Group Dynamics I

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Group Dynamics I

  1. 1. Group Dynamics related to sport performance I Sports Psychology A2
  2. 2. Topic aims: By the end of this topic you should be able to: 1. Describe the nature of a group/team (mutual awareness, interaction, common goal). 2. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Steiner’s model of group performance (awareness of problems associated with productivity of a group/team). 3. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of motivational factors(social loafing); coordination/cooperation factors (Ringlemann effect) and explain the negative influences on behaviour that cause dysfunctional behaviour and avoidance of an active and healthy lifestyle. 4. Explain the factors affecting the formation and development of a cohesive group/team.
  3. 3. What is a ‘group’? TASK 1: Describe what is meant by the term ‘group’. Think about what differentiates a group from people waiting together at a bus stop or sharing the same swimming pool. .................................................................................. ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ............................................................................... ..............................................
  4. 4. What is a ‘group’? A group is described as:  Members of a group that are interacting in some way over a period of time.  The members are aware of the groups existence and be aware of its effect and that they are members.  The relationships within the group will involve mutual interdependence, communication and conformity to common goals, norms and values.  Therefore, they will have group identity that differentiates them from other groups.
  5. 5. A group is defined as.... Underline key words. ‘Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and potential interaction’ (MacGrath, 1984) A group is ‘...two or more people who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person.’ (Shaw, 1976)
  6. 6. Unique Characteristics TASK 2: Note what you think are the unique characteristics of a group.  .  .  .  .
  7. 7. Unique Characteristics Carron (1982) suggests:  Two or more people interacting  Sharing of a collective identity  Sharing of a common goal  Structured forms of communication.
  8. 8. How can we ensure effective group performance? Pick one of the media articles you have been provided with and read through with your partner. Use the media article to complete the task below. TASK 3: It has been suggested that the best group performance should come from a collection of the best players. On a separate sheet; Use examples from sport to illustrate why this has not always been the case.
  9. 9. Steiner’s Model of group productivity Steiners suggested that a team is more than individual talents coming together. He suggested that group productivity could be measured by the following equation: Actual productivity = potential productivity – losses due to faulty group processes. TASK 4: With a partner, explain Steiner’s model of group performance.
  10. 10. Faulty processes within the group process TASK 5: What do we mean by co – ordination when referring to a sports group? Give examples of good and bad coordination in sports teams. TASK 6: Explain why players do not always give maximum effort when playing in a team.
  11. 11. Faulty processes within the group process TASK 5: What do we mean by co – ordination when referring to a sports group? Give examples of good and bad coordination in sports teams. We have discussed cases of elite teams breaking down and underperforming; this may be due to problems with coordination of relevant resources (process faults) e.g. Skill level, group experience. There are two types of process faults coordination losses being one. This occurs when team work/strategies break down, are misunderstood or ineffective. E.g. “the team could not hold their new formation”
  12. 12. Faulty processes within the group process TASK 6: Explain why players do not always give maximum effort when playing in a team. This refers to the second process fault: Motivational losses. This occurs when:  an individual or group lose confidence e.g. The team underperformed at their last training session and are feeling underprepared for the match  are over or under aroused e.g. The team may believe it is an easy match and do not have play at their best  team members may not be putting in 100% effort e.g. It is not an important match in their opinion  individuals are relying on ‘star players’ e.g. Players may feel undervalued in their team.

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