Influence of Sex and Age on Language use


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It is Sociolinguistic's presentation from Faculty of Humanities at Dian Nuswantoro University.
Differences between Sex and Gender, Women's Language, Sexist Language, Indexing
Lecturing by Anisa Larasati, M.Hum

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  • Influence of Sex and Age on Language use

    1. 1. Influence of Sex and Age on Language Use: Sex, Gender, ‘Women’s Language’, Sexist Language, Indexing 1 Amin Manjaya – C11.2011.01250 Ayu Monita – C11.2010.01185 Lidiana Astuti – C11.2012.01319 Rani A. Pradipta – C11.2010.01114
    2. 2. SEX & GENDER 2 CLICK ME
    3. 3. SEX & GENDER 3 Sex has come to refer to categories distinguished by biological characteristic, then we used the term gender. Gender is more appropriate for distinguishing people on the basis of their socio-cultural behaviour, including speech. (Holmes – Page 157)
    4. 4. GENDER 4 A distinction has sometimes been drawn between gender exclusive and gender preferential features in a language. a. Gender- Exclusive speech differences: Highly Structured Communities b. Gender-Preferential Speech Features : Social Dialect Research
    5. 5. GENDER 5 a. Gender- Exclusive speech differences: Highly Structured Communities  Differences in language used (given by Holmes 2001: 159)  Differences in linguistic features (eg. found in Jespersen 1922)
    6. 6. GENDER 6  Differences in language used  A community is very hierarchical Example: In Bengali society,  A wife being subordinate to her husband  She’s not permitted to use husband’s name.  Because of his name was tara, which also means ‘star’. Since she could not call him ‘tara’, his wife used the term nokkhotro or ‘heavenly body’ to refer him.
    7. 7. GENDER 7  Differences in linguistic features :  Women and men do not speak in exactly in the same way as each other in any community.  Particular linguistic features occur only in the women’s speech or only in the men’s speech.  These features are differences between the vocabulary items used by women and men.
    8. 8. GENDER 8 b. Gender-Preferential Speech Features : Social Dialect Research A preferential feature is one that is distributed across speakers or groups, but is used more frequently by some than by others.
    9. 9. GENDER 9 b. Gender-Preferential Speech Features : Social Dialect Research 1. Women and men use same speech forms – difference in quantities or frequencies of use.  The speech forms in Western urban communities where women’s and men’s social roles is overlap, in other words women and men do not use completely different forms.
    10. 10. WOMEN MEN In English Use more –ing [iŋ] 10 pronunciation. Swimming Dancing Typing Use more –in’ [in] pronunciation. Swimmin’ Dancin’ Typin’ In Sydney Some women use the initial sound in the word ‘thing’ as [f] Use the initial sound in the word ‘thing’ as [f] more than women Those kind of the examples of the social and the linguistic patterns are gender-preferential (rather than gender-exclusive) because both of women and men use particular forms, one gender shows a greater preference for them than the other.
    11. 11. GENDER 11 b. Gender-Preferential Speech Features : Social Dialect Research 2. Women tend to prefer standard forms, men prefer vernacular forms. Examples: 1. Women produced more ‘th’ than alternatives [f], [t], [d]. 2. In Australia, interviews with people in Sydney revealed genderdifferentiated patterns of [h]-dropping. Ex : Women pronounce Mrs. Hall with less [h]-dropping than men while men pronounce Mrs. Hall with more [h] dropping  Mizall.
    12. 12. GENDER & Social Class Percentage [in] pronunciation 12 120 100 91 81 80 97 100 81 68 Women 60 Men 40 27 20 4 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 Social groups or classes Figure 1. Vernacular [in] by sex and social group in Norwich Source: Holmes 2007, 161
    13. 13. Explanation of Women's Linguistic Behaviour 13 Why do Women Use more Standard Forms than Men?
    14. 14. 1. Social status : status conscious 14  Women use more standard English than men because they are more aware of the fact that the way they speak shows their social class background or status.  The use of more standard speech forms as a way of claimming such status.
    15. 15. 2. Women's role as guardian of society's values 15 The society tends to expect 'better' behavior from women than from men. That’s why women are designated the role of modelling correct behavior in the community. However, this explanation is certainly not true for all because the interaction between mother and her child are likely to be very relaxed and informal (vernacular forms occur most often in everyone’s speech.
    16. 16. 3. Subordinate groups must be polite 16 Children and women are subordinate groups. They use more standard forms than men because they must avoid offending men, therefore they must speak carefully and politely.
    17. 17. 4. Vernacular forms express machismo 17 Men prefer vernacular forms because they carry macho connotations of masculinity and toughness. Therefore women might not want to use such form, and use standard forms that associated with female values or femininity.
    18. 18. 5. Women's categories 18 Not all women marry men from the same social class, however it is perfectly possible for a women to be more educated then the man she marries, or even to have a more prestigious job than him.
    19. 19. 6. The influence of the interviewer and the context 19  Women tend to become more cooperative conversationalists than men. Men tend to be less responsive to the speech of others, and to their conversational needs.
    21. 21. 1. AGE- GRADED FEATURES OF SPEECH 21 BABIES TODDLERS MALE Different pitch range KIDS ADOLESCENTS ADULTS FEMALE Different pronunciation - Differences are relative Different vocabulary Different in using grammar
    22. 22. 1. AGE- GRADED FEATURES OF SPEECH 22 How Queen Elizabeth delivers her speech in young age is quite different from she is now. Justin Bieber‘s voice from his childhood until teenager also different
    23. 23. 1. AGE- GRADED FEATURES OF SPEECH 23 What the f*** are you doing today? SLANG WORDS SWEAR WORDS Not much b**ch RESTRICT Reason: solidarity TEENAGER REDUCE
    24. 24. HOW ABOUT THIS? 24 OUT OF DATE SLANG BRITISH: spiffing, topping, super, BRITISH: spiffing, topping, super, groovy, fab groovy, fab SESUATU YA CUCOK DEH CIYUS SLANG is so EPHEMERAL
    25. 25. Influence of age on vocabulary 25
    26. 26. 2. AGE AND SOCIAL DIALECT DATA 26 PRESTIGE Vernacular speech Age 0 30 40 50 Figure 2. Relationship between use of vernacular forms and age Holmes 2007, 176 70+
    27. 27. 2. AGE AND SOCIAL DIALECT DATA 27 Age Vernacular Childhood and Adolescent High Middle age Reduce Old age Increase again How could it happen? 
    28. 28. 3. AGE-GRADING & LANGUAGE CHANGE 28  When a linguistic change is spreading through a community,there will be a regular increase or decrease in the use of the linguistic form over time. Vernacular pronunciation of standart [t] in medial and final position in New Zealand English Linguistic Form Age Group 20-30 years (%) Age group 40+ years (%) Glottal stop [ʔ] for final [t] (e.g. [baʔ] bat ) 82 33 Flap for medial [t] (e.g. [leder] for letter ) 35 6 A form on the increase – this will show up in a graph as a low use of the form by older people and a higher use among younger people. A form which is disappearing just the opposite will be true. Younger people will use less of the STANDARD form and older people more.
    29. 29. Women’s Language 29 In the former, it is explained that social dialect research focussed on differences between women’s and men’s speech in the areas of pronunciation and morphology, and multiple negation (syntactic). While Robin Lakoff, shifted the focus on gender differences to syntax, semantics, and style.
    30. 30. Lakoff's linguistic features of women's speech 30 Women’s linguistic features Examples 1. Lexical hedges or fillers you know, sort of, well, you see 2. Tag questions she’s very nice, isn’t she? 3. Rising intonation on declaratives It’s really goód. 4. ‘Empty’ adjectives divine, charming, cute 5. Precise colour terms : detail magenta, aquamarine 6. Intensifiers (just and so) (emphasizing) I like him so much 7. ‘Hypercorrect’ grammar Consistent use of standard verb forms 8. ‘Superpolite’ forms Indirect request, euphemisms 9. Avoidance of strong swear words fudge, my goodness 10. Emphatic stress It was a BRILLIANT performance Robin Lakoff
    31. 31. According to Deborah Tannen 31 Six categories described by D. Tannen. Each of which pairs a contrasting use of language by males and females in their communication: Status v. support Advice v. understanding Information v. Relationship Orders v. Proposals Conflict v. Compromise Independence v. intimacy
    32. 32. MN E Build Status Advice For A Solution Message Oriented W E OM N Seek / Offer Support Seek For Sympathy Social Facilitation Direct imperatives Superpolite Forms Use confrontation Words Avoid Conflict In Language ‘I’ , ‘my’ , ‘me’ ‘We’, ‘our’, ‘us’ DEBORAH TANNEN 32
    33. 33. Gender Differences 33 Men Women Information Social facilitation Competitive Cooperative Assertive More & longer turns Short openings & closings Sarcasm, teasing, joking Strong language Adversarial Qualifying, justifying Fewer & shorter turns Elaborate openings & closings Laughter; humorous anecdotes Hedges, emotional language Supportive, polite
    34. 34. GENDER : INTERACTION 34 Holmes identifies the distinction of women’s and men’s interaction. Both of them are: 1. Interrupting Behaviour 2. Conversational Feedback
    35. 35. Interruptions 35 A conversational interaction between a man and a woman: Woman: How’s your paper coming? Man: Alright I guess. I haven’t done much in the past two weeks Woman: yeah. Know how that can Man: Hey ya’ got an extra cigarette? Woman: Oh uh sure (hands him the pack) like my paMan: How ‘bout a match Woman: ‘Ere ya go uh like my paMan: Thanks Woman: Sure. I was gonna tell you myMan: Hey I’d really like ta’ talk but I gotta go – see ya Woman: Yeah
    36. 36. Feedback 36 Mary: I worked in that hotel for – ah 11 years and I found the patrons were really really you know good. Jill: Mm. Mary: You had the odd one or two ruffian’d come in and cause a fight but they soon dealt with. Jill: Right, really just takes one eh? To start trouble. Mary: yeah, and and it was mostly the younger ones. Jill: Mm. Mary: that would start you know. Jill: Yeah. Mary: The younger – younger ones couldn’t handle their booze. Jill: Mm.
    37. 37. Gossip 37 Gossip describes the kind of relaxed in-group talk that goes on between people in informal contexts. In Western society, gossip is defined as ‘idle talk’ and considered particularly characteristic of women’s interaction.”
    38. 38. Gossip 38  For example, apparently men ‘gossip’ just as much as women do (see Pilkington, 1998); men’s gossip is just different. Men indulge in a kind of phatic small talk that involves insults,challenges, and various kinds of negative behavior to do exactly what women do by their use of nurturing, polite, feedback-laden, cooperative talk. Or talking about same hobby.  In doing this, they achieve the kind of solidarity they prize. It is the norms of behavior that are different.
    39. 39. According to Deborah Cameron Language and Sexuality 39 Language and sexuality is defined as ‘…inquiry into the role played by language in producing and organizing sex as a meaningful domain of human experience’. Example: Single Father speaks to his daughter. After his wife died, he played a role as a father and also a mother to his daughter. 
    40. 40. Sexist Language 40  Sexist language is language that expresses bias in favor of one sex and thus treats the other sex in a discriminatory manner. In most cases, the bias is in favor of men and against women.  Sexist attitudes stereotype a person according to gender rather than judging on individual merits. Example: Mrs, Ms, Miss, Mr.
    41. 41. Sexist Language 41  By relegating women to a dependent, subordinate position, sexist language prevents the portrayal of women and men as different but equal human beings.
    42. 42. Sexist Language 42 Sexism in language is also showed in that the noun of feminine gender can only be obtained by adding a certain bound morpheme to the noun. Example: MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE Man woman manager manageress Prince princess god goddess author authoress mayor mayoress
    43. 43. Sexist Language 43
    44. 44. Sexist Language 44 Rosalie Maggio says : “It is also necessary to acknowledge that there can be no solution to the problem of sexism in society on the level of language alone .Using the word ‘secretary’ inclusively , for example, does not change the fact that only 1.6%of American secretaries are men .Using director instead of directress does not mean a woman will necessarily enjoy the same opportunities today a man might .”(Maggio,1989).
    45. 45. Indexing : Direct and Indirect Indexing 45 Indexing is a relationship of identification. The distinction between direct and indirect indexing was introduced by Elinor Ochs. Index can be used to refer to a more socially situated analysis of variables. One of the main points in talking about indexing is that it ‘puts gender in its place, indicating that it enters into complex constitutive relations with other categories of social meaning’ (Ochs 1992: 343).
    46. 46. Direct Indexing 46 A linguistic feature directly indexes something with social meaning if the social information is a conventional implicature (e.g., speaker gender is directly indexed by some forms of some adjectives in French, je suis [pr:e] : “I” (male speaker); je suis [pret] (female speaker).
    47. 47. Indirect Indexing 47 However, most variables associated with, e.g., male vs female speakers only indirectly index gender. Their distribution is sex-preferential, not sexexclusive. They are generally associated with several other social meanings, e.g., casualness and vernacularity with masculinity. Because these other factors help to constitute what it means to be ‘male’ the index between vernacular variants and male speakers/masculinity is indirect.
    48. 48. Indirect Indexing 48 Japanese language Pronoun: First person Men’s speech (‘I’) Women’s speech Formal watakushi watashi watakushi atakushi Casual/plain boku ore watashi atashi
    49. 49. 49
    50. 50. The End 50