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3180979

  1. 1. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity Author(s): Beverly D. Pittman Source: Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May, 2003), pp. 623-636 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3180979 Accessed: 13/05/2009 18:45 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=sage. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Sage Publications, Inc. is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of Black Studies. http://www.jstor.org
  2. 2. THE AFROCENTRIC PARADIGM IN HEALTH-RELATED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEVERLYD. PITTMAN The PennsylvaniaState University governmentdocumentshaveestablisheda link betweenphys- Two separate ical activity and health, and both documentsprovidedbleak statistics for AfricanAmericans.Althoughthe healthstatisticsarenot questionable,the physical activity data are debatablebecause the role of culturein physical activity has not been adequatelyexplored. This article examines the role that culturepotentiallyplays in health-related physical activity participa- tion. In so doing, the kinesiology profession,which teaches the science of humanmovement,is discussed, and resultsfrom a health-related physical activity studyarereported.A recommendation made for the inclusion of is an Afrocentric paradigm in the kinesiology curriculum,and Schiele's Afrocentricparadigmfor the humanservices is employed. Keywords:physical activity; health; Afrocentric paradigm;African Americans In 1996, the Surgeon General released the Report on Physical Activity and Health (U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser- vices [USDHHS], 1996), which established the link between phys- ical activity levels and health status. In the document, African Americans were identified as a quot;special needs populationquot; for physical activity because of reportedly insufficient physical activ- ity levels to positively affect health. Four years later, the govern- ment released Healthy People 2010 (USDHHS, 2000), the health policy initiative for the first decade of the 21st century. The report indicates that regular physical activity is a factor in lower death rates for all adults and decreases the risk of chronic illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, colon cancer, and high blood pressure. The JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES, Vol. 33 No. 5, May 2003 623-636 DOI: 10.1177/0021934703251487 ? 2003 Sage Publications 623
  3. 3. 624 JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES/ MAY 2003 reportalso identifiedAfrican Americansas being at a higher risk for these illnesses thanmany othergroupsin the United States. Although the government'smorbidity and mortality statistics are not questionable,the characterization AfricanAmericansas of a special needs population for physical activity is debatable. Ainsworth (1998) acknowledged that the Surgeon General's (1996) reportwas based on the physical activitypatternsof White men, and that the role of culturein physical activity has not been adequatelyexplored.The purposeof this articleis to examine the connection between cultureand physical activity and to advocate for the use of an Afrocentricparadigmin health-related physical activity trainingand promotion. BACKGROUND Kinesiology,or the science of humanmovement,is an academic disciplinecomprisingseveralsubdisciplines.In additionto provid- ing pedagogy trainingfor the traditionalK-12 physical education curriculum is taughtin schools, kinesiology also includesother that areas of scholarship,such as history,philosophy, sociology, psy- chology, biomechanics,athletictraining,motordevelopment,and exercise science. All these areas of scholarship are historically based in European and European American culture (Freeman, 2001; Mechikoff & Estes, 2002), andtherearerelativelyfew Afri- can Americanscholarsin the profession(Crase& Hamrick,1997; 1997).Most AfricanAmericanschol- King & Chepyator-Thomson, are located in the history and sociology ars in the profession subdisciplines,where they have had substantialinput into discus- sionsof racialinequities sport(Brooks& Althouse,2000;Edwards, in few of these scholarshave addressedthe historic 1969); however, racial inequities in health-relatedphysical activity. In addition, very few African Americankinesiology scholars have been situ- atedin the exercise science subdiscipline,which focuses on health-
  4. 4. Pittman/ THE AFROCENTRICPARADIGM 625 relatedphysical activity,andtherehas been little cross-fertilization between the exercise science and sociology subdisciplines.In light of the government's(USDHHS, 2000) statisticson AfricanAmeri- can physical activity and health, this is a majorconcern. Health-relatedphysical activity is defined as activity that pro- motes cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance,flexibility, and lean body composition. Of these five components of health-relatedphysical activity, cardiorespiratory endurance(i.e., aerobic activity) is of primaryimportancein pre- venting chronic illness. When health-relatedphysical activity is combined with sound nutritionalpracticesand other lifestyle fac- tors,suchas nonsmokingandstressmanagement, probability the of health is increased. optimal Because of the shortageof African Americanprofessionals in the exercise sciences, advocacyfor health-related physical activity programming AfricanAmericanshas been limited. Most Afri- for can Americanswho interactwith exercise science professionalsdo so in treatment facilities-after theybecome chronicallyill andsuf- fer a heartattackor stroke.In effect, the lack of culturallydesigned quot;preventivequot; services createsa marketfor kinesiology profession- als who are trainedas physical therapists. Schiele (2000) contendedthathumanservice practitioners who shareandunderstand worldviewof theirclients are able to pro- the vide more effective service delivery (p. 10). However, most kinesiology trainingprogramsdo not provide an opportunityfor studentsto be exposed to differentworldviews. Most kinesiology studentsareEuropean Americanandhavehadlittle formalcultural training(or informalculturalinteraction)in theirkinesiology pro- gram.Therefore,theirabilityto provideculturallysensitiveservice is frequentlyconstrained.A focus on culturallydesigned preven- tive health-related physical activity services-before people become chronically ill-necessitates the inclusion of a different paradigmin kinesiology training.The Afrocentricparadigmis the model proposedin this article.
  5. 5. 626 JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES/ MAY 2003 THE AFROCENTRIC PARADIGM Many Afrocentristshave discussed the characteristicsof the Africanworldview(Asante,1988, 1990, 1998;Myers,1988;Nobles, 1991). Schiele (2000) summarizedtheir thinking and stated that quot;the cosmological and axiological attributesof the Afrocentric worldview underscoreinterdependency,collectivity, spirituality, andaffectquot;(p. 25). Schiele appliedthe Afrocentricparadigmto the humanservicesprofessions,andhis paradigm used in this article is to explore the need for an Afrocentricparadigmin health-related physical activity. The basis for an Afrocentricparadigmin health-related physical exists. Medical anthropologistshave described activity already African-basedhealth care practicesand have indicatedthat many AfricanAmericansuse these practicesin theirhealthcareregimens (Airhihenbuwa, 1995; Bailey, 1987, 1991, 2000). In addition, scholars in the anthropologyand sociology professions have dis- cussed the role of dance in African-based cultures (Dixon- Gottschild, 1996; Hazzard-Gordon,1990; Malone, 1996; Welsh therehasbeenlittlecross-fertilization Asante,1990, 1998).However, between medical anthropologyand dance. By combiningthe two, physical activitycan be the Afrocentricparadigmin health-related The remainderof this article describes how these two developed. areasof scholarshipcan be broughttogether. THE RESEARCH STUDY To test for the applicability of the Afrocentric paradigm to physical activity,a small pilot study was conducted health-related (Pittman,2001). A qualitativeresearchdesign was used because methodsas the pre- Afrocentricscholarshavepromotedqualitative format for studying African American culture ferred research (Akbar,1991; Asante, 1998; Schiele, 2000). Fourteenwomen were interviewedfor the study.They rangedin age from 19 to 80 years old and were all associated as students, White university employees, or alumni of a large, predominantly
  6. 6. Pittman/ THE AFROCENTRICPARADIGM 627 on the East Coast. Ten of the women had been enrolledin a cultur- ally designedaerobicsclass thatwas taughtat the universitywithin the previous 18 months,andthey had identifiedthemselves as par- ticipating in physical activity for health purposes. These women wereinterviewedin one of fourfocus groups.Eachfocus groupmet only once, and the sessions lasted one-and-one-halfto two hours. The aerobicsclass was not a special offering;rather, African the Americaninstructorchose to teach the regularlyoffered aerobics course in a mannerthat would appeal to African Americans. In addition to aerobic dancing, the course included informationon exercise science, exercise psychology, nutrition,and chronic dis- ease prevention. in The remainingfour women in the study had not participated the culturallydesignedaerobicsclass. They were selectedbecause, in in additionto theirown personalparticipation physical activity, had takena leadershiprole in promotinghealth-related physi- they cal activity in the African American community.These women were interviewedindividuallyeitheron campusor in theirrespec- tive homes. The participants were interviewedonly once, andeach interviewlasted approximately1 hour.Two of the four women had master'sdegrees in kinesiology; anotherwoman had a bachelor's degreein kinesiology;andthe fourthwas a retirednurseandhealth care advocatewith a bachelor'sdegree in nursing. Although the participantswere asked two separate series of questions-one aboutchronicillness andphysical activity,andthe other about culture and physical activity-the results presented herepertainprimarily the questionsaboutthe effect of cultureon to andhealth.Only one subsetof questionsfrom the physical activity chronicillness series was relatedin any way to the Afrocentricpar- adigm, and those results are reportedhere. The culturalquestions in this study related primarilyto affect and spirituality. such, the participants As were askedaboutcultural manifestationsof physical activity,such as dance and music. The Afrocentricparadigmwas demonstrated acrosscategories.Collec- tivity was not specifically asked about,but it appearedthroughout the responsesandprovedto be a majorfactorin promotinghealth- relatedphysical activity for AfricanAmericans.
  7. 7. 628 JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES/ MAY 2003 To begin, the participants shared their attitudes about the rela- tionship between culture and promoting physical activity: The music-hip-hop, jazz, R & B, gospel-is important. know the I music gets me going andI thinkit does thatfor a lot of people. I see my grandmomwhen the music comes on. She says, quot;Oh!quot;and she gets up and startsmoving. People tendto listen to people they can relateto. I always relatethe culture to dancing, and we could tie that into health because we focus on dancingbut we let otherthings go. As the second participant indicated, many African Americans do not presently consider dancing to be related to health. As such, the participants were asked about their perceptions of the community's support for dance as a form of health-related physical activity: Dance is a big partof Africanculture,so dance and social activities are always prevalentin our communities,but I don't think [thereis a] focus on exercising [or] concern aboutyour health. I don't think the community would present barriers,I just don't thinkthere is understanding abouthow important physical activity is to your life. We have so many otherissues. The relatively low numbers of African Americans in kinesiology mean that there are few trained professionals who can connect Afri- can American social dancing to the scientific principles espoused in exercise science. When asked about scientifically based dancing, the participants' responses reflected concern: Aerobic dance is perceivedby many AfricanAmericansas a thing richor middleincome Whitewomen do. Afterthey go to theiraero- bics class, they have tea and they meet with the girls. We need to havemorerole models becausewe needto knowthatwe can do this. It's important a personto be comfortable.Youneed to see your- for self to know not only thatit can be done, but also thatit's supposed to be done. You wouldn't question so much. The notion of rich White women involved in aerobics evokes images of leisure. However, the USDHHS (2000) stated that lack of
  8. 8. Pittman/ THE AFROCENTRICPARADIGM 629 time can be a major barrierfor many people who are trying to increase their physical activity levels. As such, preventivehealth care measures,such as physical activityparticipation, less eas- are ily accessible to people at the lower end of the socioeconomic lad- der. For African Americans, this is especially an issue because expendableleisure time is not a reality for many African Ameri- cans. A paradigmshift from a leisure model to a human services preventivemodel in kinesiology could be a mechanismby which social structures promoteinequalityare changedto structures that thatpromotehealth and well-being. Schiele (2000) statedthatanimportant componentof well-being is spirituality,and it therefore should be incorporatedinto the for Afrocentricparadigm servicedelivery.To gaugethe importance of spiritualityin the developmentof an Afrocentricparadigmin kinesiology, the participantsresponded to a series of questions abouttheirperceptionsof spirituality: Spirituality partof ourheritage.It gave us somethingto hold onto is in a strangeland.Wehadnothingto hope for butthis HigherPower. Everyoneis entitledto theirown opinionbutI'm a strongbelieverin God. It keeps you grounded.I don't wake myself up in the morning, so I know someone does. To test the applicationof the spiritualaspectof the Afrocentricpar- adigm to health-relatedphysical activity, the participantswere asked if there was a connection between spiritualityand physical activity: For me, being in touch with your spirit also means being in touch with your physical being, and you can't really know your spirit unless you know your physical being. Oursociety doesn't teach us how to nourisheither one. You don't even think of it that way until somebody asks you, but thenwhen you startthinkingabouthow you feel, thenyou knowthat the two are involved. Finally, the participantswere asked if they thoughtincorporating spiritualityinto physical activitycould increaseAfricanAmerican
  9. 9. 630 JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES/ MAY 2003 participation in physical activity. In general, the participants agreed: I think it can increase African American participation, but it depends on the type of music you have. It may also decrease it because some people feel that gospel music is boring. Music moves you, dance moves you. The confluence of those two things moves you, it's calming. Bringingmusic into the movement really is spiritual. Although spiritualitywas identifiedas a positive componentof AfricanAmericanculture,anotheraspect of the Afrocentricpara- digm proved to be double edged. Schiele (2000) stated that quot;the welfare of the grouptakes precedenceover the welfare of the indi- vidualquot;(p. 28) because collectivity focuses attentionon groupsur- vival. However,the women in this studyassociatedsome aspectsof collectivity with stress-a risk factor for chronic illness. When askedaboutpotentialstressorsin AfricanAmericanwomen's lives, the African-basedhelping traditionwas frequentlycited: It's because of the way we're broughtup-to help. We always have to be out thereworkingas a partof the family.It all startsfromthere, and we just pass it on from generationto generation.It causes a lot of stress on us. No time to do anythingfor themselves. Not being happy-doing what they have to do and not liking it at all. They'realways putting everythingelse first,neverhavingtime for themselves.I know they haveresponsibilities,butyou shouldalwaystaketime for yourself. Schiele arguedthat the individualcan only be understoodquot;in the milieu in which the person is socializedquot; (p. 27). The responses gave indicatethatthe presentmilieu mightnot be these participants conduciveto functioningin an Afrocentricmanner.In completely health matters,the welfare of the group might best be served by focusing on the welfare of the individual. Althoughthis aspectof collectivity was seen as a stressor,over- all the womenin the studyviewed it positively.Inthe finalquestion, the participantswere asked to describe their vision of the ideal
  10. 10. Pittman/ THE AFROCENTRICPARADIGM 631 physicalactivityprogram themselvesandfor the AfricanAmer- for ican community.Fourmainthemesemergedin the responsesto this question: physical activity programming should be (a) family based, (b) communitybased, (c) dance andexercise based, and (d) educational. These findings are consistent with the principles espoused in the Afrocentricparadigm. The fourmainthemesthatwere identifieddid not occurin isola- tion; rather,they were frequentlycommingled. For example, sev- eral participantsspoke abouteducationwithin the othercontexts: It would be in the communityso it would be easy to get to. It would be a blend of Africanandpopularmusic. The movementswould be Afrocentric but, of course, it would need to be aerobic, to be scientific. Educationis needed in additionto actualequipment.In additionto the personjust coming in to workout, they'dneed to participate a in course [for] maybe threeto five weeks for an hour,hour and a half each session. Thatway you have continuity.You'regetting the per- son to exercise, but they [will] understandwhy they'redoing what they're doing. The participants openly acknowledgedthe challengesas well as the supportsin the AfricanAmericancommunityanddid not overlook things that might need to be corrected.Instead,they believed that educationaboutall aspects of the cultureis necessaryfor promot- ing physical activity and health and for developing healthpolicy: A [community-based dance] program would interest African Americans,keep them motivatedbecause it would be more like the social dances-just the liquorand stuff wouldn'tbe there. I think it's importantto include everythingin the culture-even the way our guys view the women, even our food. If you tailor things towardhealthyfood, or the guys wantgirls who are smaller,then it would influence AfricanAmericansto exercise and eat healthier.I wasn'tbroughtup knowingthatyou haveto eat certainfoods to stay healthy,or exercise is important. Althoughthey expressed a need for education,they also critiqued the lack of educationand trainingthat is currentlyavailable:
  11. 11. 632 JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES/ MAY 2003 The important thing [abouta fitnessfacility]is to findout if they will trainyou to use the equipment.I don't see just going into a gym, [having]somebodytalkto you, andthen signing a contractbecause afteryou've paidyourmoney,you arelost. Youcannotlearnall that you need to know in one session. Healthclubs today are very fragmentedin their approach.They're drivenby tryingto make money,and I thinkthey have a lot of Afri- can Americanswho sign up and then dropout quickly.These clubs are not servicing [African Americans] the way they need to be serviced. It should be noted here that although there is some overlap between the current fitness industry and kinesiology as a profession, the two are not exactly the same. Although the fitness industry sometimes employs kinesiology professionals, it also frequently employs indi- viduals with limited training and knowledge in kinesiology. Never- theless, the fitness industry and the field of kinesiology have over- looked the needs of the African American community. The affective dimension of the Afrocentric paradigm was pres- ent in the participants' awareness of their own needs as well as the needs of other people in the African American community. They expressed this awareness in a variety of ways: I would like to have my friendsthere,a lot of people I'm close to- my own personallittle fitness group. Someplace they can bring the whole family. While they work out, thereareactivitiesfor the childrenso you don't have to worryabout droppingthis personhere [or] finding day care. Affect was also demonstrated in financial terms: I thinkthe fundsarenot there.The majorityof AfricanAmericans- if they had the time, they couldn't affordto pay for it. We haven't had, as far as I know, any African Americanswho are financiallyable to actuallydevelop [facilitiesin the AfricanAmeri- can community].I've heardpeople talk aboutit, I've heardpeople say there is a need, but I haven't seen anyone actually put up the money.
  12. 12. Pittman/ THE AFROCENTRICPARADIGM 633 The inability of African Americansto providefundingfor health- might be directlyrelatedto relatedphysical activityprogramming the low numbersof African American kinesiology professionals who can advocatefor governmentfundingorprivateinvestmentfor suchprograms.However,the creativitythathas historicallyexisted within the AfricanAmericancommunityand has enabledAfrican Americansto quot;makea way out of no wayquot;can also be employedto develop strategiesfor providinghealth-relatedphysical activity in African American communities. The Afrocentricparadigmalso provides a potentialsolution. CONCLUSIONS Schiele (2000) discussed the need for African Americans to develop their own humanservices institutionsand contendedthat the AfricanAmericanchurchis a logical site for the placementof Afrocentrichumanservices.The presentstudylends support that to notionandadvocatesfor the inclusionof an Afrocentrichumanser- vices model of kinesiology among those institutions. Although quot;musicquot;was the most common theme mentionedby the partici- pants when asked about spirituality,quot;churchquot;was also frequently mentioned in relation to physical activity. The participants acknowledgedthat a connection does not currentlyexist, but the possibility was considered: It dependson how holistic you look at health.You can make a case for [a connection],but I don't thinkmost people actualizeit, other- wise there'dbe a whole bunchof people exercising in the church. I notice that anytime a churchis doing somethingor the churchis sponsoringit, you have people coming out of the woodworks.You wantto be involvedbecauseit's coming froma good place. It would probablyincreasephysical activity to put the two together. Although the church might be a perfect location for all types of Afrocentrichumanservices, the low numbersof AfricanAmerican kinesiology professionals still must be addressed. One possible
  13. 13. 634 JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES/ MAY 2003 way to addressthe shortageis to combinekinesiology trainingwith AfricanAmericanstudiesprograms.A linkagebetween these two programscan ultimatelybenefit both. Although kinesiology pro- gramsare lacking a culturalfocus, AfricanAmericanscholarsand African American studies programstend to favor psychological health over physical health (Jones, 1999). Although the available scholarshipon physical healthhas been comprehensiveandexcel- lent (Martin,1999; Semmes, 1996), it, too, has had a limited focus on the role of physical activityin healthpromotion.Increasingthe numbersof Afrocentrickinesiology professionalsby trainingthem in combinedkinesiology-African Americanstudiesprogramsand thenpositioningthemin AfricanAmericanchurchescan contribute to the creationof a holistic, preventivehealthcare delivery system in the AfricanAmericancommunity. The participantsin this study demonstrated positive effect the thatculturecan have on physical activityparticipation. Theirexpe- riences mightbenefit otherAfricanAmericanswho wantandneed to participatein health-related physical activity.Despite the com- of their lives, they have shown a sustainingdetermination. plexity provideda key piece of the puzzle: One participant We survivedslavery,we survivedthe Middle Passage and so many negative things. Yeah, we have some health problems,but look at how strongwe are.We'restill here,even with all of ourhealthissues andoursocial issues. So, if we understoodwhatmadeus survive,we could be an even strongerpeople. REFERENCES Ainsworth,B. (1998). Measurement physical activityquestionnaires.The researchcon- of sortiumnewsletter(pp. 2-3). Reston, VA: The AmericanAlliance for Health,Physical Education,Recreationand Dance. paradigm.Thousand Airhihenbuwa, 0. (1995). Health and culture:Beyondthe Western C. Oaks, CA: Sage. Akbar,N. (1991). Paradigmsof African Americanresearch.In R. Jones (Ed.), Blackpsy- chology (pp. 709-725). Berkeley,CA: Cobb & Henry. Trenton,NJ: Africa WorldPress. Asante, M. K. (1988). Afrocentricity.
  14. 14. Pittman/ THE AFROCENTRICPARADIGM 635 Asante, M. K. (1990). Kemet,Afrocentricityand knowledge. Trenton,NJ: Africa World Press. Asante, M. K. (1998). The Afrocentricidea (Rev. ed.). Philadelphia:Temple University Press. Bailey, E. J. (1987). Socioculturalfactors and health care seeking behavioramong Black Americans.Journal of the National Medical Association, 78, 389-392. Bailey, E. J. (1991). Hypertension:Analysis of DetroitAfricanAmericanhealthcare treat- ment patterns.HumanOrganization,50, 287-296. Bailey, E. J. (2000). Medical anthropologyand African American health. Westport,CT: Bergin & Garvey. Brooks,D., & Althouse,R. (2000). Racismin college athletics (2nd ed.). Morgantown, WV: Fitness InformationTechnology. Crase,D., & Hamrick,M. (1997). Distribution minoritydoctoratesin physicaleducation. of Horizon, 2, 5-10. Dixon-Gottschild,B. (1996). Digging the Africanistpresence in Americanperformance. Westport,CT: Greenwood. Edwards,H. (1969). The revoltof the Black athlete. New York:Free Press. Freeman, W. H. (2001). Physical education and sport in a changing society (6th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. K. Hazzard-Gordon, (1990). Jookin': Therise of social danceformations in AfricanAmeri- can culture.Philadelphia: Temple UniversityPress. Jones,R. (1999). AdvancesinAfricanAmerican VA:Cobb& Henry. psychology.Hampton, King, S., & Chepyator-Thomson, R. (1997). Factorsaffectingthe enrollmentand persis- J. tence of African-American doctoralstudents.Horizon,2, 11-20. Malone, J. (1996). Stepping'on the blues. Urbana:Universityof Illinois Press. Martin,W. (1999). Improvingthe healthof AfricanAmericans:Research,perspectivesand policy. In R. Jones (Ed.), Advances in African Americanpsychology (pp. 267-284). Hampton,VA: Cobb & Henry. Mechikoff,R. A., & Estes, S. G. (2002). A historyandphilosophyof sportandphysical edu- cation (3rd ed.). New York:McGraw-Hill. Myers,L. J. (1988). Understanding Afrocentricworldview.Dubuque,IA: Kendall/Hunt. an Nobles, W. (1991). Extendedself: Rethinkingthe so-called Negro self-concept. In R. Jones (Ed.), Blackpsychology (pp. 295-304). Berkeley,CA: Cobb & Henry. Pittman,B. (2001). Afrocentrickinesiology:Innovatorsand early adoptersin a diffusionof innovationsmodel.Unpublisheddoctoraldissertation, TempleUniversity,Philadelphia. Schiele, J. H. (2000). Humanservices and theAfrocentric paradigm.New York:Haworth. Semmes, C. E. (1996). Racism, health, and post-industrialism.Westport,CT: Praeger. U.S. Departmentof Health and HumanServices. (1996). Report on physical activity and health. Washington,DC: Centersfor Disease Controland Prevention. U.S. Department HealthandHumanServices. (2000). Healthypeople 2010. Washington, of DC: GovernmentPrintingOffice. Welsh Asante, K. (1990). Commonalitiesin African dance. In M. K. Asante & K. Welsh Asante (Eds.), African culture: The rhythms of unity (pp. 71-82). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Welsh Asante, K. (1998). Africandance. Trenton,NJ: Africa WorldPress.
  15. 15. 636 JOURNALOF BLACK STUDIES/ MAY 2003 BeverlyD. Pittmanis an assistantprofessorin the Departmentof Kinesiologyat The PennsylvaniaState University. primaryresearchinterestis in socioculturalfac- Her tors in cardiovasculardisease prevention.She receivedher doctoratein kinesiology from TempleUniversity.She graduatedsumma cum laude and valedictorianfrom Lincoln Universitywitha BAin sociology, and thenreceivedan MSSin social policy and from the BrynMawr College GraduateSchool of Social Work Social Research, from the Wharton School of the Univer- and an MBAin management and marketing sity of Pennsylvania.

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