La Trobe University CRICOS Provider Code Number 00115M
Technology for the Scalability of
Co-Creation with Students
Dr. Mollie Dollinger
Associate Lecturer, Student Success
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Co-creation is an interaction
between two or more unique
stakeholders to jointly
integrate their respective
resources to provide greater
benefits to all stakeholders.
1. “Co-creation can be any creative and
collective activity” (Sanders and Stappers,
2. Co-creation can be between any two
stakeholder groups, or more
3. Co-creation brings together people’s
resources (e.g. perspectives, ideas)
however they may not be the same, nor
equal to one another (Bovill, 2013)
4. Co-creation is mutually beneficial act,
beyond a single person
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• Co-creating an online
• Co-creating online
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But what about scale?
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3. Prosumer Behavior
Three mechanisms for scalability of co-
creation in higher education
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What is crowdsourcing?
What are examples of
Able to scale
Easier to encourage participation
Generates lots of user ideas and
o Does not allow for student-staff
collaboration or dialogue
o Separates student and ‘expert’ ideas
o Could be to difficult to integrate the
o Volume of suggestions may detract
from quality suggestions
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Q. What is our campus missing?
• We need more healthy food options!
• More bookable study spaces
• Free parking
• A place where I can go to find out about possible future jobs
• More benches near the lake
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What is customisation?
What are examples of
Able to scale
Can be a relatively easy way to begin
giving students choice
Students can modify to their own
o Last stage modification
o Often superficial
o Preferences change, students may not
o Does not tap into students’ deep ideas
o May not benefit the group
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Customising Gathering and Reporting of Learning Analytics
1. What data would you be comfortable with us gathering?
2. Are you ok to have your data anonymized and aggregated to understand more about the
total student population?
3. Would you like us to use your data to predict your success in subjects?
4. How often would you like emails notifications or mobile push notifications about your data?
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What is prosumer
What are examples of
Able to scale
Students can create their own content
Students begin to think outward facing
for the group
Encourages a community to form
Support social engagement peer to peer
o Structure is still limiting
o Does not necessarily support student-
o Risk of inauthenticity (student/staff
ideas are equal?)
o Power disruptor
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Is co-creation scalable with technology?
Yes! But questions we need to explore:
• Does online co-creation result in the same benefits as in-person co-creation?
How do benefits (student and institutional) differ?
• To what extent can co-creation with technology help address transparency
and equity in student-staff partnerships?
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Bovill, C. (2013). Students and staff co-creating curricula: An example of good practice in higher education. The student
engagement handbook: Practice in higher education, 461-476.
Sanders, E. B. N., & Stappers, P. J. (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. Co-design, 4(1), 5-18.
And for examples in action check out:
Arthars, N., Dollinger, M., Vigentini, L., Liu, D., Kondo, E., & King, D. (forthcoming). Empowering Teachers to Personalise Learning
Support and Feedback. In Ifenthaler, D., Mah, D., Yau, J. (Eds). Utilising Learning Analytics to Support Student Success. Springer.
Gros, B., & López, M. (2016). Students as co-creators of technology-rich learning activities in higher education. International
Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 1-13.
Khosravi, H., Cooper, K., & Kitto, K. (2017). Riple: Recommendation in peer-learning environments based on knowledge gaps
and interests. JEDM: Journal of Educational Data Mining, 9(1), 42-67.
Lately there has been a growing focus on CC. With universities like Western Syd, Queensland, Murdoch, and my own institution LTU, pushing for university-wide co-creation/or partnering with students.
In today’s talk I’m going to discuss one overlooked area within this phenomenon, which is how we could harness technology to support the scalability of co-creation.
Briefly talk about co-creation
But want to focus on practical application today, rather than conceptualisation
But like I said while we’ve seen a lot of examples. Such as Sally Varnham’s work of CC in governance, or work from Peter Felten/Alison Cook-Sather on CC/SaP with students acting as teaching consultants--- we haven’t seen many examples that use technology.
And particularly examples that use tech to expand CC to a greater population.
That’s not to say there are no examples.. Here are two that I’ve come across already.
….research project allowed students and staff to co-create a Moodle environment for marketing subjects (Navarro-Garcia, Peris-Ortiz & Rueda-Armengot, 2015). Transparency was a fundamental principle in the project, and all participants were encouraged to share ideas about what the platform should be and what resources it should hold (e.g. databases, blogs, tasks, wiki). The evaluated benefits of such were that both students and staff were more satisfied with the results and students also expressed other key benefits such as experience in teamwork (Navarro-Garcia, Peris-Ortiz & Rueda-Armengot, 2015).
Another example, also from Spain, comes from Gros and Lopez (2016) who utilised students and staff for the co-creation of technology-enabled resources for a subject….where participants brainstormed and gave suggestions on digital resources that could be used by teachers. Students in this activity expressed greater self-management of their learning and greater levels of communication.
****In both activities findings indicated not only innovation (i.e. better Moodle, resources), but teamwork, greater self-management and confidence in communication.
However while these examples used online platforms to communicate and towards tech, they still didn’t allow for scale.
Same road-block… scale.
Distributed problem-solving and production model that encourages user participation Examples could include crowdsourcing new ideas for 2019 projects on campus, what guest speakers would you like to see, what should a new building include?
Final stage modification (earlier would be co-design) Could include editing student ID cards, choosing LMS layout or design, selecting settings on notifications Larger examples would be customising courses, students selecting teaching modes Another example is personalised emails, e.g. SRES
User produced content Famous examples are twitter, Facebook Examples include student creating social media content (blogs, tweets), and students providing quiz questions and answers (plus a recommender system), student co-creating learning resources