Organ Cloning Maria Keegan and Kenia Tejada Period 8
Basic Principles of Genetics . Dominant alleles control traits by masking the recessive gene whenever present unless there are two recessive alleles which would then stay recessive. . In co-dominant alleles, there is no dominant or recessive alleles. . Each parent’s own genetic makeup is combined in offspring and the dominant and the dominant allele will appear in the offspring traits. The other possibility is for both parents to have one of the same recessive alleles and both will be passed down to the offspring.
Human Genome Project . The project started in 1990. It was a 13 year effort coordinated by the United States department of energy and the national institution of health. The goal of the project was to identify all the genes in the human DNA, determine the sequence of the chemical base pairs that make up human DNA. They use this info in data bases, To improve tools for data analysis, transfer the technology to privet sectors. Also they address the ethical, legal, and social issues of the project. . The ethical implications of the HGP are concerns regarding the fairness in the use of genetic information. The legal implications of the project are concerns regarding privacy and confidentiality. The social implications of the HGP are concerns regarding psychological impact and stigmatization. . The GINA protects Americans from discrimination based on genetic testing. It forbids things like insurance companies from discriminating against you and says that companies can’t ask for a genetic test.
Genetic Disorder . Genetic counseling offers info to parents with unborn children are at risk for certain genetic disease and allows them to see if there are possibilities of preventing it. . Scientist can predict genetic disorders by looking for extra or missing chromosomes in a karyotype. . Differences: single gene disorders can be inherited and easily traced and predicted because it has a simple inheritance pattern. It involves a mutated gene that is passed on to future generations. Mutifactorial disorders is different in that its more complex. It involves two or more genes plus one or more environmental factors. They can be inherited but there is no clear cut pattern which means it is hard to predict. Chromosome abnormalities are in one or more chromosomes but occurs as an accident in the egg and sperm and therefore can’t be inherited. That is very different from the other two because it can’t be inherited. .They are alike because they are all disorders or abnormities that in some way involve genes
Argument 1 We disagree with organ cloning. This is because we believe that life starts at conception. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is similar to conception because the result is a pre-embryo. The scientists who are involved in organ cloning, such as Jose Cibelli, chief scientist at Act, believe that since what they are using to create the new organ is a pre-embryo not an embryo, it should not be considered unethical. Truthfully a pre-embryo is a human life. If the pre- embryo were implanted into a woman’s womb, it could develop into a fetus. Those who argue for organ cloning would say that since it’s not in a woman’s womb, it was never going to be a life. We agree with The Family Research Council that the location of the pre- embryo doesn't matter. What matters is that a life was created and should not be taken away for any reason. This practice is like murder.
Argument 2 Another reason we disagree with organ cloning is because the scientist who are working on it are “playing God.” According to the Human Genome Project organ cloning would be done by taking DNA from a person who needs a transplant and inserting it into an enucleated egg. Once the egg starts to divide the stem cells would be removed and then used to make the organ to genetically match the patient. The problem is that the scientists are not only creating a human life unnaturally but then they are killing the life to create the organ. We believe things such as creating life and taking life are God’s job.
Argument 3 The people who are for organ cloning think it’s okay to kill an pre-embryo because it will save others lives. They think the end result of saving a life with the new organ justifies killing the pre-embryo. We disagree. There are alternatives. For example, according to the HGP they can genetically modified pigs and make there organs suitable for humans which is called xenotransplantation.
Argument 4 There are some people who think that it is okay to fund organ cloning but not human cloning. The reason we disagree with this is because if we fund organ cloning it will eventually lead to human cloning. We think this because according to clonorgans.com it could lead to unethical practices. Also they are both achieved using similar processes and if organ cloning is allowed then human cloning is not far behind.
Conclusion In conclusion we disagree with organ cloning. This is because they are killing embryos, the scientist who are doing it are “playing God”, there are alternative ways to do this without death, and it could lead to human cloning. Over all the government should not fund organ cloning. It is a topic that should be thought over more carefully because we do not truly realize what we are getting ourselves into.
Works Cited Cantwell, Lynn. "Genetic Counseling Helps Prepare Parents for the Future." Georgetown University . Web. 23 Mar. 2011. Gottlieb, Scott. "Building up New Kidneys." Genomics.energy.gov--genome Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy . 2002. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://genomics.energy.gov/>. Human Genetics . 18 May 2010. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.estrellamountain.edu/>. "Human Genome Project Information." Oak Ridge National Laboratory . 16 Sept. 2008. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/home.shtml>. Robinson, B. A. "Organ Cloning." ReligiousTolerance.org by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance . 17 Aug. 2000. Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.religioustolerance.org/>. "Therapeutic Cloning." Organ Cloning . Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <http://www.cloneorgans.com/>.