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SECURE SOCKET LAYER ( WEB SECURITY )

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This slide is all about SSL and TSL with little descirption of WEB SECURITY

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SECURE SOCKET LAYER ( WEB SECURITY )

  1. 1. WEB SECURITY (SECURE SOCKET LAYER) MONODIP SINGHA ROY M.TECH Dr. B.C.ROY ENGINEERING COLLEGE 2
  2. 2. Contents  WEB SECURITY  WEB SECURITY TERMINOLOGY  SSL ( SECURE SOCKET LAYER )  SSL ARCHITECTURE  TLS ( TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY )  PROS AND CONS OF SSL/TLS  SUMMARY 3
  3. 3. WEB SECURITY  Almost everything in today’s world relies on computer and internet. ◦ Communications (emails, phones) ◦ Transportation (car engine system, airplane navigation system) ◦ Medicine ( medical records, equipments) ◦ Shopping (online store, online payments) ◦ Entertainment (digital cables) 4
  4. 4. What is WEB SECURITY ?? Web security , also known as “cyber security “ involves protecting the information by protecting , preventing and responding to the attacks. 5
  5. 5. WEB SECURITY: TERMNOLOGY  HACKERS: People who strive to exploit weaknesses in software and computer for their own gain.  VIRUSES: Infects your computer before actually u can do something.  WORMS: Propagates without users intervention.  TROJAN: A software that claims to do something while in fact doing something in background. 6
  6. 6. WEB SECURITY: TERNINOLOGY  RANSOMWARE: ◦ A form of Trojan that has been since 1989, as known as ‘PC CYBORG’ Trojan. ◦ It affects the user computer by encrypting the user’s personal files. ◦ The victim then contacted and offered the decrypt key in exchange of cash. 7
  7. 7. WEB SECURITY: TERMINOLOGY  KEYLOGGERS: ◦ It is an software that monitor users activity such as key typed in keyboard. ◦ KeyLoggers can  Record keystrokes on keyboards.  Record mouse movement and clicks.  Record menus that are invoked.  Takes screenshot of the desktop at pre defined intervals. 8
  8. 8. Web Security  Web now widely used by business, government, individuals  but Internet & Web are vulnerable  have a variety of threats ◦ integrity ◦ confidentiality ◦ denial of service ◦ authentication  need added security mechanisms. 9
  9. 9. What is SSL?  SSL – Secure Socket Layer ƒit provides a secure transport connection between applications (e.g., a web server and a browser)  SSL was developed by Netscape  uses TCP to provide a reliable end-to-end service  SSL has two layers of protocols SSL v3.0 was specified in an Internet Draft (1996) ƒit evolved into RFC 246 and was renamed to TLS (Transport Layer Security)  TLS can be viewed as SSL v3.1 10
  10. 10. SSL Architecture 11
  11. 11. SSL Components SSL HANDSHAKE PROTOCOL SSL RECORD PROTOCOL SSL ALERT PROTOCOL SSL CHANGE CIPHER SPEC PROTOCOL • Negotiation of security algorithms and parameters. • Key exchange. • Server authentication and optionally client authentication. • Fragmentation. • Compression. • Encryption. • Message authentication and integrity protection. • Error message ( fatal alerts and warning ) • A single message that indicates the end of SSL handshake. 12
  12. 12. Sessions and Connections  An SSL session is a connection between client and server.  Sessions are stateful ; the session state includes security algorithm and parameters.  A session may include multiple secure connection between same server and client.  Connections of the same session share the session state.  Sessions are used to avoid expensive negotiation of new security parameters for each state. 13
  13. 13. Session States…  Session state ◦ Session identifier – arbitrary byte sequence chosen by the server to identify the session. ◦ Peer certificate – may be null. ◦ Compression method. ◦ Cipher Spec – bulk data encryption algorithm and MAC algorithm ( eg. DES, MD5 ). ◦ Master key – a 48 byte secret key is used in between client and server. ◦ Resumable – a flag indicating whether the session can be used to initiate new connections. 14
  14. 14. Connection States…  Connection State ◦ Server and client random – random byte sequence is chosen by the client and server for new connection. ◦ Server write MAC secret – secret key is used in MAC operations on data sent by the server. ◦ Client write MAC secret – secret key is used in MAC operations on data sent by the client. ◦ Server write key – secret encryption key for data, encrypted by the server. ◦ Client write key – secret encryption key for data, encrypted by the client. 15
  15. 15. How States changes??  Operating state: current using state  Pending state: state to be used  Operating state < Pending state: at the transmission and reception of change cipher spec message The sending part of the pending state is copied into the sending part of operating state The receiving part of the pending state is copied into the receiving part of operating stateParty A Party B Change Cipher Spec 16
  16. 16.  SSL session ◦ an association between client & server ◦ created by the Handshake Protocol ◦ define a set of cryptographic parameters ◦ may be shared by multiple SSL connections  SSL connection ◦ a transient, peer-to-peer, communications link ◦ associated with 1 SSL session 17
  17. 17. SSL Handshake Protocol  Handshake protocol is used to exchange all the information required by both sides for the exchange of actual application data by the TRANSPORT LAYER SECURITY 18
  18. 18. SSL Record Protocol  confidentiality ◦ using symmetric encryption with a shared secret key defined by Handshake Protocol ◦ IDEA, RC2-40, DES-40, DES, 3DES, Fortezza, RC4-40, RC4-128 ◦ message is compressed before encryption  message integrity ◦ using a MAC with shared secret key ◦ similar to HMAC but with different padding 19
  19. 19. SSL Change Cipher Spec Protocol  one of 3 SSL specific protocols which use the SSL Record protocol  a single message  causes pending state to become current  hence updating the cipher suite in use. 20
  20. 20. SSL Alert Protocol  conveys SSL-related alerts to peer entity  severity  warning or fatal  specific alert  unexpected message, bad record mac, decompression failure, handshake failure, illegal parameter  close notify, no certificate, bad certificate, unsupported certificate, certificate revoked, certificate expired, certificate unknown  compressed & encrypted like all SSL data 21
  21. 21. What is TSL??  Internet Engineering Task Force standard RFC 2246 similar to SSLv3 with minor differences: ◦ In record format version number ◦ Uses HMAC for MAC ◦ Has optional alert code ◦ Some changes in supported ciphers ◦ Change in use of certificate negotiation ◦ Change in use of padding 22
  22. 22. Changes from SSLv3 to TLS…  Fortezza removed  Additional alerts added  Modification of hash calculation  Protocol version 3.1 in client hello, server hello 23
  23. 23. TLS : Privacy  Encrypt message so it cannot be read  Use conventional cryptography with shared key ◦ DES , 3DES ◦ RC2, RC4 ◦ IDEA A (Message) $@#&!@ B(Message) 24
  24. 24. TLS: Key Exchange  Need secure method to exchange key  Use public key encryption for this  Choices are RSA & Diffie-Hellman 25
  25. 25. TLS: Integrity  Compute fixed length message authentication code (MAC) ◦ Includes hash of message ◦ Includes a shared secret key ◦ Includes sequence number ◦ Transmit MAC with message 26
  26. 26. TLS : Authentication  Verify identities of participants  Client authentication is optional  Certificate is used to associate identity with public key and other attributes A B CERTIFICATES 27
  27. 27. TLS: HTTP Application  HTTP is most common TLS application https://  Requires TLS-capable web server  Requires TLS-capable web browser ◦ Netscape navigator ◦ Internet explorer ◦ Cryptozilla 28
  28. 28. Implementation of SSL/TLS  SSL & TLS have widely been implemented ◦ Open source software projects ( openSSL, NSS & GnuTLS) ◦ Microsoft windows : part of its secure channel ◦ Browsers  Apple safari  Internet explorer  Mozilla firefox 29
  29. 29. Pros & Cons of SSL/TLS  Pros : ◦ Customer will trust your website: many visitors are now savvy enough to recognize when a webpage is encrypted and protected by SSL. ◦ Avoid dispute due to credit/debit card frauds: visitors uses their credit/debit cards information's on unprotected servers and faces identity theft. 30
  30. 30. Cons ….  Cons : ◦ Regular renewal : just like website domain and hosting plan, SSL certificates also expires after short period of time ; usually one to five years. ◦ Complex installation : SSL is very difficult to install on websites for those who are unaware of website development. 31
  31. 31. Application of SSL/TLS  On top of the Transport layer protocols ◦ Primarily with TCP ◦ Datagram transport layer security (DTLS) for UDP  Encapsulating the applications protocols ◦ HTTP ◦ Securing WWW traffic ◦ FTP, SMTP, etc 32
  32. 32. SUMMARY  SSL/TLS address the need for security in internet communications ◦ Privacy – conventional encryption ◦ Integrity – message authentication codes ◦ Authentication – X.509  SSL in use today with web browsers and servers. 33
  33. 33. Thank You 34

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