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Cross-features & normative assets of Smart cities & Industry 4.0


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State of art of Smart city and Industry 4.0 evolution and standardization process.

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Cross-features & normative assets of Smart cities & Industry 4.0

  1. 1. CROSS-FEATURES&NORMATIVE ASSETSOFSMARTCITIES& INDUSTRY4.0 Mokhtar BEN HENDA Bordeaux-Montaigne University, France Hanoï, 14 November 2018
  2. 2. Smartsystems conceptual framework Generation layering of systems intelligence:  Intelligent Web  Smart city  Smart factory  Smart society Artificial Intelligence pedigrees  Algorithms  Iot (IIot)
  3. 3. Web 1.0 – The static web Web 2.0 – The writing and participating web (Collaborative, social networks) Web 3.0 – The semantic web  Semantic markup to provide context to data  web service to support computer-to-computer interaction over the Internet. Web 4.0 (5.0) - Open, Linked and Intelligent Web = Emotional Web (“symbiotic” web)  Communicates with us like we communicate with each other  Implies Artificial Intelligence (Smart) Industry 1.0 – machine power Industry 2.0 - technological revolution (electricity) Industry 3.0 – digital era Calculators and computers in the production process Development of communication technologies Machines abolish the need for human power. Industry 4.0 (5.0) – Smart factories Machine no longer need manpower; IoT allows a product factory to manage itself virtually; Prevalence of algorithms & AI Smart Cities 1.0: Technology Driven Smart Cities 2.0: Technology Enabled, City-Led Smart Cities 3.0: Citizen co- creation  Active citizens in local projects Smart city 4.0 (5.0?) - Co- Innovation  Develop skills for Industry 4.0  Implementations of AI, IoT, Big Data and Cloud on City Planning and Development  Improving Citizens’ Lifestyle with Smart Utilities The“4.0”generationparadigm:intelligentsystems
  4. 4. Thewebgenerations:crossingthechasm! Web 5.0: Emotive (Neurotechnology) 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
  5. 5. TheIndustrialgenerations...backtorealworld 4. Industrial revolution Based on cyber- physical- systems 3. Industrial revolution Through the use of electronics and IT further progression in autonomous production 2. Industrial revolution Introducing mass production lines powered by electric energy 1. Industrial revolution Introducing mechanical production machines powered by water and steam End of the 18th century. Beginning of the 20th century Beginning of the 70th Industry 1.0 Industry 3.0Industry 2.0 Industry 4.0 Levelofcomplexity Today Source: DFKI/Bauer IAO Shift Back from cyber to real environment 2015 5. Industrial revolution through a closer cooperation between man and machine (Cobots)
  6. 6. Industry5.0…backtorealworld Priority: apply efficiently combined workforce of machines and people (Co-working) The disruption: Industry 4.0 valorizes best quantity and mass production; Industry 5.0 valorizes quality of life standard, creativity and high- quality custom-made products (personalized). COBOT or co-robot (from collaborative robot) is a robot intended to physically interact with humans in a shared workspace.
  7. 7. Smartcitygenerations…theCitizenaskeystakeholder Smart Cities 1.0: Technology Driven  Adoption of technology solutions (tech-driven futuristic urban vision);  Driven by private sector technology companies (Maket incentives);  Missing out on how cities interact with their citizens (no public polict) Smart Cities 2.0: Technology Enabled, City-Led  Led by cities, as opposed to technology providers;  Technology solutions as enablers to improve quality of life;  Barcelona: more than 20 smart-citiy-program areas and literally more than 100 active smart-citiy-projects (public Wi-Fi, intelligent lighting, electric vehicle charging infrastructure, etc. Smart Cities 3.0: Citizen co-creation  Citizens as investors in local projects for co-creation of improved quality of life;  Example: Vancouver Greenest City 2020 Action Plan: 30,000 citizens involved. A Smart City 4.0?  A unique initiative that will develop skills for Industry 4.0 (Berkley University project)  Accelerates technologies from young innovators, start-ups and large corporations to create the best solutions for making cities smart, safe and sustainable. . The 3 Generations Of Smart Cities. Fast Company Newslerter, October 2015 ?
  8. 8. Smartcity5.0:Barcelonavirtualmodel Source:
  9. 9. Industry4.0 aspartofSmartcity Conjunction of the Smart City Initiative and the concept of Industry 4.0 through:  Cyber-Physical System (CPS): networking machines and components;  Internet of Things (IoT): a network of physical products embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity allowing collection and exchange of data  Internet of Services (IoS): advanced connectivity of devices and products via machine-to-machine (M2M) or human-to-machine (H2M) communications  Internet of People (IoP): Cyber-Physical System with enhanced, people-centric applications (health monitoring, social networks enhancement)  Internet of Energy (IoEn): integrated dynamic network infrastructure interconnecting energy network with the Internet  Internet of Everything (IoEv):
  10. 10. Smartsociety5.0,a‘New‘concept? Proposed in the 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan (Japan, 2016) as a future society for Japan. A natural evolution from: Society 1.0: Hunting(prehistoric), Society 2.0: Agricultural (Human settlement), Society 3.0 (18th Century Industrial revolution) Society 4.0 (20th Century Information Society) Society 5.0 : A human-centered society by a system that highly integrates cyberspace and physical space Sensors  Big data  AI  Data Analysis  Feedback to humans in different forms (DataViz) Source:
  11. 11. Intelligence,acommonkeyconceptof«4.0»generations Intelligence in smart materials, systems and machines: Awareness and reaction are key attributes of smart technology;  Ability to sense changes in the technological environment and autonomous reaction to execute measures to adapt to the change (Machine/Deep Learning);  Use of coherent systems of sensing and measurement; All is made with devices, algorithms and processes Worden, K., Bullough, W. A., & Haywood, J. (2003). Smart Technologies. World Scientific.
  12. 12. Algorithms,thepedigreeofintelligence(humanandartificial) An algorithm is a way of reasoning (if…then…else // for … do, …); Our behaviors are all based on cognitive ‘algorithms’ (reasoning with inferences, correlations, analogies…); Algorithms are an ubiquitous part of our lives (social and cultural) A kitchen receipt, A friendship code, A marketing process, … everything starting from xxx to conclusion Leo Hickman, The Guardian, 1 Jul 2013
  13. 13. Algorithms,thepedigreeofintelligence(humanandartificial) Artificial: mathematical instructions for computers to instruct “a step-by-step procedure for calculations” (Wikipedia) Memex machine of Vanevar Bush (As we may think, 1945) Turing test (1950): whether or not computer(machine) can think intelligently like human Some computer algorithms are designed to allow computers to learn on their own (i.e., facilitating machine learning and automated reasoning)  Deep Learning  Intelligence !
  14. 14. InternetofThings:conveysArticialintelligence New IoT solutions have in- built AI capabilities from the beginning Smart objects: Interact automatically with people & other Smart Objects; Interact automatically with physical and virtual world At the very base of Smart cities and Internet 4.0 Source : Angelique Kramer. Erb's Technology Sollutions, 2017
  15. 15. WhatmakesSmartcities«Intelligent»:(SmartCityWheel) Six action areas of intelligent objects 1.Smart economy 2.Smart governance 3.Smart environment 4.Smart mobility 5.Smart population 6.Smart living environment Source [Boyd Cohen, “The Smartest Cities in the World 2015: Methodology”, Nov. 2014]
  16. 16. SmartCityKeyPerformanceIndicators(KPI) Source:
  17. 17. EuropeanCommissionSmartcityKPIs Indicators for the evaluation framework is based on an inventory of the needs of cities and citizens: People 1.Encouraging a healthy lifestyle 2.Waiting time 3. Quality of public transport 4.Improved flexibility in delivery services 5.Increased environmental awareness 6.Improved digital literacy 7.People reached 8. Increased participation of vulnerable groups 9.Increased use of groundfloors Planet 1.Life time extension 2.Reduction in water consumption 3.Self-suffiency – Water 4.Self-suffiency – Food Prosperity 1.Certified companies involved in the project 2.Green public procurement 3.Stimulating an innovation environment 4.Quality of open data Governance 1.Involvement of the city administration 2.Bottom-up or top-down initiative 3.Participatory governance Propagation 1.Smart city project visitors Source: 24-01-2017
  18. 18. Differentcitycontexts,differentclasssifications Each city develops its own vision of intelligence; Each city meet special needs and face particular challenges; Each city has its own experience with Smart systems;
  19. 19. WhatmakesIndustry4.0«Intelligent»:(I4.0Wheel) Nine smart system-areas 1.Cybersecurity 2.Augmented reality 3.Big Data 4.Robots 5.Additive manufacturing 6.Simulation 7.System integration 8.Could computing 9.IoT Source [Boyd Cohen, “The Smartest Cities in the World 2015: Methodology”, Nov. 2014]
  20. 20. Industry4.0KeyPerformanceIndicators(KPI) KPIs are metrics that include business dimensions like customer, financial and process- related views of the business, along with measurement factors like cost, productivity and quality.. Source:
  21. 21. SmartemergentICT:innovationmeasuringsystems Smart systems should be based on innovative technologies; Successful Smart systems should be based on good knowledge of the lifestyles, cultures, behaviors and needs of the population; Gartner Inc. is an information technology (IT) research and consultancy company that provides insights about emerging technologies and their market impact
  22. 22. GartnerHypeCycleofemergingtechnologies,2018 Emerging technologies for 2018
  23. 23. GartnerHypeCycleofemergenttechnologies,2017 Emerging technologies for 2017
  24. 24. GartnerHypeCycleofArtificialIntelligence2017 Emerging technologies related with Artifical Intelligence for 2017
  25. 25. HypeCyclefor InternetofThings,2017 Emergent technologies related with Internet of Things for 2017
  26. 26. HypeCyclefor Smartcities,2012 Emergent technologies related with Smart cities for 2012
  27. 27. Standards  Standardization bodies  Smart city standardization  Industry 4.0 standardization
  28. 28. Standardizationbodies
  29. 29. Maingoalsofstandardizationprocess Interoperability among networks, sensors, and heterogeneous systems; Capability of two or more networks, systems, devices, applications, or components to share and readily use information securely and effectively with little or no inconvenience to the user; Convergence of different technologies A process by which telecommunications, information technology and the media, sectors that originally operated largely independent of one another, are growing together.” (Papadakis, 2007). Smart phone is a good example of converging several technologies, communication and broadcast media into one device (mobile phone, camera, mp3 player, etc.)
  30. 30. Smartcity standards
  31. 31. SmartCitymainStandardizationbodies ISO : International Standards Organisation; Advisory Group on the Smart Cities Strategy (ISO-AGSC); Technical Committee 268: Sustainable Development in Communities IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission: International Standards for All Electrical, Electronic and Related Technologies; ITU: International Telecommunications Union; Focus Group on Smart and Sustainable Cities (FG-SSC); CEN/CENELEC/ETSI : Coordination Group focused on smart and sustainable cities and communities; CEN: European Committee for Standardization; CENELEC: European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization; ETSI: European Telecommunications Standards Institute.
  32. 32. SmartCityStandardsproductionprocess Strategic: advice on the process of developing an intelligent and effective global strategy for SCs (priorities, roadmap, monitoring and evaluation of progress); Process: Acquisition and management of SC projects, best practices and associated guidelines; Techniques: implementation of products and services Source : [BSI (2015), "Smart cities overview – Guide", BSI Standards Publication, PD 8100:2015]
  33. 33. SmartCityStandardizationcooperationprocess Integrated approach: a global network rather than a set of distinct sectors, Source : [BSI (2015), "Smart cities overview – Guide", BSI Standards Publication, PD 8100:2015]
  34. 34. SmartCityStandardizationcooperationprocess
  35. 35. Liaisonbetweenstandardizationbodies Source : Sustainability 2016, 8(3), 206;
  36. 36. (IFP)
  37. 37. Industry4.0 standards
  38. 38. OverviewofIndustry4.0standards
  39. 39. OverviewofIndustry4.0keystandardsproducers
  40. 40. DIN(Germany):aleaderinIndustry4.0standardization The Standardization Council has the task to coordinate standardization and regulation work in the field of Industrie 4.0 in Germany and beyond. The Plattform Industrie 4.0 primary objectives : To secure and develop Germany’s top international position in industrial manufacturing To produced the “Reference Architectural Model Industrie 4.0 » (RAMI 4.0) as a reference architecture model to implement Industry 4.0 solution.
  41. 41. ReferenceArchitecturalModelIndustrie4.0(RAMI4.0) Architecture that offers the capabilities to connect things even though they should come from different sources and design in using administration shell as digital interface (Interoperability). Source:
  42. 42. ReferenceArchitecturalModelIndustrie4.0(RAMI4.0) Source: A set of fondamental standards are proposed within the framework of RAMI 4.0, related with:  Safety / Security / Semantics / Hierarchy levels / Information Layer / Communication layer / Digital Factory / Configuration / Life-cycle / Condition / Energy
  43. 43. Buildingsmartcities&Industry4.0inVietnam Clear Government directions on using the advantages of Industry 4.0 and ICT infrastructure. Major ICT and telecom groups such as Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group (VNPT), Viettel, FPT and CMC Corporation have been setting up departments specializing in studying and developing technological applications and smart urban area solutions. Vietnam has several advantages:  Most public services are now online (88%),  Good telecommunication infrastructure,  High rate of internet users (54% of the country’s population),  In 2016, Vietnam ranked 79th among the 139 countries in networked readiness index (NRI) and 3rd in terms of telecommunications affordability. However, still difficulties in building smart urban areas, especially for limited capital and lack of international standards At the recent Industry 4.0 Summit and Expo 2018 in Hanoi, Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc said Vietnam is ready to overcome any challenges ahead, moving forward to grasp opportunities presented by Industry 4.0. He said Vietnam has been researching new global technologies – such as the Internet of Things, big data and artificial intelligence – to improve its competitiveness and boost innovation. Source: The Voice of Vietnam, Monday, 07/16/2018. Le Quoc Huu, Chief Architect of Smart City of mobile network operator Viettel: The Voice of Vietnam, Monday, 07/16/2018
  44. 44. Somerecommendations Smart cities is one of the multiple challenges of XXIst C. Acting with combined strategy of Revolution 4.0 and Smart cities improves quality of life, developing prosperity; Recommendations to help Vietnam to capture the opportunities offered by both technologies: 1. Legal framework, 2. Science & Technology development in combination with human resource development (refined skills), 3. Developing communications industry, 4. Subscribing into international standards, 5. Strengthening international cooperation, 6. Creating a dynamic business environment that promotes pervasive and ubiquitous smart technologies in the society ... VASS: International Workshop "Industrial Revolution 4.0: opportunities and challenges for Europe and experiences for Vietnam“, October 26, cities-in-vietnam-vision-and-solutions-6.html