Sap General Terms


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Sap General Terms

  1. 1. Monojit Banerjee [email_address] SAP General Terms
  2. 2. <ul><li>Client </li></ul><ul><li>Company Code </li></ul><ul><li>Chart of Accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Passwords </li></ul><ul><li>Roles and Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Session </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Business Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Data </li></ul>
  3. 3. Client: <ul><li>The highest level in a SAP instance. </li></ul><ul><li>A client is a self contained unit with a separate set of master records and its own set of configuration tables. </li></ul><ul><li>An instance (installation) can have more than one client (e.g., a training client, a testing client, and a production client). </li></ul><ul><li>In using SAP the user logs on to a particular client that usually has a three digit numeric identifier. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Company Code: <ul><li>Represents an independent legal accounting entity that contains a balanced set of books as required by law or regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>A client may have more than one company code (e.g. a company code for the US, one for Germany, one for Canada, etc.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chart of Accounts: <ul><li>A list of all accounts in the General Ledger for a company code. </li></ul><ul><li>Each company code must be assigned one, and only one chart of accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>However, more than one company code can use the same (i.e., identical) chart of accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>SAP comes preconfigured with a large number of charts of account. (E.g.: the delivered US chart of accounts is CAUS. ) </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts can be added to, deleted from, or modified in the delivered chart of accounts as desired by the user. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Passwords: <ul><li>Each user has his or her own password. </li></ul><ul><li>On the initial log in to the system, the user must change a generic delivered password to his/her own. </li></ul><ul><li>The password must be at least three characters long, cannot begin with a “!” or “?”, and the first three characters unique and not contained in the user name. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Roles and Profiles: <ul><li>Roles specify the sets of tasks or activities that can be performed by a particular user within the system. </li></ul><ul><li>A role is assigned to each user. </li></ul><ul><li>When the user logs on, the system automatically presents a specific menu for that user’s assigned role. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(For example, a receiving clerk can perform only certain tasks within the SAP system. When a receiving clerk logs on, that user’s role will define what the user will be allowed to view, create, change, delete, etc. ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profiles work in the same manner as do roles to restrict authorization for access to the system. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>User profiles and roles are entered by system administrators into user master records thus enabling users to access and use specific functions within the system. </li></ul><ul><li>In a training “case”, users may have authorization to all master data and transaction processing applications. </li></ul><ul><li>This would be highly unusual in actual practice given the need for internal controls and separation of duties. </li></ul>Roles and Profiles:
  9. 9. Session: <ul><li>Each instance in which a user is connected to the SAP system is known as a session. </li></ul><ul><li>A user can have up to nine sessions open at any given time (but each session is logged into the same client and company code). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Configuration: <ul><li>Configuration is table-driven customization of the SAP system to meet specific customer requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>In configuration the user sets values in tables to cause the system to function in a desired manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration is somewhat like setting the defaults in a word process or spreadsheet application. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not change the underlying source code in the system. </li></ul><ul><li>In many “cases” there are no configuration exercises. The case system, usually, is preconfigured. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Business Processes <ul><li>A business process can be described as a set of linked activities that transform an input into a more valuable output thus creating value . </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases business processes are classified as operational processes or as support processes . </li></ul>
  12. 12. At the most basic level, a typical business utilizes three operational processes : <ul><li>procurement (purchasing and materials management) </li></ul><ul><li>production </li></ul><ul><li>sales and distribution (customer order management) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The typical support processes include: <ul><li>accounting/controlling </li></ul><ul><li>human resources . </li></ul>While these processes have specific identities, they are linked together (integrated) in order to carry out the day to day activities of a business .
  14. 14. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The sale of a manufactured product involves: </li></ul><ul><li>the sales process </li></ul><ul><li>production (the creation of the product) </li></ul><ul><li>procurement (of necessary raw materials) </li></ul><ul><li>accounting/controlling to determine the profit on the sale </li></ul><ul><li>human resources to ensure the operations are staffed with qualified or trained employees. </li></ul>
  15. 15. These linkages of activities across business processes necessitate the sharing of data across those processes, regardless of which process created the data initially. Example: data related to a finished product may be initially created in the production process , but the data are also required in the procurement process and, of course, in accounting/controlling for costing purposes , as well as in calculating pay based on work production hours .
  16. 16. SAP as an integrated ERP system utilizes the principle of a common data record for a given object that can be accessed by any process that has need of the various attributes contained in that common record.
  17. 17. Business processes are often viewed as elements of a logistics value chains. From this perspective the operational processes are defined as sales logistics , production logistics , and procurement logistics .
  18. 18. Types of Data There are three differing types of data within the SAP system : <ul><li>control or configuration data </li></ul><ul><li>master data </li></ul><ul><li>transaction data </li></ul>
  19. 19. Control or configuration data include system and technical functions of the SAP system itself. These data drive the logic of the applications within the system and is primarily used for defining the details of business processes. For many training “cases”, all control/configuration data have been pre-established so that no configuration is necessary to complete the case exercises.
  20. 20. Master data represent the various business entities present in the system, both internal and external . The attributes of the fields within master data are relatively stable .
  21. 21. For example, master data include internal entities such as: <ul><li>the company </li></ul><ul><li>a plant </li></ul><ul><li>a sales area </li></ul><ul><li>a cost center </li></ul><ul><li>an account </li></ul><ul><li>a material </li></ul><ul><li>a routing </li></ul><ul><li>a bill of material </li></ul><ul><li>a personnel file </li></ul>
  22. 22. In addition there are external entities that are a part of the system’s master data such as: <ul><li>vendors </li></ul><ul><li>customers </li></ul><ul><li>employees </li></ul><ul><li>competitors </li></ul>
  23. 23. Transaction data describe a business event or may be the result of a business process . Example: A sales order would contain transaction data that have resulted from a customer placing an order to purchase a product from the company.
  24. 24. <ul><li>the customer (which allows detailed customer data to be drawn from the customer master record ), </li></ul><ul><li>the item or items being sold (which would draw data from the material master records for those items), </li></ul><ul><li>the quantities being sold, </li></ul><ul><li>the desired delivery date , </li></ul><ul><li>the customer PO number , etc. </li></ul>The various attributes necessary to process that sales order transaction would include such data as:
  25. 25. While the customer master data for this transaction would be the same for various sales orders to that customer, the other data such as items wanted, quantities, delivery dates, etc. would most likely vary from order to order. For this reason, transaction data vary from event to event .
  26. 26. Transaction data may also arise as the result of the outcome of a completed business process. Example: The system may process an inquiry to determine the current stock quantity level for a raw material . That inquiry is a transaction that extracts the data for the quantity on hand in the warehouse. This too, of course, will vary over time. Other examples, pertaining to human resources, would involve the hiring of employees and pay transactions .
  27. 27. From one perspective, therefore, transaction data can be viewed as resulting from the events or activities that are taking place in the business . The transaction data represent the recorded attributes, elements, and results or outcomes of business events and activities , and, as a result is the most volatile and frequently used data in day to day business operations.
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