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Supernovae & the First Stars in the Universe

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A presentation on the first cosmic explosions and how the Universe started to make heavy elements, by Monash University's Professor Alexander Heger from the Faculty of Science, School of Mathematical Science.

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Supernovae & the First Stars in the Universe

  1. 1. The Stars Brain55,500 MꙨ Star exploding at 1055 erg (Ken Chen 2011)
  2. 2. Astronomical Society of Victoria, Monash University, Australia, Feb. 13, 2013 Supernovae and the First Stars in the UniverseThe first cosmic explosions and how the Universe started to make heavy elements http://CosmicExplosions.org Alexander Heger (Monash) Ken Chen (UMN) Pamela Vo (UMN) Candace Joggerst (LANL) Stan Woosley (UCSC)
  3. 3. Motivation:A Brief Historyof the Universe
  4. 4. The Cosmic Dark Age ` (after recombination)
  5. 5. What theBig Bangmade… (The primordial abundance pattern) Brian Fields (2002, priv. com.)
  6. 6. What WeFind Today (The solar abundance pattern) Lodders (2003)
  7. 7. Cosmic Dark Age `(after recombination) © Alexander Heger Hubble Deep Field time What the (Pop III star yields) What We Heger & Woosley (2010) Big Bang Frebel et al. (2005) Find Today made… (The primordial abundance pattern) (The solar abundance pattern) Brian Fields (2002, priv. com.) Lodders (2003)
  8. 8. Setting the Stage: StellarEvolution
  9. 9. Once formed, the evolution of a star is governed by gravity: continuing contraction to higher central densities and temperatures Evolution of central density and temperature of 15 MꙨ and 25 MꙨ stars
  10. 10. Ban g!Bo om !
  11. 11. NGC3982
  12. 12. Core Collapse Supernovae (Janka 2001) (Woosley & Janka 2006) Entropy and electron per baryon (Ye) at different time snapshots in a core collapse supernova (simulation: equatorial band) (Buras et al. 2006)
  13. 13. Core Collapse Supernovae – 3D Cold inflow and hot outflow in 3D simulations  similar to dipolar flow pattern observed in 2D rotationally symmetric simulations (Janka et al. 2005)(Scheck, Janka, et al. 2006)
  14. 14. Singing Supernovae? Can sound waves from convection heat bubble and Stan Woosley power a supernova explosion? (Burrows et al. 2005) (Burrows et al. 2005) (Burrows et al. 2005)radius (km) radius (km)
  15. 15. Explosion of Low-Mass SN 2D simulation with neutrino transport and core cooling Explosion driven by convection not SASI Explosion starts fast as accretion drops very rapidly Mueller, Janka, Heger (2012) u8.1
  16. 16. The First Stars in the Universe
  17. 17. Formation and Mass of the First Starsafter recombination No metals  no metal cooling  more massive stars (Bromm, Coppi, & Larson 1999, 2002; Abel, Bryan, & Norman 2000, 2002;Nakamura & Umemura 2001; O’Shea & Norman 2006,...)  typical mass scale ~10...300 MꙨ?• Now simulations indicate binaries may exist• But ... (Turk, Abel, OShea 2010) We still dont have a really strong constrain on Pop III star masses in general
  18. 18. credit: Matt Turk
  19. 19. Were the first stars really big? How do we know? ?&Spitzer=0.00&ChandraXO=0.00&Galex=0.00&IRAS=0.00&WMAP=0.00&Cassini=0.00&slid
  20. 20. The proof: It is on Google Sky!=-87.1875&zoom=2&Spitzer=0.00&ChandraXO=0.00&Galex=0.00&IRAS=0.00&WMAP=0.0
  21. 21. Eta Car – a really big star in our galaxy today
  22. 22. The Most Massive Stars Today R136 ● young massive star cluster ● Age around 1.5 Myr ● Star “a1”: maybe 200 MꙨ initial mass (Crother et al. 2010)
  23. 23. Ejected “metals”
  24. 24. How Bigger Stars Die:Pair-Instability Supernovae
  25. 25. approximate Fe-poor Fe-rich explosion energy / B pl E ex
  26. 26. •Low neutron excess from CNO -> 22Ne in helium burning•No extended stable period of carbon and oxygen burning where weak interactions might increase the neutron excess
  27. 27. ProblemPair-Instability Supernovae do not reproduce the abundances as observed in very metal poor halo stars!
  28. 28. Mixing in 250 MꙨ Pair-SN (Ken Chen 2011)
  29. 29. PulsationalPair-Instablity Supernovae
  30. 30. PPSN in 2D Ken Chen (2012)
  31. 31. PPSN in 2D Ken Chen (2012)
  32. 32. PPSN in 2D Ken Chen (2012)
  33. 33. Energy ScalesLog E Explosion Thermonuclear39 X-ray Bursts √40 Long-Duration He Bursts √4142 X-ray Superbursts √434445 Classical Novae √4648 Faint SN (visible LC?)49 SN (visible LC)50 Bright SN (LC?)51 SN (kinetic) SN Type Ia total52 Hypernova? GRB? Pair-SN total (low-mass end)53 SN (neutrinos – several 1053erg) Pair-SN total (upper limit)54 (a lot of energy - 0.5 MꙨ c2)55 GR He SN GR He SN (upper limit)56 GR H SN, Z > 0 (Fuller et al. 1986) √

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