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Tess A, Christina G
Endangered Species Cloning
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  1. 1. Endangered Species Cloning<br />By Christina Garcia and Tess Aitchison <br />
  2. 2. Basic Genetics<br />Individual alleles control the inheritance of traits. Some alleles are dominant, while others are recessive. Dominant- a trait that always shows up in the organism. Recessive- masked, or covered up when the dominant allele is present.<br />In co dominance the alleles are neither dominant nor recessive. As a result, neither allele is masked in the offspring. Sometimes, the traits even mix together to form the offspring’s trait. <br />The trait that the offspring get depends on if the alleles of the parents (for that trait) are heterozygous or homozygous. If a dominant homozygous allele from a parent is involved in the process, the offspring will and must have that trait that the allele codes for. When any dominant allele is present, the recessive allele is covered up. Dominant alleles always show up in the organism when it is present. Only organisms that inherit two recessive alleles will end up having the recessive trait.  <br />
  3. 3. Human Genome Project<br />The Human Genome Project started in October of 1990 and ended in 2003 (earlier then the scientists had expected).The goals in the beginning were to be able to diagnose, prevent, and treat any disease caused by heredity (your inheritance of genes from your parents). A scientist would be able to just look at your genes and see if you are going to get a certain disease, then be able to diagnose it. <br />Ethical- An issue is the owning of genes. Your genes are yours so if a scientist discovers something in your genes they should pay you. <br /> Legal- The government has had to make laws regarding genetic privacy, genetic issues, and discrimination because of genetics. An example of this is that insurance companies cannot deny you insurance coverage if you have a gene for cancer, even though it might cost them more money.<br /> Social- An issue with the social implications of the Human Genome project is genetic discrimination from society. Scientists are afraid that new social classes will form as a result to genetic disorders in certain people. Your heredity should have nothing to do with the way people treat you socially. Despite worries, laws have been made to prevent this.<br />
  4. 4. Human Genome Project (continued)<br />3. The human genome project changed current laws by proving to the government that there needed to be laws regarding genetic privacy. GINA was one of these new laws. It governs how people are not to be discriminated because of their genetics. <br />
  5. 5. Genetic Disorders<br />A single gene disorder is a disorder caused by a change or mutation in one gene. All it takes is one cell to mutate to get a single gene disorder. Sickle cell anemia is an example of a single gene disorder. Chromosome abnormalities are caused by having more or less than the normal amount of chromosomes (more or less than 46) in your DNA. Cell division going wrong or messing up in the sex cells is the cause. An example of a chromosome abnormality is Down syndrome. However, a multifactorial disorder has many causes, not just one like the first two. These disorders are caused by many different factor mixed together like the way you live your life, your genes, and sometimes your environment. One example of a multifactorial disorder is heart disease.<br />If a person is diagnosed with a genetic condition, the genetics professional provides information about the diagnosis, how the condition was inherited, and the chance of passing the condition to future children/generations. Also, they will provide options for testing and treatment. The scientists can also use a pedigree (a chart that checks which members of a family have a particular trait) to see if any family member had the disease.<br />When karyotypes are examined in the mother and the father, researchers can tell (based on the chromosomal makeup), whether or not their child will have a genetic disorder. <br />
  6. 6. Argument 1<br /><ul><li>Endangered plant cloning could be a essential for the future of our environment. Some trees, like the sequoia tree, are somewhat endangered and would benefit greatly from cloning. Cloning or genetically engineering would be great for all plants (not just endangered ), because they will have a much slimmer chance of dying out. Cloning endangered plants and trees could also save the world’s tallest, oldest, and most beautiful parts of nature. Then, when their cloning is over, the plants could be re-planted in a new habitat. Most plants and trees suffer from pollution issues, diseases, and deforestation related to the construction and spreading of civilization, so if they were cloned before-hand, they could be re-planted in an endless amount of places. Instead of becoming extinct, each plant could be cloned and would be moved into different forests or other areas of land. With endangered plant cloning, the environment will be cleaner because of the addition of plants, trees, and nature in general. In addition, more plants and trees means more oxygen, the healthier and clearer the air is for us to breath. According to John Flesher (an AP environmental writer), “The trees preserve ecosystem diversity, soak up toxins from the ground and atmosphere, store carbon while emitting precious oxygen, and provide ingredients for medicines.” He even says that this idea of cloning trees could even “buy time for humanity.” </li></li></ul><li>Argument 2<br />Endangered species cloning of trees could also end global warming. According to Terry Root(a Stanford University climate change expert), planting tree clones in a place where they could survive a long time could help fight global warming. She says ,though "You can't put a redwood or giant sequoia just anywhere.” The people working on the project would have to find the most convenient and helpful place to plant the trees if they were to fight off global warming. Global warming could be stopped by the cloned endangered trees because it would reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. The trees would take in the carbon dioxide, therefore taking it out of the air. There are not enough trees to reduce the maximum amount of carbon dioxide. So, if scientists clone endangered or even non- endangered trees that use a lot of carbon dioxide, there will be more carbon dioxide being used and gotten rid of. According to David Adam, “Forests act as "carbon sinks" - they absorb carbon dioxide from the air and retain it by turning it into more trees.” <br /><br />
  7. 7. Argument 3<br />Scientists should continue their efforts for animal cloning. According to Mary H. Cooper, from CQ researcher, the world is facing the largest wave of plant and animal extinctions since the demise of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. As more species go from being vulnerable, to endangered, and then to critically endangered, other animals are following. From having being a critically endangered species, they might be only found in zoos, and then finally gone forever. Poaching and loss of habitat are causes of this problem, and more animals are being affected because the food chain is being thrown off. For example, if antelope were to go extinct, the lions will suffer. By cloning species with low population, the food chain is balanced and many animals will not be in danger if being lost forever. <br />
  8. 8. Argument 4<br />"You could repopulate the world (with an endangered species) in a matter of a couple of years," says H. Richard Adams from "Cloning is not a trivial pursuit… We're trying to improve life for people here on earth." It's true, you can repopulate the world by cloning. Even though many clones have disabilities, many have also been cloned successfully. According to Isabel Cowles from, the government has recently announced that the meat from the offspring of cloned animals may have entered the U.S. food supply. The meat is said to be just as safe to eat as a naturally born animals meat. Also, there are now cows and goats that produce more milk and tastier meat, pigs that can act as organ donors, and bulls able to resist disease. Another major improvement in cloning has been shown: a 21 year old bull was cloned in 1998 with no side affects or problems at all. This was the oldest animal ever cloned. "This is the same animal back again. This is not a son or a twin brother," says Mrs. Fisher from, “Its him." A story that may have persuaded many people to follow the idea of cloning is that the first cloned dog has become a dad. In 2008, there had been no abnormal aspects found about the fetuses. "There is some evidence that clones can have defects because of failure to correctly program some imprinted genes, but most evidence is that once you breed from a cloned animal, everything is back to normal."-Robin Lovell-Badge from There have been many story's that contain the evidence that cloning is improving as scientists continue their efforts.<br />
  9. 9. Conclusion<br />We are completely for the issue of endangered species cloning. We like this idea because it would put more oxygen into the air, could end global warming, bring back plant species that are dying out, not let animal species die out, and that there are a few flaws in the cloning project (like the meat), but scientists should keep going with the project anyway. <br />We think the government should fund a project that clones endangered species because of all of the great things it can do for the environment (listed above). <br />
  10. 10. Works cited (primary sources)<br />Adam, David. "Would Planting More Trees save Us from Global Warming? | Science | The Guardian." Latest News, Comment and Reviews from the Guardian | Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />
  11. 11. Works Cited (secondary sources)<br />"The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />“The CQ Researcher Online." CQ Press Electronic Library. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>. <br />" | Chromosome Abnormalities Fact Sheet." | National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) - Homepage. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <>. <br />"Single-gene Disorder - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <>. <br />"What Are Complex or Multifactorial Disorders? - Genetics Home Reference." Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <>. <br />
  12. 12. Works Cited (secondary source)<br />Americans May Already Be Eating Offspring of Cloned Animals." FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"First Cloned Dog Now a Dad." FindingDulcinea | Online Guides | Internet Library | Web Resources. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />Flesher, John. "Group Seeks Forest Restoration to Cleanse Planet - Yahoo! News." The Top News Headlines on Current Events from Yahoo! News. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"Quietly, Animal Cloning Speeds Onward / The Christian Science Monitor -"The Christian Science Monitor - Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />
  13. 13. Works Cited (videos and pictures)<br /> Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"Giant Sequoia - Sequoia Trees - Sequoia Park." Online Travel Guides of Travel Destinations - Las Vegas, Caribbean, Hawaii and Machu Picchu. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"Global Warming at" Buy Trees and Learn About Trees - Visit Our Online Nursery. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />"Genomics Analogy Model for Educators." Redirecting to Purdue University Department Entomology... Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <>.<br />