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Exploring Transgender Individuals’ Experience of Safety with Technology

The slideshow for Morgan Scheuerman's Master of Science Thesis defense.

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Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018
Exploring Transgender Individuals’
Experience of Safety with Technology
Master’s Thesis by Morgan Klaus Scheuerman
Thesis Supervisors: Stacy M Branham, Foad Hamidi
1
Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018
ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods
Outline
Introduction Background
2
Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018
ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods
Outline
Introduction Background
3
Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018
4Introduction
Research Questions
How can transgender individuals’ experiences of safety with technology
inform the way we consider designing technology?
Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018
Transgender:
an individual whose gender identity is different from the one
they were assigned at birth [87]
Introduction 5
1.4 million United States citizens identify as transgender [16]
Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018
Motivation
6Introduction
Ad

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Exploring Transgender Individuals’ Experience of Safety with Technology

  • 1. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Exploring Transgender Individuals’ Experience of Safety with Technology Master’s Thesis by Morgan Klaus Scheuerman Thesis Supervisors: Stacy M Branham, Foad Hamidi 1
  • 2. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods Outline Introduction Background 2
  • 3. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods Outline Introduction Background 3
  • 4. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 4Introduction Research Questions How can transgender individuals’ experiences of safety with technology inform the way we consider designing technology?
  • 5. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Transgender: an individual whose gender identity is different from the one they were assigned at birth [87] Introduction 5 1.4 million United States citizens identify as transgender [16]
  • 6. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Motivation 6Introduction
  • 7. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Trans Identity in the Headlines 7Introduction
  • 8. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 46% Experienced verbal harassment 41% Attempted suicide in their lifetime. 47% Experienced sexual assault 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey [60] 8Introduction
  • 9. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 1 How Do Transgender Users Experience Safety Online? 9Introduction First Research Question
  • 10. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Misgendering: misidentifying another person’s gender, either intentionally or unintentionally[86] 10Introduction 56% of transgender people misgendered in workplace attempted suicide [60]
  • 11. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Automatic Gender Recognition ● Introduction of transgender dataset for facial recognition (BTAS 2013; Mahalingam et al.) [82] ● Experimentation with transgender dataset to accurately detect identity across gender transition (ISBA 2016; Kumar et al.) [70] Camera Advertisement MALE 11BackgroundExample scenario
  • 12. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 12Introduction Second Research Question 1 What Do Transgender Individuals and Technologists Think about Automatic Gender Recognition (AGR) Technology?
  • 13. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Summary of Motivation 1. Rising discussion about transgender rights and identity 2. Statistics of violence and discrimination 3. Impact of misgendering 13Introduction
  • 14. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods Outline Introduction Background 14
  • 15. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Defining Safety & Harm in HCI 15Methods
  • 16. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Defining Safety freedom from emotional, physical, and social harm Children and Youth ● Exploration of parental concerns about children with autism’s safety on Minecraft (CSCW 2015; Ringland et al.) [100] Women ● Analysis of trolling strategies and coping mechanisms for dealing with trolling on a feminist forum (Information Society 2002; Herring et al.) [54] 16Methods
  • 17. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 By Humans ● Examination of online privacy concerns and practices of victims of intimate partner abuse (CHI 2017; Matthews et al.) [84] By Technology ● A discussion of embedded racism in Google Search and ranking algorithms (Algorithms of Oppression 2018; Noble)[91] 17Methods Defining Harm the negative effect of abuse and/or safety issues
  • 18. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Trans Identity in HCI 18Background
  • 19. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 The Trans Community and Technology ● Examination of Facebook as a site of both stress and social support for trans users (CSCW 2015; Haimson et al.) [47] ● Discussion about managing digital footprints for transgender users on social media (CHI 2016; Haimson et al.)[48] ● Found complexity of information disclosure on social media for LGBT parents (CHI 2016; Blackwell et al.) [14] 19Background
  • 20. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Algorithmic Harm 20Background
  • 21. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Algorithmic Bias ● Analysis of varying technical biases (Transactions on Information Systems 1996; Friedman & Nissenbaum) [40] ● Report on racial bias in predictive policing algorithms (ProPublica 2016; Angwin et al.) [3] ● Found machine learning applied to textual data displayed gender and racial biases (Science 2017; Caliskan et al.) [21] “Fag Face Mask.” Facial Weaponization Suite by Zach Blas. 2012. [15] 21Background
  • 22. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods Outline Introduction Background 22
  • 23. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Participant Recruitment 23Methods
  • 24. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Interview Design 2 pilots 13 participants (3 technologists) 85 minute average 24Methods
  • 25. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Participant Demographics 25 Male / Trans Masc 19% Female / Trans Fem 31% Non-Binary 50% Gender identity Methods People of Color 54% White or White- Passing 46% Racial identity
  • 26. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Data Analysis grounded theory coding techniques [24] 26Methods
  • 27. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Coding Categories 27 ResearchQuestion2 Impact of Being Misgendered by AGR Worse than a Human Better than a Human The Same as a Human RQ1 • 3 categories • 10 sub-categories RQ2 • 6 categories • 20-subcategories Example categorization Methods
  • 28. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods Outline Introduction Background 28
  • 29. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Research Question 1:How Do Transgender Users Experience Safety Online? 29Findings
  • 30. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 The 6 Facets of Harm to Study Participants 3 dichotomies of harm: 1. Outsider/ Insider harm 2. Targeted/Incidental harm 3. Collective/Individual harm 30Findings
  • 31. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Outsider Harm perpetrated by individuals outside of participants’ social circles or the larger transgender community “The website 8chan—I stumbled across board called ‘transfags’, which is basically bunch of cis men talking about how they want to brutally murder or hate crime trans women and encouraging them to kill themselves.”–P2 31Findings 6/13 participants
  • 32. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 “[I deleted my] old name, and just shit that could be dragged up to disparage me … People will lurk on my page just to get material to fuel their hate-filled whatever against me.” –P4 32Findings Insider Harm perpetrated by individuals within participant social circles / LGBTQ community 4/13 participants
  • 33. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 “People would message me [on dating apps] and ask ‘What's in your pants, or what really are you?’” –P1 33Findings Targeted Harm aimed directly at participants 4/13 participants
  • 34. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 “[My queer friend’s] family members piled on him … saying things like … ‘Why would you want gay marriage if you’re just gonna get AIDS and we’ll have to pay for your healthcare?’ … His family has not … no one is speaking to him.” –P8 34Findings Incidential Harm harmful content witnessed by participants, but which was not directed at them specifically 5/13 participants
  • 35. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Research Question 2: What Do Transgender Individuals and Technologists Think about Automatic Gender Recognition (AGR)? 35Findings
  • 36. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 AGR Reinforces Binarism excludes, invalidates, and assures the misgendering of non-binary identities “We're excluded from the direction of the future … that’s sorta what it feels like.” –P7 36Findings 6/13 participants
  • 37. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 AGR is a Tool for Surveillance fear that AGR could be used to persecute the trans community “A lot has been illuminated in recent years about abuses of power and what can happen when people who have whatever bias are in control of certain surveillance technologies … I’m also very aware of histories of surveillance being used against queer communities or communities of people of color.” –P8 37Findings 5/13 participants
  • 38. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 AGR Undermines Autonomy AGR is non-consensual “[AGR] is (1) completely unnecessary, and (2) undesired by many people who would be interacting with the software without their consent.” –P4 38Findings 4/13 participants
  • 39. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 AGR Threatens Safety gender binarism, lack of autonomy, & surveillance present threat to trans individuals “It’s easier for a cis person to be like, “Oh, that's wrong.” But it’s more of a daily fight for a lot of trans folks, so I could see that being … harmful. And also, it could be a safety issue ... Like the fear of being outed … That could have job consequences or physical safety consequences.” –T1 39Findings 13/13 participants
  • 40. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods Outline Introduction Background 40
  • 41. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Experiences of Abuse are Salient and Diverse for Transgender Technology Users 41Discussion
  • 42. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 The Harm of an “External Gaze” 42Discussion
  • 43. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Intentionality does not Negate Impact 43Discussion
  • 44. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 ConclusionDiscussionFindingsMethods Outline Introduction Background 44
  • 45. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 1. Design to address the complexity and context of harm. 45Discussion
  • 46. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 2. Intentionality does not matter when harm is done. 46Discussion
  • 47. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 3. Understand that abusers are users. 47Discussion
  • 48. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 4. Provide support for individuals harmed by or with technology. 48Discussion
  • 49. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Contributions ● Contributing to experiences of transgender users in HCI ○ (i.e.: Oliver Haimson’s work) ● Building on studies of safety in HCI ○ (i.e.: Tara Matthews et al.’s exploration of safety for survivors of intimate abuse) ● Offering guidelines for designers to diminish harm to trans users ○ (i.e.: Jessica Vitak et al.’s mitigation of harassment of women online) 49Discussion
  • 50. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 50 Limitations Conclusion
  • 51. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Future Work 51Conclusion
  • 52. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 Conclusion 52Conclusion
  • 53. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 53 Exploring Transgender Individuals’ Experience of Safety with Technology Master’s Thesis by Morgan Klaus Scheuerman morgan.klaus@umbc.edu Thesis Supervisors Stacy M Branham Foad Hamidi Thesis Committee Amy Hurst Casey Fiesler
  • 54. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman 2018 54 Publications 1. Gender Recognition or Gender Reductionism? The Social Implications of Automatic Gender Recognition System. Foad Hamidi, Morgan Klaus Scheuerman, Stacy M Branham. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '17). Montréal, Canada. April 21-26, 2018. Best Paper Award 2. “Is Someone There? Do they have a Gun?” How Visual Information about Others Can Improve Personal Safety Management for Blind Individuals. Stacy M Branham, Ali Abdolrahmani, William Easley, Morgan Klaus Scheuerman, Erick Ronquillo, and Amy Hurst. In Proceedings of the 19th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (ASSETS '17). Baltimore, Maryland. October 30 – November 1, 2017. 3. Learning the Language: The Importance of Studying Written Directions in Designing Navigational Technologies for the Blind. Morgan Klaus Scheuerman, William Easley, Ali Abdolrahmani, Amy Hurst, Stacy M Branham. ACM CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA '17). Denver, Colorado. May 6- 11, 2017