Harvesting Stem Cells By Olivia Rogo and Cassidy Morales Period 6
Basic Principles of Genetics Q: How are traits controlled by dominant and recessive alleles? A: Individual alleles control the inheritance of traits. Some alleles are dominant while others are recessive. A dominant allele is an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when it is present. It also masks the recessive allele when it is present. Q: How are traits controlled with co-dominant alleles? A: Traits are controlled with co-dominant alleles when neither allele is masked in the offspring. Q: Explain how the alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring. A: Geneticists use punnett squares to show all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross and to determine the probability of a particular one. Punnett Square
Human Genome Project Q: When did the project start and how did scientists hope to use this information (what were the goals in the beginning)? A: The Human Genome Project started in October, 1990. The goals for this project was to identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in data bases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. Q: What are the implications of the Human Genome Project in regards to ethical, legal, and social implications (address each of these in your explanation)? A: An example of an implication that is legal is privacy and confidentiality of genetic information. An example of an implication that is social is conceptual and philosophical implications regarding human responsibility, free will vs. genetic determinism, and concepts of health and disease. An example of and implication that is ethical is reproductive issues including adequate informed consent for complex and potentially controversial procedures, use of genetic information in reproductive decision making, and reproductive rights.
Human Genome Project <ul><li>Q: How did the Human Genome Project change current laws such as GINA (Genetic Information Nondescript Act of 2008)? </li></ul><ul><li>A: The law prohibits U.S. insurance companies and employers from discriminating on the basis of information derived from genetic tests. This relates to the implications regarding fairness in the use of genetic information and privacy and confidentiality. </li></ul>
Genetic Disorder Q: Compare and contrast the three different types of genetic disorders: 1. single gene disorder 2. chromosome abnormalities 3. multifactorial disorders A: Single gene disorder- Result of a single mutated gene. Single gene disorder can be passed through past generations. Examples of single gene disorders are sickle-cell anemia and albinism. Chromosome abnormalities- These syndromes do not have the correct number of chromosomes. Examples of chromosome abnormalities are Kleinfelter’s syndrome, down syndrome, and Turners syndrome. Multifactorial disorders- They are caused by mutations in multiple genes. This disorder tends to occur later in life. Examples of multifactoral disorders are heart disease and diabetes. Q: How can genetic counseling help perspective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children? A: Genetic counselors help couples understand their chances of having a child with a particular genetic disorder. They use tools like punnett squares, pedigree charts and karyotypes to help them in their work.
Human Genome Project <ul><li>Q: How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders? </li></ul><ul><li>A: A karyotype is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. They chromosomes are also put into pairs. Karyotypes can determine if the baby is a girl or boy and if it has the right amount of chromosomes in its cells. For example, if the baby has too many chromosomes it can have a genetic disorder called down syndrome. </li></ul>Example of a karyotype
Argument 1: Stem cells can cure Alzheimer’s disease Stem cells can be used to change into different types of tissue. Researchers injected neural stem cells which acted as a new brain tissue into the part of the brain of a mouse that controls memory (same pert of the brain where human cells die of Alzheimer’s). After three months the brains reversed the mind deficit. Scientists believe that this could also work on humans.
Argument 2: Stem cells can cure diseases related to blood and bone marrow. Somatic cells are found in bone marrow and they can produce different cell types that make up blood. It has been transplanted to treat blood and bone diseases, blood cancer, and immune disorders. Umbilical cord stem cells and peripheral blood stem cells have also treated these diseases. Somatic cell
Argument 3: Stem cells can be used to make organs Dr. Shinya Vamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University were one of the first to take adult cells, reactivate four specific genes in them, and, by essentially turning back time, transform them into the equivalent of embryonic stem cells. Scientists have studied this for years and they are able to make cell types of the heart, kidneys, liver and lungs. Animal organs can be used for humans too. The stem cells from the patient would be put into an animal embryo that was genetically made to be an incubator for the formation of the organ.
Argument 4 : Stem cells can cure birth defects By injecting stem cells into the brain, scientists have successfully reversed neural birth defects in mice whose mothers were given heroin while pregnant. Most of the transplanted cells did not survive, they induced the brain’s own cells to carry out extensive repairs. Joseph Yanai is a director of the Ross laboratory for studies in neural birth defects at the Hebrew University- Hadassah Medical School says stem cell therapies are ideal for treating birth defects .
Conclusion Harvesting stem cells should be funded by the government because it can help cure diseases. It would be helpful to people who need organs because they wouldn’t have to wait as long on a list. If scientists keep doing research and testing they might find cures using stem cells for other diseases as well. Also, scientists don’t need to get the stem cells from embryos, they can get them from adults, so people don’t need to worry about babies dying. This would be a good project for the government to fund.
<ul><li>This is a link to a video about harvesting stem cells. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hs4tpd_AAQk&feature=BF&playnext=1&list=QL&index=1 </li></ul>
Works Cited "Human Genetic Disorders." Science Explorer Cells and Heredity. Vol. C. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2000. 122-23. Web. "Dominant and Recessive Alleles." Science Explorer Cells and Heredity. Vol. C. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2000. 83. Print. "Punnett Squares." Science Explorer Cells and Heredity. Vol. C. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2000. 90. Print. "Stem Cells In Use." Learn.Genetics™. Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/tech/stemcells/sctoday/>. "Genetics Legislation." Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/legislat.shtml>. Edward, Rhiannon. "Stem Cells Offer Hope of Alzheimer's Cure - Scotsman.com News." Scotsman.com News - Scottish News Direct from Scotland. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://news.scotsman.com/alzheimersdisease/Stem-cells-offer-hope-of.3478198.jp>. Rice, Jocelyn. "Stem Cells Undo Birth Defects - Technology Review." Technology Review: The Authority on the Future of Technology. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/21930/?a=f>. Edward, Rhiannon. "Stem Cells Offer Hope of Alzheimer's Cure - Scotsman.com News."Scotsman.com News - Scottish News Direct from Scotland. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://news.scotsman.com/alzheimersdisease/Stem-cells-offer-hope-of.3478198.jp>.