These are acts where the intention is to cause harm. This will be outside the rules of the activity This form of aggression involves an act where the intention is to win the ball or the point and cause harm In its truest sense, assertion is not a form of aggression. In sport it is the use of legitimate force
Instinct Theory suggests that aggression is innate. We are all born with a certain predisposition to be aggressive. Aggressive tendencies are difficult to control. Instinct theorists see aggression in sport as being healthy. Within sport, aggression is controlled. BUT theory has not been proven, does not consider importance of the environment and situational factors, assumes sport allows people to be aggressive. Social Learning Theory: aggression is learned via observation and social reinforcement. In order to understand the aggressive behaviour, you have to look at the experience of that person, know something about their target and the circumstances of the situation. Often, aggression in sport is positively reinforced. Frustration Theory: aggression happens as a result of frustrating circumstances. If people aren’t reaching their goal, they get frustrated and respond aggressively. Doesn’t explain why some people are aggressive in situations where other people are not. Can reduce the incidence of further aggression.
A2 Sports Psychology
Aggression Part I
Aggression – What is it?
Psychologists attempt to describe it...
Maslow (1968) distinguished between what he called
natural/positive aggression (self defence) and pathological
aggression or violence.
Brown (1985) believes that aggression does not always
involved injury and violence but usually does.
Aggression – What is it?
‘Aggression is a deliberate attempt to injure an opposing player’
‘Aggression is any behaviour intended to harm another individual or
object by physical or verbal means’
Baron’s definition is seen a compilation of various
‘Aggression is any form of behaviour directed
towards the goal of harming or injuring another
living being, who is motivated to avoid such
Types of Aggression
Buss (1961), Feshback (1964) and Moyer (1976) divided
aggression in to two types:
Sole aim to hurt another person
Intent to cause pain or injury
Aggression to achieve non – aggressive goal e.g. “fair
barge to gain possession”
What is acceptable?
Do you think it is easy to make a judgement on
what is or is not aggressive behaviour in
What consequences could here be of players,
administrators, officials misinterpreting
Aggression vs. Assertion
What’s the difference?
Aggression: Any form or behaviour intended to harm or injure
another living being (Baron, 1977)
Hostile/Reactive Aggression: An emotional response
(involving anger) to an individual percieved as an enemy or
frustrating rival (Moyer, 1984)
Instrumental/channelled aggression: Aggression to achieve a
non – aggressive goal, the primary reinforcement (main
reason) being tangible reward (praise, money or victory)
Assertion: Acceptable but forceful behaviour
But what is acceptable?