ENDA
Un avant goût
ENDA



         Network           Science




Historique    Maintenant             Enjeux
ENDA et le web :
Comment en est-on arrivé là ?




    réseau   protocole   format
Vannevar Bush (1890-1974)
Memex : an automated library
           system

•   Navigation hypertexte, reconnaissance vocale...
Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)
  Père de la cybernétique

•   Complexité

•   Mutualité

•   Complémentarité

•   Capable d’év...
Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980)
   Global village and message
              theory
   Today, after more than a century of ele...
réseau
réseau
Protocole
•    NCP

•    TCP/IP
    ‣ Network connectivity
    ‣ Distribution
    ‣ Error recovery
    ‣ Black box design
réseau
Ted Nelson
                 Hypertext

•   Information non linéaire

•   Information accessible par un lien de n’importe o...
Douglas Engelbart
      premier système hypertexte
   Most of the structuring forms I'll show you stem from the simple
   ...
Douglas Engelbart
 Souris et GUI


Doug Engelbart 1968 Demo
Tim Berners-Lee
               World Wide Web
During some sessions in the CERN cafeteria, Tim and I try to find a
catching ...
Tim Berners-Lee
              World Wide Web

•   unicité

•   Mise en réseau

•   À plusieurs échelles

•   Indexabilité
...
URI
Uniform Resource Identifier
• Tout ce qui peut être lié ou dont on peut parler
   Peut contenir des références à d’autr...
HTTP

• Connexion
   Établissement d’une connexion par un client sur un serveur en utilisant
   par exemple le port 80 (au...
ENDA


Pourquoi analyser tout ça ? Les documents, des gens, des
machines, un espace et un temps peuvent-ils vraiment faire...
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Enda And Web Science

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2e cours d'IC05 à l'UTC avec une introduction à l'analyse exploratoire de données numérique et notamment web au travers des web science et de l'histoire d'internet

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  • MIT en 19 en même temps que wiener
    As we may think dans atlantic
    Système proche de l’hypertexte
    La machine manipule, l’homme fait de la sélection !
  • Pour Norbert Wiener la cybernétique étudie exclusivement les échanges d'information
    Complexity:
    Cybernetic systems are complex structures, with many heterogeneous interacting components.
    Mutuality:
    These many components interact in parallel, cooperatively, and in real time, creating multiple simultaneous interactions among subsystems.
    Complementarity:
    These many simultaneous modes of interaction lead to subsystems which participate in multiple processes and structures, yielding any single dimension of description incomplete, and requiring multiple complementary, irreducible levels of analysis.
    Evolvability:
    Cybernetic systems tend to evolve and grow in an opportunistic manner, rather than be designed and planned in an optimal manner.
    Constructivity:
    Cybernetic systems are constructive, in that as they tend to increase in size and complexity, they become historically bound to previous states while simultaneously developing new traits.
    Reflexivity:
    Cybernetic systems are rich in internal and external feedback, both positive and negative. Ultimately, they can enter into the "ultimate" feedback of reflexive self-application, in which their components are operated on simultaneously from complementary perspectives, for example as entities and processes. Such situations may result in the reflexive phenomena of self-reference, self-modeling, self-production, and self-reproduction.

    Influence lickiger
  • 1964
    McLuhan chose the insightful phrase "global village" to highlight his observation that an electronic nervous system (the media) was rapidly integrating the planet and part of our popular culture, big INSIGHT !
    McLuhan's second best known insight is summarized in the expression "the medium is the message", which means that the qualities of a medium have as much effect as the information it transmits. For example, reading a description of a scene in a newspaper has a very different effect on someone than hearing about it, or seeing a picture of it, or watching a black and white video, or watching a colour video.
  • 57 : sputnik 1 menace depuis l’espace
    58 : eisenhower demande à MIT pr james killian de s’occuper du pb, creation Arpa advanced research project agency
    62 : creation ipto information processing technique office par licklider
    Qui travaille sur sage semi automatic ground environment (mit funded by vannevar bush) créer un réseau pour esquiver pb de com si guerre spatial. Evangelise sur interet pour la science !
    69 arpanet, premiere fois entre engelbart et kleinrock (Stanford, ucla)
  • NCP network control packet dec 1970 par steve crocker, inventeur des request for comment (RFC) qui décrivent toutes les spécifications d’internet ex RF118 : hichhiket guide to internet

    TCP/IP inventé plus tard Robert (Bob) Kahn, along with Vinton Cerf, is co-designer of the TCP/IP Internet network protocol. Kahn laid the open architecture foundations for the TCP/IP protocol, providing the Internet with one of its most distinctive features and what has proven to be a key advantage. 1975 premiers test, 1/1/83 full passage
  • 1983 MILNET se barre d’arpanet
    1984 début de NSF backbone avec supercalculateur premiere backbone : 56 k entre NSCA (national center super computing app) illinois et cornell university. Krol from nsca lead project

    1990 fin de arpanet et debut de NSFNET (national science foundation)
    1992 ouverture commercial et entreprise
    1995 dissolution de NSFNET qui retourne à la science

    By January, 1992, the NSFNET traffic exceeded 12 billion packets (1 trillion bytes) of traffic a month. By November the traffic had doubled, and NSFNET was connected to more than 7,500 networks, one third of which were outside the United States.
    In December, 1992, the NSFNET backbone was completely converted to a T3 or 44.736 Mbps capacity, capable of transmitting 4 and a half million characters a second.
    In 1994, the traffic on NSFNET broke the 10 trillion bytes a month level.
  • As he considered the design of this system, Nelson applied his experience as a filmmaker with the conception of complex motion picture effects, moving from one shot to another, and conceived of the idea of hypertext. He became profoundly convinced of the enormous value of such a system, and has been thinking and talking about it ever since

    The word "hypertext" was first coined by Nelson in 1963, and is first found in print in a college newspaper article about a lecture he gave called "Computers, Creativity, and the Nature of the Written Word" in January, 1965:
    Nelson later popularized the hypertext concept in his book Literary Machines. His vision involved implementation of a "docuverse", where all data was stored once, there were no deletions, and all information was accessible by a link from anywhere else. Navigation through the information would be non-linear, depending on each individual's choice of links. This was more than text -- it was hypertext. The web realizes part of this vision, except that there are deletions, and some information is stored in more than one place
  • Douglas Engelbart developed the mouse, the graphical user interface, and the first working hypertext system, NLS, which was also the second computer system connected to the ARPANET.
  • Douglas Engelbart developed the mouse, the graphical user interface, and the first working hypertext system, NLS, which was also the second computer system connected to the ARPANET.
  • Enda And Web Science

    1. 1. ENDA Un avant goût
    2. 2. ENDA Network Science Historique Maintenant Enjeux
    3. 3. ENDA et le web : Comment en est-on arrivé là ? réseau protocole format
    4. 4. Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) Memex : an automated library system • Navigation hypertexte, reconnaissance vocale • Microfilms très haute résolution • indexés • Web, ordinateur, etc.
    5. 5. Norbert Wiener (1894-1964) Père de la cybernétique • Complexité • Mutualité • Complémentarité • Capable d’évoluer • Constructivité • Réflexivité
    6. 6. Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) Global village and message theory Today, after more than a century of electric technology, we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned. Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media, 1964.
    7. 7. réseau
    8. 8. réseau
    9. 9. Protocole • NCP • TCP/IP ‣ Network connectivity ‣ Distribution ‣ Error recovery ‣ Black box design
    10. 10. réseau
    11. 11. Ted Nelson Hypertext • Information non linéaire • Information accessible par un lien de n’importe où • Dépend des choix de chacun • Pas d’effacement des données
    12. 12. Douglas Engelbart premier système hypertexte Most of the structuring forms I'll show you stem from the simple capability of being able to establish arbitrary linkages between different substructures, and of directing the computer subsequently to display a set of linked substructures with any relative positioning we might designate among the different substructures. You can designate as many different kinds of links as you wish, so that you can specify different display or manipulative treatment for the different types. Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework, October 1962.
    13. 13. Douglas Engelbart Souris et GUI Doug Engelbart 1968 Demo
    14. 14. Tim Berners-Lee World Wide Web During some sessions in the CERN cafeteria, Tim and I try to find a catching name for the system. I was determined that the name should not yet again be taken from Greek mythology. Tim proposes 'World- Wide Web'. I like this very much, except that it is difficult to pronounce in French. Robert Cailliau, A Short History of the Web, 2 November 1995.
    15. 15. Tim Berners-Lee World Wide Web • unicité • Mise en réseau • À plusieurs échelles • Indexabilité • Adaptabilité, personnalisation
    16. 16. URI Uniform Resource Identifier • Tout ce qui peut être lié ou dont on peut parler Peut contenir des références à d’autres documents • Identifiable mais pas forcément téléchargeable ou visible Contenu protégé par exemple • Un seul système global d’identifieurs Chaque URI identifie un document indépendamment de son contexte • Les URI servent de noms et/ou d’adresses • Les URI demandent des institutions Les institutions DNS
    17. 17. HTTP • Connexion Établissement d’une connexion par un client sur un serveur en utilisant par exemple le port 80 (autre ports spécifiés dans l’URL) • Request L’envoi par le client d’une requête à un serveur • Response L’envoi par le serveur d’une réponse à la requête du client • Close La clôture de la connexion par les deux parties
    18. 18. ENDA Pourquoi analyser tout ça ? Les documents, des gens, des machines, un espace et un temps peuvent-ils vraiment faire sens tous ensembles ? Deep web, dynamique, échelle, recherche d’informations, topologie, aggrégats...

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