Aggression I


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  • These are acts where the intention is to cause harm. This will be outside the rules of the activity
    This form of aggression involves an act where the intention is to win the ball or the point and cause harm
    In its truest sense, assertion is not a form of aggression. In sport it is the use of legitimate force
  • Instinct Theory suggests that aggression is innate. We are all born with a certain predisposition to be aggressive. Aggressive tendencies are difficult to control. Instinct theorists see aggression in sport as being healthy. Within sport, aggression is controlled. BUT theory has not been proven, does not consider importance of the environment and situational factors, assumes sport allows people to be aggressive.
    Social Learning Theory: aggression is learned via observation and social reinforcement. In order to understand the aggressive behaviour, you have to look at the experience of that person, know something about their target and the circumstances of the situation. Often, aggression in sport is positively reinforced.
    Frustration Theory: aggression happens as a result of frustrating circumstances. If people aren’t reaching their goal, they get frustrated and respond aggressively. Doesn’t explain why some people are aggressive in situations where other people are not. Can reduce the incidence of further aggression.
  • Aggression I

    1. 1. A2 Sports Psychology Aggression Part I
    2. 2. Aggression – What is it? Psychologists attempt to describe it... Maslow (1968) distinguished between what he called natural/positive aggression (self defence) and pathological aggression or violence. Brown (1985) believes that aggression does not always involved injury and violence but usually does.
    3. 3. Aggression – What is it? Tatum (1980) ‘Aggression is a deliberate attempt to injure an opposing player’ Bull ‘Aggression is any behaviour intended to harm another individual or object by physical or verbal means’ Baron’s definition is seen a compilation of various descriptions/definitions. Baron (1977) ‘Aggression is any form of behaviour directed towards the goal of harming or injuring another living being, who is motivated to avoid such treatment’
    4. 4. Types of Aggression Buss (1961), Feshback (1964) and Moyer (1976) divided aggression in to two types: 1.Hostile/Reactive Aggression Sole aim to hurt another person Intent to cause pain or injury 2.Instrumental Aggression Aggression to achieve non – aggressive goal e.g. “fair barge to gain possession”
    5. 5. What is acceptable? Do you think it is easy to make a judgement on what is or is not aggressive behaviour in sport? What consequences could here be of players, administrators, officials misinterpreting aggression?
    6. 6. Aggression vs. Assertion What’s the difference? AGGRESSION ASSERTION
    7. 7. Key terms Aggression: Any form or behaviour intended to harm or injure another living being (Baron, 1977) Hostile/Reactive Aggression: An emotional response (involving anger) to an individual percieved as an enemy or frustrating rival (Moyer, 1984) Instrumental/channelled aggression: Aggression to achieve a non – aggressive goal, the primary reinforcement (main reason) being tangible reward (praise, money or victory) Assertion: Acceptable but forceful behaviour But what is acceptable?