The Human Brain


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The Human Brain

  1. 1. JoAnna Ersland
  2. 4. <ul><li>Vision comes from a large part of the brain called the Occipital Lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Information travels from the eyes to that lobe at the back of the brain, where the pattern of lights is drawn into something that would be described as a map. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards the information travels forward to many other areas of the brain where it is analyzed into edges, forms, colors, positions, and recognizable objects, people and places. </li></ul>
  3. 6. <ul><li>Sound information is analyzed by the Auditory Cortex which is located in the front of the brain, in the Temporal lobes. </li></ul><ul><li>Different frequencies are split up to figure out what they were and where they came from. </li></ul><ul><li>Music is mostly analyzed be the right side of the brain. </li></ul>
  4. 8. <ul><li>Touch information passes through the Somatosensory Cortex, forming a complete map of the body laid out along the brain’s surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The most sensitive parts of the body--fingertips, toes, lips, etc. have a more of an impact than the less sensitive areas. </li></ul>
  5. 10. <ul><li>Smell and Taste are analyzed beneath the Prefrontal Lobes in the Olfactory Bulb. </li></ul><ul><li>These more primitive senses connect directly with emotional areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Each sense combines in the common brain areas, such as the thalamus to help direct our attention and behavior. </li></ul>
  6. 12. <ul><li>There are two important speech areas on the left side of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The first, located next to the Auditory Cortex where basic sound frequencies are analyzed is the Wernicke’s area, which is important for language comprehension. </li></ul><ul><li>The second, is called the Broca’s area, which is responsible for speech articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor areas are also needed to control and coordinate the physical process of speaking, such as moving the mouth. </li></ul>
  7. 14. <ul><li>When we make a decision, or have to test out possible outcomes, the brain’s frontal/prefrontal lobes are used. </li></ul><ul><li>These areas are more developed in humans than in any other animals. The Frontal/Prefrontal lobes are where the most complex calculations, and cognition occur. </li></ul><ul><li>They are very important for intelligent thought, as well as storing information about likes and dislikes, and giving us the ability to think about more than one thing at once. </li></ul>
  8. 16. <ul><li>Our ability to socially interact is controlled by the prefrontal cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>The Prefrontal cortex is responsible for our complex emotions such as empathy, guilt, trust, and behavior control which keeps us from doing inappropriate things. </li></ul><ul><li>Some researches believe that psychopathic or criminal behaviors can occur from damage being there. </li></ul>
  9. 18. <ul><li>Our Prefrontal lobes deal with working memory or information we need immediately, such as remembering a phone number long enough to dial it. </li></ul><ul><li>Other memories, about things we’ve done, information we’ve collected, or the places we’ve went are stored in the hippocampus. </li></ul><ul><li>Longer term memories is gradually shifted around the brain, lodging in the Temporal and Frontal lobes. </li></ul><ul><li>Memories about how to do things are stored in the cerebellum. </li></ul>
  10. 20. <ul><li>Emotions come from the Limbic system, but are controlled by the Amygdala, which mediates our fears, anxiety, and anger. </li></ul><ul><li>The Limbic system has direct connections with our senses. This leads to rapid and unconscious reactions which we call instincts. </li></ul>
  11. 22. <ul><li>The brain-stem controls many bodily functions that humans don’t consciously think about such as, heart-rate, breathing, blood pressure, sleeping, waking, and the release of hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>This is located at the top of the spinal cord. Similar structures first appeared in organisms about 500 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>By itself, the brainstem resembles the brain of a modern day reptile. </li></ul>
  12. 24. <ul><li>The Anterior Cingulate cortex is important for all forms of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Its job is to decide which behavior is appropriate and what we should be paying attention to, by monitoring potential problems, conflict, errors, and pain. </li></ul>
  13. 26. <ul><li>This process uses several brain areas and needs continuous feedback from our senses. Planning takes place in the frontal/prefrontal lobes, particularly in the motor cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>There are other regions that control the motivation to move and its coordination such as, the basal ganglia, which are damaged in Parkinson’s Disease. Also, the cerebellum, which store routine patterns of movements. </li></ul>
  14. 28. <ul><li>The left side of the brain deals with Language, Logic, Interpretation and arithmetic. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights side deals with geometry, non-verbal processes, visual recognition, and auditory functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The left hemisphere governs activity on the right side of the body, and the right side </li></ul><ul><li>governs activity on the left side of the body. </li></ul>
  15. 29. <ul><li>People of all ages have measurable left brain activity when they have cheerfulness and positive emotions. Avoidance behaviors and negative emotions are associated with right brain activity. </li></ul>