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Insect-pest management in Organic Agriculture - Options and Challenges

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PEST MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

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Insect-pest management in Organic Agriculture - Options and Challenges

  1. 1. Insect-pest management in Organic Agriculture - Options and Challenges PRESENTED BY: MONIKA SHARMA A -2013 -30 -033 DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, CSKHPKV PALAMPUR (H.P.) 1
  2. 2. Organic Agriculture • “Organic agriculture as holistic food production management system, which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs, taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. This is accomplished by using, where possible, agronomic, biological and mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials, to fulfill any specific function within the system”. (Codex Alimentarius Commission , 1999) 2
  3. 3. (http://www.ifoam.org/sites/default/files/ifoam/poa.pdf Principles of Organic Agriculture 3
  4. 4. Aim of Organic Agriculture “The preamble of organic agriculture aimed at conservation and optimum utilization of all natural resources for a reasonable profitability under the guiding factors of sustainability of the farm”. Conventional agriculture practices aggravated the pest problems 1) pest resistance, 2) resurgence of pests 3) adverse effect on non target organisms. Implementation of IPM strategies has been instrumental in restricting the use of pesticides but still pesticide residue is the problem. To all these problems Organic Agriculture is the answer. 4
  5. 5. Insect-Pest Management in Organic Agriculture • Insect management presents a challenge to organic farmers. • Insects are highly mobile and well adapted to farm production systems and pest control tactics. • Pest management needs to be measured not solely by the effectiveness of a single component but how well a pest or pest complex is controlled by a set of control measures. (Horne, 2007)5
  6. 6. On organic farms, success depends on learning about three kinds of information: (Linker et al. 2009) 1) Biological information: What the insect needs to survive? 2) Ecological information: How the insect interacts with the environment and other species? 3) Behavioral information: About both pest and beneficial insects. 6
  7. 7. Options in Organic Agriculture for insect-pest management 7 Crop Rotation Field Sanitation Seed quality Crop and Variety selection Intercropping Time of sowing Seedling Rate HPR Depth and timing of sowing Trap crops Tillage Pheromone traps Resistant varieties Bio control agents Botanicals Light trap
  8. 8. Managing Pests in Organic Agriculture Any strategy in organic farming should include methods for: I Insect avoidance II Managing the growth environment III Direct treatment 8
  9. 9. To manage pests and diseases effectively, producers need to • understand the biology and growth habits of both pest and crop. • Previous crop history, pest life cycles, soil conditions and local weather patterns. I. Avoidance Techniques 9
  10. 10. 1) Crop Rotation • Central to all sustainable farming systems. • Extremely effective way to minimize most pest problems while maintaining and enhancing soil structure and fertility. • Diversity is the key to a successful crop rotation program. • Diverse rotations are particularly effective in regulating flea beetles, cabbage butterfly. 10
  11. 11. • Managing the frequency with which a crop is grown within a rotation maintaining the rotation's diversified habitat, which provides parasites and predators of pests with alternative sources of food, shelter and breeding sites. • Crop isolation/rotation strategies: most effective against pests that do not disperse over great distances and/or that overwinter in or near host crop fields. (Zehnder et al. 2007) Examples: • Rotation with glucosinolate-containing brassicaceae can be beneficial through biofumigation effects against soil-borne pests and diseases. (Kirkegaard et al. 1998) 11
  12. 12. Crop rotation to decrease population densities of Soybean Cyst Nematode Legumes produce bacteria that convert s atmospheric nitrogen into soil nitrogen, so it’s a natural fertilizer. Onions have natural disinfectant properties which last through several seasons. The rotation inhibits pests from developing because many bugs are species dependent 12
  13. 13. 2)Field Sanitation/Crop Residue Management • Insects most affected by field sanitation/crop residue management will be those that overwinter in crop residue 1) European corn borer 2) Pink bollworms 3) Sugarcane borers Examples: • In alfalfa seed fields: the alfalfa plant bug is controlled by burning crop residues in late fall or early spring. • Field sanitation is an effective preventive measure in fruit fly management (Singh , 2008) 13
  14. 14. 3) Seed Quality • High-quality insect free healthy seed and seedling • Seed analysis by a seed testing laboratory • Planting physically sound seed is also important. In crops such as flax, rye and pulses, a crack in the seed coat may serve as an entry point for soil-borne micro-organisms that rot the seed once it is planted. Examples: Seed gall nematode in wheat (Anguina tritici) Tomato root knot nematode 14
  15. 15. 4) Host plant resistance “In organic farming the selection of varieties with moderate resistance is practical and even preferable. (Sharma and Ortiz, 2002) Mechanism of Host plant resistance 15 Antibiosis Antixenosis (Non preference) Tolerance • Presence of toxic substances •Absence of sufficient amount of essential nutrients • Nutrient imbalance/ improper utilization of nutrients •Trichomes in cotton - whitefly •Wax bloom on crucifer leaves - DBM •Plant shape and colour •Open panicle of sorghum - Supports less Helicoverpa spp. •Ability to grow and yield despite pest attack
  16. 16. Examples: Leaf toughness: significant impediment to insect herbivore feeding on many crops. (Bergvinson et al. 1994; Agrios, 1997) • Alkaloids such as nicotine, glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides found in tobacco, cabbage and cassava, respectively : toxic to most herbivores. (Agrios, 1997) Plant resistance traits may work indirectly through their effects on natural enemies. e.g. certain maize plants (Zea mays) when fed upon by caterpillars, release a mixture of volatile compounds that attract parasitic wasps. (Letourneau, 2006) • Tolerance: CSH-I did not cause detectable yield loss against stem borer of sorghum. (Leuschne et al. 1985) 16
  17. 17. 1) Soil Quality Management: • Favorable soil conditions • Enhancement of soil fertility: accomplished through rotations, cover cropping, and the application of plant and animal materials (CONSLEG 1991; IFOAM 2005; USDA NOP) • Plant resistance to insect and pests is linked to optimal physical, chemical and perhaps most importantly, biological properties of soil . (Altieri and Nicholls, 2003) II. Managing the Plant Growth Environment 17
  18. 18. Fertility Management—Nutrition Vigor and Soil pH •Over fertilized plants may give visual clues to insects • Nutrient stress from insufficient plant nutrients can also cause plants to be more attractive to insect-pests. •Consequently, the careful planning and execution of soil fertility programs (including pH) is an important component of insect pest management. (Linker et al. 2009) 18 An excess of available nitrogen can increase the susceptibility of some crop plants to outbreaks of aphids, mites and other arthropod pests, like these potato aphids,   Macrosiphum    euphorbiae (Thomas) on lettuce
  19. 19. Examples: • Manure and organic fertilizers: more effective than chemical fertilizer to induce rice plant growth and tolerance to insect pests such as brown plant hopper, stem borer and leaf folder in paddy crop. (Chau and Heong, 2005) • In Japan, the density of whitebacked plant hopper (Sogatella furcifera) in organic rice fields was significantly less than their density in conventional rice fields. • In Ohio greenhouse experiments, European corn borer females laid significantly more eggs on sweet corn growing in conventionally fertilized soils than on plants growing in organically farmed soils. (SARE, 2012) • Potato grown in manure-amended soil: an inferior host for the Colorado potato beetle compared with potato grown in synthetically fertilized soil. (Alyokhin and Atlihan, 2005) 19
  20. 20. 2) Intercropping • The practice of intercropping can reduce pest problems by making it more difficult for the pests to find a host crop. • Provides habitat for beneficial organisms Examples: Intercropping of spinach beans and tomato reduced the incidence of cabbage aphid and DBM in cabbage crop. • Incidence of pod borer (H. armigera) reduced in chickpea when grown in association with barley, mustard, linseed and coriander. (Narayanasamy, 2010) 20
  21. 21. • Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) are attracted to volatiles from potato (Solanum tuberosum), but are repelled or not attracted by mixtures of potato and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) . (Thiery and Visser, 1987) • The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect-pests namely Achaea janata L., Empoasca flavescens and Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee. (Rao et al. 2012) 21
  22. 22. 3) Mixed cropping • Mixed cropping or mixed varietal scheme reduces the concentration of suitable food plants for insects and pathogens that specialise on a subset of the plants or varieties grown in the mixture. (Mundt ,2002) • The literature showed that 56% of the herbivores had lower population densities, 16% had higher population densities, and 28% had similar or variable densities in polyculture compared to monoculture. (Andow, 1983,1991) 22
  23. 23. 4) Time of Sowing • Planting should be scheduled: that the most susceptible time of plant growth does not correspond to the peak in pest cycles. • Early sowing reduces: grasshoppers, aphids in cereal crops • Delayed sowing : wireworms and cutworms in cereal crops (Tamm et al. 1999) Examples: • North Indian states: late sowing of maize prevent stem borer, Chilo partellus attack (Reddy , 1985) • Early sowing of kharif sorghum crop: less shoot fly and stem borer populations (Leuschne et al. 1985) • Early transplanting of paddy: suffers less from borer attack (Narayanasamy, 2010) 23
  24. 24. 5) Seedling Rate • Increasing plant densities using higher seeding rates can have a positive effect on insect pest control. By having more plants in the field, a given aphid population will have less of an impact upon individual plants. (http://www.agriculture.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=75a9e794-b979-4ffd-b15e-3b4ab1b1f2e5) • Closely spaced plants: makes rice plants more vulnerable to brown plant hopper (http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/docs/Rice/Control_of_rice_insect_pests.pdf) Example: An increase in the density of maize led to an increase in the population of Ostrinia nubilalis. (Chiang and Hudson , 1972) 24
  25. 25. 6) Depth of Sowing • For most crops, seeding should ideally be done when the soil is warm enough for rapid germination. Seeds that remain ungerminated in cool soil are more susceptible to damage by insects such as wireworms. Example: Potato Seeds planted at depths greater than 1.5 inch (3.7 mm) take longer to germinate and are at greater risk for infestation of wireworms. (UCIPM, 2014) 25
  26. 26. 7) Tillage • Tillage should be properly timed before seeding, after harvesting and during summer fallow to reduce populations of insect pests such as cutworms and grasshoppers • Reduced or zero-tillage • Conservation tillage (Laughlin and Mineau, 1995) Examples: Tillage after rice harvest kills stem borers, armyworm pupae, grasshopper eggs, black bugs and root weevils. (http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/docs/Rice/Controlof rice insect pests.pdf) • Armyworm and maize stalk borer often increases in crops grown under reduced tillage. (Narayanasamy, 2010)26
  27. 27. 8) Water Management • The need for irrigation is dictated by crop growth and weather rather than the need for insect control. (Linker et al. 2009) Examples: Drainage for 1 or 2 days in paddy crop: control pests such as whorl maggots, root feeding midges, water weevils, caseworms. Alternate draining and flooding for 5-7 days: control black bugs, plant hoppers, gall midge, hispa and stem borers . (http://www.vegetableipmasia.org/docs/Rice/Control of rice insect pests.pdf) • The flooding of land shortly after preparation for 2-3 days: effective for killing pupae of Helicoverpa and Spodoptera in cotton. (El Amn and Ahmed , 1991) 27
  28. 28. 9) Mulches • All mulches suppress insects in comparison to bare soil. Examples: Suppression of the Colorado potato beetle has been demonstrated with straw mulch in potatoes. (Linker et al. 2009) 28
  29. 29. • Organic mulches: suppress Colorado potato beetle through a combination of effects involving reduced host-finding ability and increased predation from natural enemies. (Brust, 1994; Stoner et al. 1996; Zehnder and Hough-Goldstein, 1990) • Straw mulch has also been well studied in reducing aphid infestation and virus incidence in several crops. (Doring et al. 2006; Saucke and Doring, 2004) • Higher populations of beneficial insects: buckwheat was intercropped with squash (Nyoike and Liburd , 2010) • Lower pest pressure and higher beneficial insect populations: intercropping buckwheat and squash (Frank and Liburd , 2005) 29
  30. 30. 10) Trap Crops • Trap crops attract pest species away from the cash crop to be protected and into a specific area where they can be destroyed. • Depending on the target pest and the cash crop, trap crops can be planted with or around the perimeter of the cash crop field. • Size and configuration of the trap crop • Proper timing of planting and adequate spacing and size of the trap crop • Knowledge of the biology and ecology of the target pest species (Hokkanen, 1991) 30
  31. 31. • For example, with a push-pull approach, a trap crop is used to pull the pest species away while the protected cash crop is intercropped with a plant that repels pests. This approach has been used successfully to protect maize in Kenya. (Linker et al. 2009) 31 Main Crop Trap crop Pest Cotton Marigold Helicoverpa armigera Okra Pod borers Groundnut Cow pea Leaf folder Castor Spodoptera litura Cabbage Radish Flea beetle Sun flower Marigold Helicoverpa armigera Castor Spodoptera litura
  32. 32. Examples: Indian mustard - favoured over cabbage as an oviposition host for DBM (Srinivasan and Krishna Moorthy, 1991) • In New Zealand, density of the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula was lowered, the timing of their colonization was delayed, and cob damage to transitionally certified organic sweet corn was reduced when black mustard Brassica nigra was grown around the perimeter of fields. (Rea et al. 2002) • In Florida, collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) used as a trap crop to suppress infestations of diamondback moth in cabbage. (Mitchell et al. 2000) 32
  33. 33. Perimeter Trap Cropping Trap crop = turnip rape (Brassica rapa) and Main crop = oilseed rape (B. napus) and Target insect = pollen beetle (Cook et al. 2006) Within-Row Trap Cropping Planting trap crop (alfalfa) in rows within the main crop (strawberry) Western tarnished plant bug damage Strip Trap Cropping integrated trap crops + pheromone traps (Tillman, 2006) 33
  34. 34. TRAP CROP MAIN CROP Dead-end Trap Cropping (Shelton and Nault, 2004; Badenez-Perez et al. 2004) •Trap crop is highly attractive to the insect pest, but the trap crop does not support its growth & development. •Diamond back moths are attracted to yellow rocket (Barbarea vulgaris) over cabbage. 34
  35. 35. 11) Association with Beneficial Microorganisms • A rich diversity of soil organisms : provide benefits to host plants through association. • Some of these plant-microorganism associations may impact plant defenses against insect pests. • Mycorrhizal fungi gain constant and direct access to carbohydrates from the plant roots. • In return, mycorrhizal fungi assist plant in uptake of water and mineral nutrients such as phosphorus. 35
  36. 36. • Enhanced pest resistance of mycorrhizal plants: increase availability of soil nutrients through mycorrhizal association, thus improving overall plant health. (Gosling et al. 2006) Examples: • Mycorrhizal soybean was found to be more resistant to corn earworm (Heliothis zea) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) than non mycorrhizal soybean. (Rabin and Pacovsky, 1985) • Mycorrhizal ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) is more resistant to attacks by the larvae of Arctia caja. (Gange and West, 1994) 36
  37. 37. 12) Extracted Plant Volatiles for pest control • Based on biological activities, plant volatiles may be developed into various products for insect control in organic production. They can be developed into organic pesticides. Examples: Plant-originated monoterpenoids: more toxic to nematode Caenorbditis elegans than a commercial nematicide. (Shrivastava et al. 2010) • Isobutylamides isolated from fruit, stem and leaves of various Piper spp. Such as P. nigrum, P. acutisleginum, P. khasiana, P. longum, P. pedicellosum and P. thomsoni are known to have diverse insecticidal action. (Parmar and Walia, 2001) • Aqueous extracts of marigold: trigger oviposition of Trichogramma spp . (Ravi et al. 2006)37
  38. 38. • Plant volatiles may also be developed into products for luring insects. For example, traps baited with compounds obtained from Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) floral volatiles have been found to exhibit strong oviposition response from many lepidopteran insect pests. • Soybean looper has been found to be attracted significantly to the Canada thistle floral volatiles and more females were trapped than males. (Shrivastava et al. 2010) • Essential oil of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi), allspice (Pimenta dioica) and litsea (Litsea cubeba): pinewood nematodes and compounds like geranial, isoeugenol, and methyl isoeugenol have good nematicidal activity. (Park et al. 2006) • Similarly volatile compounds from clove oil: reduce egg hatch and the viability of hatched juveniles of tomato root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita). 38 (Meyer et al. 2008)
  39. 39. 1) Monitoring • Insect monitoring traps are useful in determining which insect pests are present in a field and whether they are at economically important levels. • Certain types of insect hormones called pheromones may be used as attractants to monitor population levels of insects such as 1) Armyworm, 2) Diamondback moth 3) Cabbage looper 4) European corn borer III. Direct Treatment 39
  40. 40. PHEROMONES AND OTHER ATTRACTANTS • Pheromones and other chemical attractants can be used in several different ways: 1)Monitor Insect Populations 2) Disrupt Mating 3) Mass Trapping 40
  41. 41. Pheromone Target pest Nomate Tomato fruit borer, tobacco caterpillar, brinjal fruit and shoot borer, okra fruit and shoot borer, Ferro sensor SP Tomato fruit borer, tobacco caterpillar, brinjal fruit and shoot borer, okra fruit and shoot borer, Fly T Fruit fly Lucene lure Brinjal fruit and shoot borer DBM lure Diamond back moth Helilure Tomato fruit borer, PTM 41
  42. 42. 2) Biological Control Organic crop production relies on the suppression of pests through the introduction, conservation or enhancement, or augmentation of predators (or parasitoids). a) Conservation of natural enemies: • Natural biological controls of pests and pathogens are enhanced in organic systems: foster and maintain biodiversity ( Barbosa ,1998 ) • Plants growing within and near the crop field: offer resources for natural enemies such as alternate prey or hosts, pollen or nectar, as well as microhabitats ( Letourneau and Altieri, 1999 ) 42
  43. 43. • Intercropping with insectary plants: enhance the activity of predators and parasitoids by providing them with habitat and food sources such as nectar, pollen, and alternate hosts or prey. (Jervis et al. 2005) • Planting sunflower on the perimeter of pepper: increase the density of minute pirate bugs in the pepper, helping suppress western flower thrips. (Funderburk et al. 2011) • Parasitism of mole crickets in Florida by the introduced wasp, Larra bicolor is enhanced by the availability of nectar from flowering plants Spermacoce verticillata and Chamaecrista fasciculata. (Portman et al. 2010) 43
  44. 44. Other methods for Conservation of natural enemies: • Organic mulches and crop residue • Undisturbed areas: such as windbreaks, hedgerow, or strips of perennial vegetation within fields. • Other habitats provided by farm scaping include water, alternate prey, perching sites, overwintering sites, and wind protection. • Good soil management 44 Flowering plants are incorporated into mixed vegetable farm to enhance the efficacy of natural enemies
  45. 45. 45 Good bug blend planted next to an organic strawberry field in California Alyssum intercropped with organic romaine on a farm in California
  46. 46. b) Introduction and augmentation of Biological control agents(BCA): Categories of Biological control agents: Predator Parasitoids Pathogens 46
  47. 47. Important Predators Common name Scientific name Common name Scientific name Assassin bugs Pselliopus barberi (Davis) Zelus longipes (L.) Preying mantids Mantis religiosa (L.) Bieyed bugs Geocoris spp. (Say) Predaceous ground beetles Calleida decora (Fabricius) Brown lacewings Hemerobius spp. (Stephens.) Predaceous midge, aphid midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) lady beetle Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville) Coccinella septempunctata (L.) Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Evans) Euseius tularensis (De Leon) Dusty wings Conwentzia barretti (Banks) Spider mite destroyer lady beetle Stethorus picipes (Casey) Green lacewings Chrysoperla spp. (Steinmann) Syrphid flies Eristalis spp. (L.) Mealybug destroyer Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant) Vedalia beetle Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) Minute pirate bugs Orius spp. (Say) Anthocoris spp. (Reuter) Western predatory mite Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) 47
  48. 48. Important Parasitoids Common name Scientific name Aphid parasitoid Aphidius spp. (Sygenta) Armored scale parasitoid Aphytis spp. (Le Baron) Grape leaffolder parasitoid Bracon cushmani (Muesebeck) Cottony cushion scale parasitoid Cryptochaetum iceryae (Maskell) Paddy gall fly parasitoid Platygaster oryzae (Cameron) Whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Gahan) Caterpillar parasitoid Hyposoter exiguae (Viereck) Egg parasitoid Trichogramma spp. PTM parasitoid Copidosoma koehleri (Zeller) DBM parasitoid Cotesia plutella (Westwood) Helicoverpa parasitoid Campoletis Chloridae(Muesebeck) 48
  49. 49. Important Pathogens Biological Agents Pest Crop Beauveria bassiana (Bals.- Criv.) 1.0% Affects the young stage Helicoverpa spp., Spodoptera spp., Borers, hairy caterpillars, mites, scales, etc Vegetables, cereals, fruits Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) - 0.5 - 1.0 % affects all stages White grubs, caterpillars, Semiloopers, mealy bugs, BPH Sugarcane, groundnut, rice, potato, cotton, cereals Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) 0.5 - 1.0% affects all stages All sucking soft bodies insects Sugarcane, groundnut, rice, potato, cotton, cereals 49
  50. 50. Biological Agents Pest Crop Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki 0.3-0.4 % Helicoverpa spp., Spodoptera spp., borers, hairy caterpillars, mites, scales, etc Vegetables, cereals, fruits NPV - Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Spodotera litura 250 – 500 ml/ ha 2-3 time at 10 days interval Spodotera litura Cotton, groundnut, pulses, cabbage, chillies NPV - Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Helicoverpa armigera 250 500 ml/ ha, 2-3 times at 10 days interval Helicoverpa armigera Cotton, groundnut, pulses, cabbage, chillies 50
  51. 51. 3) Natural Insecticides: Botanicals: • Effective in controlling the insect- pest: repellant, knock down, anti- feedant , broad spectrum properties • Important because they are less hazardous, biodegradable, and maintain balanced bio-diversity Examples: Ethiopian pepper mixed with chillies: repellent properties against kola weevils. (Burkill, 1985) • Extracts of chilli pepper in mixture with garlic (Allium sativum L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs extracts and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citrates Staph.) leaf extract: very effective against some leaf eating insect pests of crops (Stoll, 1988) 51
  52. 52. • Petroleum ether extract of Annona : reduce the infestation of brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Chitra et al. 1993) • Neem kernel extract and neem oil: effective for brinjal fruit and shoot borer infestation. (Kuppuswamy and Balssubramanian , 1980) • Leaf extract and seed oil of custard apple: effective for the pest like Epilachna and mealy bug. (Soni et al. 2003) • Neem oil : reduced the fecundity of Henosepilachna vignitioctopunctata (Rajendran , 1998) 52
  53. 53. PLANTS USED FOR CONTROL OF DIFFERENT INSECT PESTS Scientific name Effect on Insect -pests Eucalyptus spp. •Egg laying inhibitor to lepidopteran insects like hairy caterpillar •Fetal to beetles •For stored grain insect pests Azadirachta indica •Antifeedent, repellent, growth regulator •Inhibit egg, larval, pupal development •Widely used in the management of rice pests, DBM, Spodoptera litura, mite, aphid etc. Lantana camara •Repellent to insect-pests and attractant to tse-tse fly •Knockdown effect to L. erysimi , root knot nematode and stored grain insects Melia azadirach •Effect is same as neem 53
  54. 54. Scientific name Effect on Insect -pests Tagetes spp. • Deter beetles and white flies on tomato • Spider mite, white flies, bugs and attractant to slug Eupatorium spp •Antibacterial activities against plant pathogens Ipomea carnea • Rodents Datura spp. • Storage pest • Rodents •Leaf extract is lethal to ant and aphids Cymbopogon spp. • Fleas, flies, ticks, termites and mosquito larvae Allium sativum •Insect repellent and to ward off crop and household pests Capsicum spp. •Registered for use as insecticides against moths, cutworms, earwig and mosquitoes 54
  55. 55. Other formulations used in organic agriculture Sr No. Bioformulations in pest management Sr. No. Biological extract for pest management 1 Cow urine 1 Melia extract 2 Fermented Butter milk 2 Dashparni 3 Tamara lassi 3 Polygonum extract 4 Lantana extract 5 Neem seed extract 6 Ghaniri astra 7 Darek and Agni astra 55
  56. 56. 4) Other Management Methods • Diatomaceous earth • Sulfur • Oils • Insecticidal Soaps 56
  57. 57. Challenges  Appropriate policy framework---yet to be laid down by the government  Setting specific standards for organic produce quality at each country level to ward off challenging pest species at national or international level.  Internalization of essential input resources at farmer’s level to nurture soil, crops and protect them from pestilence and herbivory.  Development of organic package of practices for all crops.  Pest specific  Slow to achieve results  Non availability of commercial formulations  BCA agents are unperdictable and expensive to develop and supply. 57
  58. 58. Conclusion • Organic farming is environmentally friendly. • Organic farms, often explore biodiversity than conventional farms. • Pest management is a key component in organic crop production systems. • To successfully control pest in an organic system , it is important to understand the interactions of different components in a specific ecosystem. • One key strategy used for pest management in organic farming involves preventive measures and other strategies involve control measures . 58
  59. 59. • Therefore, IPM is essential in organic agriculture because it offers a wide range of techniques and practices to prevent or minimize damages from pests without affecting soil, water or beneficial organisms. • While much research in this area is still in its infancy, a multidisciplinary approach involving molecular biology, biochemistry, plant breeding, entomology, crop management and economics can facilitate the investigation and subsequently provide real world solutions for pest problems in organic agriculture. 59
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