excerpt from an interview with a 72-year-old man in Tienfala) However, many are willing to try. &quot;If you want to effectively stop the spreading of the malaria parasite, you need mosquitoes that are one hundred percent resistant to it. If a single parasite slips through and infects a human, the whole approach will be doomed to fail,&quot; said Michael Riehle, who led the scientists in creating the 100% malaria-free mosquito. If this happens, malaria rates in Africa will drop dramatically. Less people will die each year, and maybe millions of lives will be saved. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. #4) Pro: Saving Money <ul><ul><ul><li>If you treat the disease once and it’s gone, then you don’t have to come back for surgeries and check-ups, or have risk of other resulting problems. And even better – if you never have the disease at all, you never pay for it. Dr. Matthew N. Bartels, Pulmonary Rehabilitation doctor, states, “You can treat genetic conditions, then you can save money by not having to do transplants or have other expensive medical procedures.” For example – sickle cell anemia. It will eventually result in you having to have lung transplants and joint surgeries, when you may not need them if you didn’t have the disease. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rank Countries Amount </li></ul><ul><li># 1 United States: 477 deaths </li></ul><ul><li># 2 Brazil: 219 deaths </li></ul><ul><li># 3 Dominican Republic: 76 deaths </li></ul><ul><li># 4 Venezuela: 40 deaths </li></ul><ul><li># 5 Colombia: 34 deaths </li></ul><ul><li># 6 Cuba: 30 deaths Chart for Sickle Cell Anemia </li></ul><ul><li># 7 Panama: 29 deaths </li></ul><ul><li># 8 Bahrain: 14 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 9 Mexico: 6 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 9 Canada: 6 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 11 Kuwait: 5 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 11 Germany: 5 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 13 Puerto Rico: 4 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 13 Bahamas, The: 4 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 13 Nicaragua: 4 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 16 Argentina: 3 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 16 Costa Rica: 3 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 16 Uruguay: 3 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 19 Netherlands: 2 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 19 Sweden: 2 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 19 Ecuador: 2 deaths ( http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/mor_sic_cel_dis-mortality-sickle-cell-disorders) </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Poland: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Slovakia: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Norway: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Australia: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Spain: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Barbados: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Korea, South: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Egypt: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Luxembourg: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 El Salvador: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Peru: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Finland: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 South Africa: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 Israel: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>= 22 United Kingdom: 1 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 983 deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Weighted average: 27.3 deaths </li></ul>
  15. 15. Scientific Advancements in Cloning <ul><li>1800 - Hans Dreich cloned sea urchins </li></ul><ul><li>1902 - Hans Spemman spliced apart a two celled salamander egg with his 2-month old son’s hair. These two salamanders grew to be identical, also clones. </li></ul><ul><li>Nov. 1951 - A team of scientists in Philadelphia cloned a frog’s embryo – they replaced the nucleus in the second and presto! Cloned. </li></ul><ul><li>1986 – Two teams, both across the globe from each other, cloned mammals – one a sheep’s embryo, the other a cow’s embryo. </li></ul><ul><li>1986 – 227 tries, and Dolly the lamb was born – an exact clone of frozen mammary cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct. 3, 1997 – Cumulina, a mouse, was cloned in Honolulu using nuclear cloning. They cloned until they had 50 mice, all identical. Their rate for cloning was better than Dolly’s, a 50:1, opposed to Dolly’s 227:1. </li></ul><ul><li>2011 - A family wishes to have their dog cloned. They are spending millions. Will it work? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Related Controversial Issues <ul><li>Designer Babies – Creating how your baby looks, its muscle capacity, and its intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically Modified Food – from genetically created organisms. Ex. Golden Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning – Produce a genetic twin via DNA injection. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>In conclusion, I am for Genetic Engineering in Diseases. Millions of people will then survive – just look at the chart on sickle cell anemia! And you say, Won’t that increase population? Won’t that have overpopulation? Maybe not. There are still other causes of death, and everyone in the world wants to live; let’s give them that opportunity. Imagine if someday, your child was born, and you had the choice to leave it in pain with disease or to cure the child and help it have a better life. I think I know what I’d choose. Because I certainly wouldn’t want to live that way. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Citations <ul><li>&quot;PGD can reduce the risk of a child with a specific genetic abnormality carried by one or both parents.&quot; OBG Management 21.1 (2009): 38+. General OneFile. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall, John M., et al. &quot;Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control.&quot; Malaria Journal 9 (2010): 128. Academic OneFile. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Roses, Allen D. &quot;Pharmacogenetics in drug discovery and development: a translational perspective.&quot; Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 7.10 (2008): 807+. Academic OneFile. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Benefits of Human Genetic Engineering.&quot; Popular Issues - AllAboutPopularIssues.org. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/benefits-of-human-genetic-engineering-faq.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Human Genetic Engineering.&quot; Popular Issues - AllAboutPopularIssues.org. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/human-genetic-engineering.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genetic Engineering: Defining Our Children's Traits.&quot; João Pedro De Magalhães: Science, Thoughts, and Dreams of the Future. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://jp.senescence.info/thoughts/genetics.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;US Scientists Develop Malaria-proof Mosquito - Times Of India.&quot; Featured Articles From The Times Of India. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2010-07-17/science/28276126_1_stephensi-mosquito-malaria-parasite>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Cystic Fibrosis - PubMed Health.&quot; Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001167/>. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooper, M. H. (2000, May 12). Human genome research. CQ Researcher , 10 , 401-424. Retrieved from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genetics Legislation.&quot; Genomics.energy.gov--genome Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy . US Department of Energy. Web. 09 Mar. 2011. <http://genomics.energy.gov>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Using Karyotypes to Predict Genetic Disorders.&quot; Learn.Genetics™. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/predictdisorder/>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Sickle-cell Disorders by Country. Definition, Graph and Map.&quot; NationMaster - World Statistics, Country Comparisons. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/mor_sic_cel_dis-mortality-sickle-cell-disorders>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;A Revolution in Progress: Human Genetics and Medical Research.&quot; Office of History, National Institutes of Health. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/genetics/sect2f.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genetics Legislation.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/legislat.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genetic Engineering: Medicine.&quot; Virtual High School Welcomes You! Welcome-Home. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.govhs.org/vhsweb/Gallery.nsf/Files/Genetic Engineering, a group project/$file/med.html>. </li></ul>

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