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Week c


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Week c

  1. 1. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Foundations ofFoundations of MotivationMotivation Chapter Eight
  2. 2. 8-2 Employee Motivation Motivation  psychological processes cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed
  3. 3. 8-3 Employee Motivation Content theories of motivation  focus on identifying internal factors such as instincts, needs, satisfaction, and job characteristics that energize employee motivation. Process theories of motivation focus on explaining the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence employee motivation
  4. 4. 8-4 Overview of Motivation Theories
  5. 5. 8-5 Need Theories of Motivation Needs  Physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior.
  6. 6. 8-6 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory Motivation is a function of five basic needs – physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self- actualization Human needs emerge in a predictable stair- step fashion
  7. 7. 8-7 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
  8. 8. 8-8 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence needs (E)  the desire for physiological and materialistic wellbeing; Relatedness needs (R)  the desire to have meaningful relationships with significant others Growth needs (G)  the desire to grow as a human being and to use one’s abilities to their fullest potential
  9. 9. 8-9 Question? Rachel has the desire to accomplish something difficult? This relates to McClelland's need for A. Affiliation B. Achievement C. Power D. Glory
  10. 10. 8-10 McClelland’s Need Theory Need for achievement  Desire to accomplish something difficult. Need for affiliation  spend more time maintaining social relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be loved Need for power  Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve.
  11. 11. 8-11 McClelland’s Need Theory Achievement-motivated people share three common characteristics: 1. Preference for working on tasks of moderate difficulty 2. Preference for situations in which performance is due to their efforts 3. Desire more feedback on their successes and failures
  12. 12. 8-12 Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Model
  13. 13. 8-13 Herzberg’s Motivator–Hygiene Theory Motivators  job characteristics associated with job satisfaction Hygiene factors  job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction
  14. 14. 8-14 Adams’s Equity Theory of Motivation Equity theory  model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships
  15. 15. 8-15 Negative and Positive Inequity Negative inequity  Comparison in which another person receives greater outcomes for similar inputs. Positive inequity  Comparison in which another person receives lesser outcomes for similar inputs.
  16. 16. 8-16 Negative and Positive Inequity
  17. 17. 8-17 Practical Lessons from Equity Theory No matter how fair management thinks the organization’s policies, procedures, and reward system are, each employee’s perception of the equity of those factors is what counts. Managers benefit by allowing employees to participate in making decisions about important work outcomes
  18. 18. 8-18 Practical Lessons from Equity Theory Employees should be given the opportunity to appeal decisions that affect their welfare. Managers can promote cooperation and teamwork among group members by treating them equitably
  19. 19. 8-19 Practical Lessons from Equity Theory Employees’ perceptions of justice are strongly influenced by the leadership behavior exhibited by their managers Managers need to pay attention to the organization’s climate for justice.
  20. 20. 8-20 Question? At work, if Jamal's outcome to input ratio is greater than that of Tony's (his relevant co- worker), Jamal will experience A.Equity. B.No satisfaction. C.Positive inequity. D.High dissatisfaction.
  21. 21. 8-21 Goals: Definition and Background Goal  what an individual is trying to accomplish  object or aim of an action
  22. 22. 8-22 How Does Goal Setting Work Goals direct attention Goals regulate effort Goals increase persistence Goals foster the development and application of task strategies and action plans
  23. 23. 8-23 Practical Lessons from Goal-Setting Research 1. Specific high goals lead to greater performance  Goal specificity – quantifiability of a goal 1. Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals 2. Participative goals, assigned goals, and self-set goals are equally effective.
  24. 24. 8-24 Practical Lessons from Goal-Setting Research 4. Action planning facilitates goal accomplishment.  Action plan outlines the activities or tasks that need to be accomplished in order to obtain a goal. 4. Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal-setting outcomes  Goal commitment – extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal
  25. 25. 8-25 Top-Down Approaches Scientific management  that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning
  26. 26. 8-26 Top-Down Approaches Job enlargement  Involves putting more variety into a worker’s job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty. Job rotation  moving employees from one specialized job to another
  27. 27. 8-27 Top-Down Approaches Job enrichment  Building achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement into a job.
  28. 28. 8-28 The Job Characteristics Model