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Open Access For Subject Specialist Librarians


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This presentation about open access was given to subject specialist librarians at the University of Michigan on June 9th, 2008. It provides an introduction to open access, describes the various controversies surrounding open access, and offers strategies for faculty and librarians interested in improving access to scholarly work.

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Open Access For Subject Specialist Librarians

  1. 1. Information Wants to be Free: An Introduction to Open Access Selector Forum June 9, 2008
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Defining Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>A brief history of the Open Access movement </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Open Access news </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access and Libraries </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining Open Access
  4. 4. Budapest/Berlin/Bethesda Definition <ul><li>Free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be attributed properly. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Wikipedia Definition <ul><li>Free, immediate, permanent, full-text, online access, for any user, to digital scientific and scholarly material, primarily research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. </li></ul><ul><li>OA means that any user, anywhere, who has access to the Internet, may link, read, download, store, print, use, and data-mine the digital content of that article. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two main issues <ul><li>Who can access and read the work? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can use the work, and in what ways? </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody disputes that the first question is addressed by Open Access. The second question is still up for debate. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Two (and a half) Roads to OA <ul><li>Publish in Open Access journals </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit in institutional and subject repositories (author self-archiving) </li></ul><ul><li>2.5) Publish in hybrid journals that charge an additional fee to make articles OA. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Color-coded roads <ul><li>Gold OA : The publisher makes the material available free online, either as a result of an author fee or because the entire journal is OA. </li></ul><ul><li>Green OA : The author deposits the article in an institutional or subject-based online archive. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Defining versions <ul><li>Pre-print vs. post-print </li></ul><ul><li>Final peer-reviewed manuscript vs. final publisher version </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Open Access Movement A brief history
  11. 11. Why Open Access? <ul><li>Convergence of two major factors </li></ul><ul><li>The internet made it cheap and easy to share scholarly articles </li></ul><ul><li>The prices of journals were skyrocketing, and as a result very few people had access to most scholarly work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Early history of the OA movement <ul><li>Late 1980’s: The first online OA journals appeared </li></ul><ul><li>1991: arXiv, the first subject based online archive, was launched </li></ul><ul><li>1994: Highwire Press is launched at Stanford </li></ul><ul><li>1997: PubMed launched </li></ul><ul><li>1998: SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) launched by ARL </li></ul>
  13. 13. More recent history of the OA movement <ul><li>2000: BioMed Central, a for-profit OA publisher of science journals, is founded </li></ul><ul><li>2002: Open Society Institute launched the Budapest Open Access Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>2007: Congress passes NIH Public Access mandate </li></ul><ul><li>2008: Harvard faculty pass OA mandate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Related Movements <ul><li>Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Open Educational Resources (open.michigan) </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons </li></ul>
  15. 15. Common arguments against Open Access <ul><li>It will destroy the peer review/credentialing process (it won’t) </li></ul><ul><li>There is no quality assurance (there is) </li></ul><ul><li>It undermines copyright law (it doesn’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces perceived value of society memberships (it might) </li></ul><ul><li>It will put scholarly publishers out of business and destroy the traditional publishing model (well, it might actually, but not in a bad way). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Publisher reaction to OA mandates <ul><li>Last year, the Association of American Publishers (AAP) launched the Partnership for Research Integrity in Science and Medicine (PRISM) to fight OA mandates. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Recent Open Access News
  18. 18. Big headlines <ul><li>NIH Public Access Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Arts and Sciences faculty mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Law School mandate </li></ul><ul><li>Open Humanities Press launched </li></ul>
  19. 19. NIH Policy: Background <ul><li>Congress requested an NIH OA mandate in 2004; The NIH enacted a voluntary policy in 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Last year, U.S. House and Senate passed a bill that included mandatory OA deposit for NIH funded research, and Bush signed it into law. </li></ul><ul><li>The NIH held multiple comment periods inviting input from the public about implementation of the new law. The policy remains controversial. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The NIH Public Access Policy <ul><li>The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Complying with the mandate <ul><li>Many publishers are handling deposit </li></ul><ul><li>Some societies offer free deposit for members </li></ul><ul><li>The Library offers simple deposit using Deep Blue </li></ul>
  22. 22. Open Access and Libraries
  23. 23. Experiments with funding models <ul><li>Author pays </li></ul><ul><li>Grant and foundation funding </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional memberships </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising supported </li></ul><ul><li>Society-supported through conferences and individual membership dues </li></ul><ul><li>Library supported </li></ul>
  24. 24. What is UM doing about OA? <ul><li>Collection dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Publishing services </li></ul><ul><li>Repository service </li></ul><ul><li>Education and advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption of the Michigan clauses </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Michigan Clauses <ul><li>The author may re-use the work for… </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Future research and publication </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit in OA repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Posting on personal website </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional needs </li></ul><ul><li>To comply with external requirements </li></ul>
  26. 26. What can subject specialists do? <ul><li>Talk to your faculty about publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of OA journals in your subject area </li></ul><ul><li>Find out about publisher policies in your field </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage faculty to be aware of their rights and cautious about giving them away </li></ul>
  27. 27. How can faculty support OA? <ul><li>There’s more than just publishing in OA journals </li></ul><ul><li>Review for open access journals </li></ul><ul><li>Edit open access journals </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage societies to consider open access </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to colleagues about open access </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit in Deep Blue and subject repositories. </li></ul>
  28. 28. How to keep track of developments in OA <ul><li>Read a few key blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Keep an eye on established OA publishers </li></ul><ul><li>Follow the professional society in your field; some of them are contemplating a switch to OA for their publications </li></ul><ul><li>Directory of Open Access Journals, SHERPA/RoMEO </li></ul>