Motivation at the Workplace: The Inside working of the Fantasia Factory

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Research paper tackling the issue of motivation of low skilled employees at the Fantasia factory, a food processing company. The research paper focuses on the application of contemporary and traditional motivation theories mainly Herzberg’s 2 factor theory, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Equity theory and highlights the difference between practice and theory.

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Motivation at the Workplace: The Inside working of the Fantasia Factory

  1. 1. MNGT 215 Project Motivation at the Workplace: The Inside Workings of the Fantasia Factory Fall 2013 Date of Completion: Dec.1, 2013 Team Members: Samah El Sayed Ahmad Lara Sarieddine LoubnaSasso Mona Zahran
  2. 2. Motivation at the Workplace Table of Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3 Theoretical Study .......................................................................................................................................... 4 Field Project .................................................................................................................................................. 9 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 9 The Manager ............................................................................................................................................. 9 Analysis ................................................................................................................................................... 10 Appendix ..................................................................................................................................................... 14 Transcription ........................................................................................................................................... 14 Reference links ........................................................................................................................................ 20 2
  3. 3. IntroductionMotivation at the Workplace Introduction For the purpose of the management project, we chose to tackle the issue of motivation of employees considering that it is one the most difficult practices in the business world and unfortunately not as easy as some of the theories put into context. What motivates employees at the workplace? Is money the only motivator? Or are there any other factors that enter the equation of motivation? We jotted down these questions during our brainstorm session and decided that these are the question we’re going to tackle. When it comes to the company choice, our first choice was to study SUKLEEN because we thought that it would be interesting to study the trash industry and the workers at such factories are particularly hard to motivate and are lowskilled. Considering that SUKLEEN had to cancel the interview because the managers are out of town, we decided to go through the phase of choosing our company. We at last settled for the Fantasia factory and we called them to schedule an appointment to them. Fantasia, we thought, would be similar to the SUKLEEN factory in terms that workers at both factories are low skilled and their motivation is a difficult task. Fantasia, however, is more of a fun choice. We know that Fantasia have been working on expanding the couple of years by the new flavors it has introduced, so we decided to go for it. 3
  4. 4. Motivation at the Workplace Theoretical Study Introduction: One of the main functions of a manager is to lead their employees. Under this function comes one of the most important roles of a manger, motivation. Motivation is a means of giving someone the drive to work efficiently and effectively towards the desired goals of the organization. This is why it is very important for all organization, small or large, profit or nonprofit, to keep their employees motivated so that the goals of the organization are achieved. Objective: This part of the project will deal with what motivates employee, how motivation takes place and how motivation techniques vary based on the type of employees you are working with (highly skilled or low skilled workers) as well as the cultural diversity of the work place. What motivates employees? There is a large variety of ways that one can choose to motivate his/her employees, two of which I will talk about are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s theory. Maslow’s Theory The article “Abraham Maslow and the pyramid that beguiled business”, states that in 1943, “Abraham Maslow published a paper called A Theory of Human Motivation, in which he said that people had five sets of needs, which come in a particular order. As each level of needs is satisfied, the desire to fulfil the next set kicks in” (Kremer, Hammond). The theory claims that the unsatisfied needs are what motivate people. 4
  5. 5. Theoretical StudyMotivation at the Workplace 5 Maslow’s Hierarchy Selfactualiza tion Esteem needs No longer about how others see you, but with how you see yourself. Deals with how you want others to see you Your interaction with others Social needs Safety need Physiological needs Feeling safe at work. Safe environment The basic human needs. A salary that pays for basic needs such as food & water. The article states that “Managers use Maslow's hierarchy to identify the needs of their staff and help them feel fulfilled, whether it's by giving them a pet project, a fancy job title or flexible working arrangements, so they can pursue their interests outside the workplace” (Kremer, Hammond). Herzberg’s Motivation This theory deals with trying to understand that employees do not only fall under the two categories: satisfied or dissatisfied, but rather there exists four categories of satisfaction that employees can fall under. Only after understanding this, can one find a way of motivating an employee.
  6. 6. Theoretical StudyMotivation at the Workplace Dissatisfied Not Dissatisfied Not satisfied Satisfied A manager must eliminate dissatisfaction by using hygiene factors and after doing so he/she must build satisfaction through motivators. Some firms make the mistake of only offering hygiene factors in order to motivate their employees. It is important to note that you need both hygiene factors (eliminate dissatisfaction) as well as motivators (to increase satisfaction). Moreover, motivators are more important than hygiene factors in motivating employees this is because hygiene factors deal with the context of the job whereas motivators deal with the content of the job. Being happy with the content of the job despite your status in that company is what will keep you motivated to keep working. How motivation takes place? The equity theory and expectancy theory of motivation deal with how motivation takes place. The equity theory states that people have the tendency to compare themselves with others that have similar contributions. The comparison follows such a formula: Output A Input A = Output B Input B If the formula is not at equilibrium there is no equity and so this will cause the employee who feels like he/she is being treated unfairly to be demotivated. The theory concludes that if you treat people unfairly, then expect people to be demotivated. Therefore if you want to motivate your employees, ensure equality and fairness between everyone. 6
  7. 7. Theoretical StudyMotivation at the Workplace The expectancy theory of motivation claims that if your expectations stay positive then this will keep you motivated to reach the set goals. If the positive implications of the outcome are greater than the negative ones, then you will be motivated. Variation of motivation techniques In the article, “10 Ways to Motivate Anyone”, Geil Browning states that in order to keep your employees motivated, you must offer your employees “the right incentive-the ones that will impact their personal brain and personality types-to keep them mentally and emotionally invested in doing their best” (Browning). The phrase, “impact their personal brain”, signifies the importance of finding the right motivation technique that is customized to fit the type of employee that you are working with in order to make sure that he/she remains highly motivated. Challenges of motivation Since we are living in a world where businesses are going global, companies face the difficulty of trying to motivate diverse cultures. This is why it is important for managers to know exactly what type of employees they are working with (their culture, gender, profession) in order to apply the right techniques of motivation that fit their employees as well as to avoid the polycentric attitude. In the article “Cross Cultural Motivation and Expatriate Effectiveness”, Chen states that “Managers need to understand some of the issues that come with working across cultures in order to be effective” (Chen). It is important to know that motivational programs tend to work better in individualistic cultures rather than collectivist cultures. Moreover other challenges such as low risk taking cultures may affect the implementation of Maslow’s hierarchy. Managers face difficulties in trying to motivate unique groups of people. For example men prefer more autonomy than women and women prefer more flexible working hours; therefore, it is important for managers to take these factors in to consideration when trying to 7
  8. 8. Theoretical StudyMotivation at the Workplace motivate these employees so that the company can strive for maximum effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, managers should know the degree of professionalism their employees have because knowing this can help them set the right forms of motivation in order to achieve their goals. Usually professional employees are motivated by providing them with challenges as well as organizational support. On the other hand, lower skilled workers tend to be motivated through rewards and appraisal. One way of motivating them could be by involving them in decision making. The formation of Motivation Motivation begun with people trying to understand organizational behavior and the social drives that led to increase performance. The classical approach was the first approach that seeks to understand motivation. It assumed that humans were the biggest assets of the company. A fit between a motivated worker and an organization would benefit both the worker and the organization. Social scientists such F.W Taylor , Abraham Maslow, Herzberg and Douglas McGregor developed theories that they believed explained the drives that forced People to perform their jobs. 8
  9. 9. Field ProjectMotivation at the Workplace Field Project Introduction Malco Trading is a company that operates 3 business units: Fantasia, Pain D’or, and Mamma Mia. I has been in the business for almost 3 years. Fantasia’s mission is to deliver superior quality crisps at a reasonable price. The vision for the future is to expand and gain a greater market share. According to the manager, Fantasia follows a concentration strategy and has been working effectively and targeting a new audience especially with it “Multi Grain crisps” that target health conscious individuals. It is also trying to come up with more flavors to meet the demands of the market and compete adequately against its competitors. A small competitive review of the company reveals that Master’s is one of the main competitors of Fantasia considering that both are Lebanese brands trying to compete in the same market and target the same audience. Exports of chips do pose a competition in Fantasia in terms of price considering that companies such as Lay’s enjoy economies of scale. The Manager For the purpose of our management field work, we choose to tackle the issue of motivation of employees. We set up an interview with the Mr. Zaki Abdul Ghaffar, the production manager at Fantasia, considering that any production manager would be in direct contact with the employees and is responsible for employee motivation, training, and development. In addition to that, one of his major responsibilities is to ensure consistency of the production process. We sat down with him, and before getting to know about the factory and its employees we got to know a little about him. He graduated from the Lebanese American University (LAU) in 1994 with degrees in both Food Science and Hospitality Management. During his years of studies, he worked part time in a food processing factory and that’s when it clicked and he decided to pursue in addition to his hospitality management degree another degree in food science. He continued working for this 9
  10. 10. Field ProjectMotivation at the Workplace company, even after graduating, and got promoted eventually to production manager. He hold the position of production manager at the Fantasia factory for 2 years, where he was hired at Fantasia in the hope to circulate “new blood” in the organization. The 2 years he spent, so far at the factory, he claims are the best in his career and Fantasia have also noticed considerable growth in these 2 years. He targeted motivating employees, activating high standards of quality control, as well as injecting hygiene and sanitization principles into the factory divisions. Zaki was picky and selective in a way that he wanted the product served to be stable at all times and levels and he thinks that peaks all his contributions in Fantasia. His systemic work does not imply that his management style is a strict one, but rather it is lenient.He is a proponent of delegation and observation, and thinks that both factors are the key to success as a manager in any factory. We are confident that Mr. Zaki Abdul Ghaffar is a good candidate for this interview and for our field work. Analysis Considering that one of the managers functions in leading which refers to working with and through the people and thus motivating employees or subordinates, resolving work group conflicts, and influencing teams or individuals as they work in the organization. The organization culture defines the relationship of the manager with the employees as well as the procedures the managers take to motivate employees. We have learned that in some organizations employees may be motivated by pay or job security, or in other cases employees are motivated by the content of the job, the responsibilities of the job, and the challenges the job impose on them. We visited the Fantasia factory in Choueifat, and explored the culture in that particular organization. We interviewed the manager, Mr. Zaki Abdul Ghaffar and based on the answers we got for him we were able to put the pieces together. The manager gave us a brief overview of the company’s history and background and then we went on to discuss the motivation of the employees in the organization. Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of need explains that within every individual there is a hierarchy of 5 needs in order: Physiological needs, safety needs, social need, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. According to the manager, the employee’s physiological needs are very well satisfied. Fantasia is 10
  11. 11. Field ProjectMotivation at the Workplace providing its employees a starting pay that is above minimum wage, and is adequate enough to cover food and shelter expenses. The jobs of employees at the Fantasia factory secure. In addition to that, the company provides its employees by adequate medical benefits (The company has recruited a family doctor that ensures that the employees are receiving medical benefits), and safe working conditions. The manager was adamant that the company has never, in its entire years of production, fired or lay off employees. He provided us with an example back in July 2006 where fears have driven people to stay home and some have fled the country; with that being said, employees were still being paid although the factory was temporarily closed due to political instability. Given the latter, motivation in such an environment is somehow inevitable , so we think that this is the core reason why employees are really contented about working in Fantasia no matter how basic their role there is. He also stressed that employee misconduct is punished but firing the employee is never an option (unless in extreme cases such as theft, fraud…) Social needs are a person’s needs for belongingness, affection, acceptance, and friendship. Social needs are very important especially in a culture like the Lebanese culture. Being put in a very ambiguous situation in this country due to backfires and street conflicts that arise unexpectedly and out of the blue, it is very important for individuals to maintain strong relationships with their peers, colleagues, and fellow employees at the workplace. Thus, Fantasia manager is aware of the fact that individuals strive for such relationships with their peers and colleagues, and is successful in satisfying that particular need. Managers and employers frequently organize picnics and holiday parties. The manager as well maintains a strong relationship with the subordinates, where employees do not feel intimidated by him. The atmosphere is a very friendly one. Self-esteem is a person’s need to feel good about himself and his capabilities, and to be respected by others, and to receive recognition and appreciation. The manager narrated a brief story of an employee who started her job at the packaging department and was promoted to head of quality control within a span of 3 years. The company rewards productive employees and recognizes the effort they put into making quality crisps for customers. The manager shared with us a small secret that he often goes over surveillance videos to check the work of the employees and notice the pace at which every employee is working. The company also names at the end of each month an “Employee of the Month” and reward him for his efforts he contributed within the month to the organization. 11
  12. 12. Field ProjectMotivation at the Workplace According to Herzberg’s hygiene motivator’s theory, the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction and the opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction. Employee satisfaction is attributed to intrinsic factors such as recognition, achievement, said otherwise, the job content. Employee dissatisfaction is attributed to extrinsic factors such as pay, supervision, relationships with the employer or manager. We mentioned above that good employee performance is rewarded as well as recognized, thus employees are satisfied (and thus motivated). The manager explains that some employees have been working for this company for 20 years and others have been committed to the company for over 10 years. Why? Although the pay may not be high, their contribution to the organization is recognized and rewarded. . Moreover, in fantasia, the growth of the employee is possible. This keeps the employees motivated and satisfied. The manager gave the example of how getting a higher position like being the quality control manager , pushed the girls to be more productive and competitive to win the position.This explains why employees are motivated and satisfied. We also realized that managers designed jobs in a way to motivate employees. Considering that employees job at the Fantasia factory is extremely specialized, and thus might sometimes lead to stress or fatigue. Managers have executed a plan where employees rotate hourly, daily, weekly, and even monthly around the jobs and the departments in order to avoid the problem of overspecialization, thus every employee in the organization has the knowledge of the machines, the know-how of packaging and storing. Managers have thus enlarged the jobs by increasing the number as well as the frequency of the tasks, otherwise said, the scope of the job. The manager also communicates feedback to the employees to inform them how they’re doing on the job, and ways to improve the performance of the job to increase level of efficiency, a cornerstone to every manager and organization. The manager is well aware that by nature individuals tend to compare themselves to others, thus they ensure that employees are treated equally, because if employees perceive inequities within the organization their satisfaction levels drop and might also lead to drop in productivity levels. (We cannot deny the fact that there is a fairly strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity) The managers ensure that employees that are rewarded surely deserve this rewarding. Though, the company communicates to other employees how the particular employee has contributed positively (input). The manager gave us a look over a file the he keeps in his 12
  13. 13. Field ProjectMotivation at the Workplace office to note employee performance and uses surveillance cameras as a proof. He gave an example of a new employee who has proven to be working very effectively and efficiently on the machines and the manager has noted in the file that this employee is doing a good job. He could have given him a raise but his working experience in the factory (2 month) restricted the manager, but as a first step the recognition was satisfactory as well rewarding to the newly admitted employee. Finally we think that motivation is crucial and inevitable in the workplace, since employees are not going to deliver properly if they are not motivated. Managers must ensure that a context in which employees become motivated must be developed. This creation of a motivational atmosphere isonecharacteristicoftrueleadershipin managers. Mr. Zakidemonstrated true leadership due to his efforts to motivate the employees and constantly improve the workplace for them. Furthermore, we recommend that managers get to know their employees better and try to know what motivates them best and fulfill their needs accordingly. Managers must also be the ones who listen, understand, encourage their employees, for workers appreciate it when they are backed up by such strength and eventually become motivated in their workplace. “You have to encourage your employees to wake up in the morning and rush to work because they want to and not because they have to”, this quote according to Mr. Zaki is the essence of employee management and motivation. Motivation has proven to be a very hard task especially when it comes to low skilled employees, as the case of Fantasia. Mr. Zaki told us that managing employees is one of the difficult tasks in the business nowadays, and every day is a challenge. In all, it was an enriching experience and we got to learn a lot. Practice is very different from theory. We got to take a look at the inner workings of the factory, the employees, and to sit with a manager. I believe that this project is a great asset to our resumes in the future, and who knows maybe one of us will end up in the future working a production manager! The manager was very professional and cooperative that we actually had a hard time to criticize him or to point out anything negative about the factory or the manager. 13
  14. 14. Appendix:Motivation at the Workplace Appendix: Transcription: 1. How old is the business? The business started 22 years ago. 2. What is the difference between the first day of manufacturing and today’s manufacturing process?( number of labor , technology, managing, new products offered) When it started, there was only one line, the natural line. It was too small with a simple technology constituted of two machines only. Today, it has four different product lines with a more advanced technology constituted of more than 4 machines. 3. What’s the specific industry Fantasia is competing in? Fantasia is competing in the Potato chips industry. 4. Who are your current competitors? How do you differentiate yourself from those competitors? The only competitor of Fantasia is Master’s when it comes to quality. When it comes to cost, the foreigner products are stronger because they have a higher contribution margin. But in the market, they don’t constitute a threat or competitor to Fantasia. Master’s has a competitive advantage when it comes to the potato supply since they have their own lands in Beka’a; however, Fantasia was able to distinguish itself by the unique quality control that is superior to Masters and evident in the superior quality of the end product that is delivered to the customer. 5. How big is your company? ( employees, branches, factory) 14
  15. 15. Appendix:Motivation at the Workplace Fantasia is part of Malco Company, which is the head company of Hula Hoops(which is owned by Fantasia too), Mamma Mia, and Pain D’or as well. It has one factory in Chouiefat and 76 working labors. 6. What’s your current mission and what’s your vision of the future of your company? The philosophy is to serve a quality food within a very reasonable price. Our vision of the future is to increase the sales of fantasia by expanding in the market by adding more flavors and more products (tic- tac- toc, phantom and multi- grain) and more sizes (large, small and family size). 7. What’s your position in the company? And what are you responsible for exactly? Production manager of Fantasia, I'm responsible for the whole factory: employees, planning and development, ensuring the consistency of the product, praising and giving feedback, maintaining the standard level of quality work of the employees. 8. How did you become the manager of Fantasia? I used to work and study at the same tame. I'm an LAU graduate. I studied hospitality management and food science. I started working with restaurants then I began working in the food industry with one of the biggest diet food manufacturing. So I liked the manufacturing process. I stayed with them a very long time and I became the operation manager. After that, I became the Middle East training and operation manager. I started with Malco (Fantasia) two years ago at this position without prior promotion. 9. Why do you think you are the right person to manage the place? How have you contributed to this company? I have a lot of experience, I understand the food manufacturing process, and how we can improve our product further. Moreover, I'm very good at management and dealing with employees, giving them their full rights where they are pleased, motivated, directed and 15
  16. 16. Appendix:Motivation at the Workplace promoted in the right way. The most important thing that was missing was the stability of the product. Before I came, "today's production" was different than "tomorrow's production". They were lacking a quality control. The quality control department was present but was inefficient in comparison to today’s outcome. Today, the quality control job became more important. This was the change that I appended; the stability of the product by giving more importance to the quality control department. Furthermore, I added more firm rules when it comes to hygiene and sanitization and imposed more systematic basis to produce. 10. What is your management style to run this place (level of communication and relationship with employees: direct/friendly or professional/indirect)? My management style is delegation and observation. In a big factory like this, you can never succeed if you try to control every single detail in the factory. You need to delegate and empower, then you observe and track. If the employee is doing a good job you let everyone know that he is doing a good a job at this post as if the whole factory is doing a good job. In the factory we have the production manager, and four supervisors: maintenance supervisor, human resources supervisors, inventory supervisors, and the hygiene and sanitizing supervisor. We have two shifts, so we have another different supervisor working in the second shift (in the afternoon). We have the quality control, considered as a different independent department where there are no supervisors. In case of any absence of a supervisor, the latter should delegate his job to one of the employees. If not, he will be blamed for any slip in his absence. Plus there is a log book; its purpose is the communication between the employees in case of a technical or hygiene problem. 11. How fantasia expanded (if they expanded, and what strategy, any alliances) and do fantasia export? We already export, but we used to export more before the Syrian war. We used to have a market in the gulf and Iraq. But we stopped because of the political circumstances in Syria. But we still export to Africa. Fantasia doesn’t have any alliances. But we are currently investing in lands to reap a good quality potato crop. 16
  17. 17. Appendix:Motivation at the Workplace 12. Who are your distributors? Fantasia distributes its own products; the company owns its own trucks. They started on a very small basis. To eliminate costs and assure a successful value delivery network to our customers. 13. What do you consider as an achievement, do you measure achievements individually or in terms of the whole group-team? How do you reward achievers? Achievement is doing something beyond the task you are working on. Usually employees are rewarded for their efforts. 14. What methods of motivation techniques do you follow in order to ensure your employees are productive? The work at the factory is not exhausting: 6 days / week, 8 hours /day including a lunch break. Malco gives its employees all the rights, from "A to Z", that the Lebanese law grants the working power. Malco has its own busses to transport all employees from/to their homes. We have a very friendly atmosphere, I don't mind if they call me by my name without any titles. But when someone does something wrong, he knows that he must be punished, because in a big factory working with 76 employees, you cannot be lenient when it comes to breaking rules, because this is the way of keeping the control over the factory. We keep our employees interested in the job by doing a daily rotation. This means that every employee performs different tasks per day. These tactics has scored high in the motivation scale of the Fantasia employees and that’s why are always succeeding. 15. Which plays a greater role in motivating your employees: monetary or nonmonetary rewards? They both contribute to employee motivation. Nevertheless, I think it is relative and no employee portrays his work in the same way as the others. Some praise monetary rewards others favor the non-monetary ones. That’s why we keep kind of compensating between both. In fact, we carry out field trips that engage employees in social 17
  18. 18. Appendix:Motivation at the Workplace relationships outside the workplace. In addition, we organize the employee of the month delegation to admire those who are highly contributing to the fruitful outcome. 16. Do your motivation techniques vary based on the employee’s position in the company? It all depends on the efficiency. I don’t believe in the number of years and the experience. I can give an example. Let's do the comparison between two employees. The first one is doing his job since 10 years exactly in the same routine way every day. And the other is a new employee who does extra tasks or things without being told to do it. The second is more efficient and consequently you will motivate him to be more productive. And at a similar pace, you’ll reward and praise him better than the other employee. 17. Do you believe that motivating your employees has played a huge role in the success of your company? Of course, this is why we still have employees who are still working since 15 to 20 years till now. We operate in a 0% turnover environment; we keep employees happy to force them in an indirect way to keep our customers happy too. 18. Are employees encouraged to give their opinions on issues and to assist in decision making? As a manager, you must know that certain decisions permit us to consider employees’ opinions and participations in decision making especially when it comes to new products and flavors, employee opinions are primary and inevitable. But some issues cannot bear employees' opinion. Those issues must be implemented and based on the outcome and feedbacks, yet the decision might be modified based on the results. 19. In case of a new employee, how is he introduced to the work? The employee is conventionally attending an orientation session sometimes even two to 18
  19. 19. Appendix:Motivation at the Workplace get accustomed with every detail in the factory especially that our work necessitate rotation meaning that the employee must know everything rather than be restricted to his task exceptionally. The new employee rather attends the morning shift which doesn’t include a cleaning component. First the new employee will be partially indulging in all tasks being assisted by an employee and gradually starts to perform fully when he masters his tasks. 20. As a manger do you use Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in order to satisfy your employees? If so please give an example of how you satisfy each level. Malco has its own doctor, where the whole family of the employee can go and check their health for free (safety needs). In Fantasia, an employee can grow according to his efficiency yet his number of years working for fantasia is an important factor too. Everything is documented and the company tracks the employees’ performance and this allows us to recognize the efforts, in that case the higher their efficiency and efforts, the higher is their probability of getting a raise (esteem needs). When it comes to salaries, Fantasia pays its employees as a starting salary more than the government law has stated, in order to satisfy their financial needs more effectively (physiological need).Finally, Malco has never fired an employee even if there is a lack of efficiency (job security). 21. The factory operates until 11 pm which means that there must be a bulk of work to be done; how do manage the shifts between employees, do you apply overtime system during peak times (if any) and how are these employees paid , is there any bonuses and salaries? The team that works in the first shift is different than the one that functions in the second. The overtime isn’t permitted unless the manager decided that the quantity to be produced needs overtime hours to be completed. 22. Who gives feedback, how? Do you find it an efficient step to improve and motivate yourself as well as your employees? 19
  20. 20. Appendix:Motivation at the Workplace Personally, I encourage feedback that is internal before those external. After all, we’d prefer an unsatisfied inspector of the product line rather than an unsatisfied customer. My friendly and understanding character automatically triggers people to give feedback about anything in the purpose of improving our offerings and work conditions. 23. Is there any competition between the employees? Is that a positive or negative thing? There’s definitely a competition between our employees provided that internal promotion is always trending and we are in constant attention to each and everyone’s work to decide who the candidates are for a specific position are. Being a candidate, is another type of motivation our employees encompass where they become more productive, give their outmost effort, and try to improve their position in the workplace in one way or another. 24. What do you think fantasia lacks and need to be improved? I think that Fantasia lacks the necessary production capabilities even though it has improved its capacity greatly in comparison to the past. I think that the factory would better be rejuvenated and redesigned to increase the manufacturing ability since principally we’ve got the potential from the employees who are willing to give more to their Fantasia. Reference links http://business.time.com/2012/05/08/10-ways-to-motivate-anyone/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-23902918 http://www.rhsmith.umd.edu/smithbusiness/spring2010/KnowledgeTransfer/CrossCultural.aspx https://www.msu.edu/~dwong/StudentWorkArchive/CEP900F01-RIP/Webber-MotivationOverview.htm 20

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