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  1. 1. YOGA 2014-15
  2. 2. Yoga comes from the Sanskrit word ‘Yuj’ which means to unite or to join. People generally think that yoga is a series of exercises with twisted body poses, it is not so. The main aim of Yoga is to help one connect with one’s inner spirit, which is connected to the universal spirit or God. Yoga creates a balance between the body and the mind and to attain self-enlightenment. Yoga brings stability to the body and the wavering mind. In order to accomplish it, Yoga makes use of different movements, breathing exercises, relaxation technique and meditation. Yoga is associated with a healthy and lively lifestyle with a balanced approach to life.
  3. 3. It is the union between the mind, body and spirit. It involves the practice of physical postures and poses, which is referred to as ‘Asana’ in Sanskrit. Our modern day lifestyle is too hectic and puts a lot of stress on us which in turn causes a lot of life style problems like obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes etc. Yoga is the answer to all these problems. It offers harmless solutions to these problems in the form of relaxation. Studies in the field of medicine suggest that Yoga is the only form of physical activity that provides complete exercise to the body as it incorporates different aspects of science, philosophy and art.
  4. 4. It is one of the most effective and integrated systems for gaining control and experiencing supreme joy in life. It helps one achieve optimum physical and psychological health. It is a system of physical, mental and spiritual techniques and is a practical, lively approach to life. It is the master key to open the realms of everlasting bliss and deep-residing peace. Major branches of Yoga in Hindu philosophy include Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Hatha Yoga. Yoga has gained immense popularity during the last few years and today over 30 million people practice Yoga on regular basis. Yoga is the most rapidly growing health movement of today, despite having existed for thousands of years already.
  5. 5. The 4 paths of yoga Jnana yoga Bhakti yoga Karma Yoga Raja yoga Jnana Yoga: Jnana Yoga is the path of knowledge, wisdom, introspection and contemplation. It involves deep exploration of the nature our being by systematically exploring and setting aside false identities. Bhakti Yoga: Bhakti Yoga is the path of devotion, emotion, love, compassion, and service to God and others. All actions are done in the context of remembering the Divine. Karma Yoga: Karma Yoga is the path of action, service to others, mindfulness, and remembering the levels of our being while fulfilling our actions or karma in the world. Raja Yoga: Raja Yoga is a comprehensive method that emphasizes meditation, while encompassing the whole of Yoga. It directly deals with the encountering and transcending thoughts of the mind.
  6. 6. History of Yoga
  7. 7. The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. It may have pre-Vedic origins. Several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization sites depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose. Ascetic practices, concentration and bodily postures used by Vedic priests to conduct Vedic ritual of fire sacrifice may have been precursors to yoga. Pre-philosophical speculations of yoga begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE. Between 200 BCE–500 CE philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge. The Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Yoga came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid 19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy.
  8. 8. 1. Origins The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. According to Crangle, Indian researchers have generally favoured a linear theory, which attempts "to interpret the origin and early development of Indian contemplative practices as a sequential growth from an Aryan genesis", just like traditional Hinduism regards the Vedas to be the source of all spiritual knowledge. Other scholars acknowledge the possibility of non-Aryan components. Some argue that yoga originates in the Indus Valley Civilization. According to Zimmer, Yoga is part of the pre-Vedic heritage, which also includes Jainism, Samkhya and Buddhism. Samuel argues that yoga derives from the Śramana tradition. Gavin Flood notes that such "dichotomization is too simplistic".
  9. 9. 2. Indus Valley Civilization Several seals discovered at Indus Valley Civilization sites, dating to the mid 3rd millennium BCE, depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose, showing "a form of ritual discipline, suggesting a precursor of yoga," according to archaeologist Gregory Possehl. Ramaprasad Chanda, who supervised Indus Valley Civilization excavations, states that, not only the seated deities on some of the Indus seals are in yoga posture and bear witness to the prevalence of yoga in the Indus Valley Civilization in that remote age, the standing deities on the seals also show Kayotsarga (a standing posture of meditation) position. It is a posture not of sitting but of standing. Ramaprasad Chanda (an Indian historian and archaeologist from Bengal)
  10. 10. Some type of connection between the Indus Valley seals and later yoga and meditation practices is speculated upon by many scholars, though there is no conclusive evidence. Many scholars associate the Pashupati seal with Shiva. Prior to the end of the first millennium CE, detailed descriptions of āsanas were nowhere to be found in the Indian textual record. In the light of this, any claim that sculpted images of cross-legged figures—including those represented on the famous clay seals from third millennium BCE Indus Valley archeological sites—represent yogic postures are speculative at best. Male figure in a crossed legs posture on a mold of a seal from the Indus valley civilization
  11. 11. 3. Vedic period  Textual references According to White, the first use of the word "yoga" is in the Rig Veda, where it denotes a yoke, but also a war chariot. Yoga is discussed quite frequently in the Upanishads, many of which predate Patanjali's Sutras. The actual term "yoga" first occurs in the Katha Upanishad and later in the Shvetasvatara Upanishad. An early reference to meditation is made in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the earliest Upanishad (c. 900 BCE). In the Mahabarata yoga comes to mean "a divine chariot that carried him upward in a burst of light to and through the sun, and on to the heaven of gods and heroes." English version of Katha Upanishad
  12. 12.  Ascetic practices Ascetic practices (tapas), concentration and bodily postures used by Vedic priests to conduct yajna (Vedic ritual of fire sacrifice), might have been precursors to yoga. Vratya, a group of ascetics mentioned in the Atharva veda, emphasized on bodily postures which probably evolved into yogic asanas. Early Vedic Samhitas also contain references to other group ascetics such as, Munis, the Keśin, and Vratyas. Techniques for controlling breath and vital energies are mentioned in the Brahmanas (ritualistic texts of the Vedic corpus, c. 1000– 800 BCE) and the Atharvaveda. Nasadiya Sukta of the Rig Veda suggests the presence of an early contemplative tradition. The Vedic Samhitas contain references to ascetics, and ascetic practices known as (tapas) are referenced in the Brāhmaṇas (900 BCE and 500 BCE), early commentaries on the Vedas. The Rig Veda, the earliest of the Hindu scripture mentions the practice.Yoga asanas were first prescribed by the ancient Vedic texts thousands of years ago and are said to directly enliven the body's inner intelligence.
  13. 13. 4. Pre-classical era Diffused pre-philosophical speculations of yoga begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE such as the middle Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and Moksha-dharma of the Mahabharata. The terms samkhya and yoga in these texts refer to spiritual methodologies rather than the philosophical systems which developed centuries later.  Upanishads Alexander Wynne, author of The Origin of Buddhist Meditation, observes that formless meditation and elemental meditation might have originated in the Upanishadic tradition. The earliest reference to meditation is in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads. Chandogya Upanishad describes the five kinds of vital energies (prana). Concepts used later in many yoga traditions such as internal sound and veins (nadis) are also described in the Upanishad. Taittiriya Upanishad defines yoga as the mastery of body and senses.
  14. 14. The term "yoga" first appears in the Hindu scripture Katha Upanishad (a primary Upanishad c. 400 BCE) where it is defined as the steady control of the senses, which along with cessation of mental activity, leads to the supreme state. Katha Upanishad integrates the monism of early Upanishads with concepts of samkhya and yoga. It defines various levels of existence according to their proximity to the innermost being Ātman. Yoga is therefore seen as a process of interiorization or ascent of consciousness. It is the earliest literary work that highlights the fundamentals of yoga. Shvetashvatara Upanishad (c. 400-200 BCE) elaborates on the relationship between thought and breath, control of mind, and the benefits of yoga.
  15. 15. Like the Katha Upanishad the transcendent Self is seen as the goal of yoga. This text also recommends meditation on Om as a path to liberation. Maitrayaniya Upanishad(c. 300 BCE) formalizes the six fold form of yoga. Physiological theories of later yoga make an appearance in this text. While breath channels (nāḍis) of yogic practices had already been discussed in the classical Upanishads, it was not until the eighth- century Buddhist Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti, that hierarchies of chakras were introduced. Further systematization of yoga is continued in the Yoga Upanishads of the Atharvaveda (viz., Śāṇḍilya, Pāśupata, Mahāvākya).
  16. 16.  Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita ('Song of the Lord'), uses the term "yoga" extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter (ch. 6) dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation, it introduces three prominent types of yoga:  Karma yoga: The yoga of action.  Bhakti yoga: The yoga of devotion.  Jnana yoga: The yoga of knowledge. The Bhagavad Gita
  17. 17. In Chapter 2 of the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains to Arjuna about the essence of yoga as practiced in daily lives: योगस्थ: कु रु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्तत्वम धनंजय । ससद्ध्यससद्ध्यो: सर्ो भूत्वम सर्त्वं योग उच्यते ।। (yoga-sthaḥ kuru karmani sanyugam tyaktvā dhananjay siddhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhutvā samatvam yoga ucyate) - Bhagavad Gita 2.48 [A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada translates it as "Be steadfast in yoga (yoga-sthaḥ), O Arjuna. Perform your duty (kuru karmani) and abandon all attachment (sangam) to success or failure (siddhy- asiddhyoḥ). Such evenness of mind (samatvam) is called yoga." ] Krishna narrating the Gita to Arjuna.
  18. 18.  Mahabharata Description of an early form of yoga called nirodha–yoga (yoga of cessation) is contained in the Mokshadharma section of the 12th chapter (Shanti Parva) of the Mahabharata epic. The verses of the section are dated to c. 300–200 BCE. Nirodha– yoga emphasizes progressive withdrawal from the contents of empirical consciousness such as thoughts, sensations etc. until purusha (Self) is realized. Terms like vichara (subtle reflection), viveka (discrimination) and others which are similar to Patanjali's terminology are mentioned, but not described. There is no uniform goal of yoga mentioned in the Mahabharata. Separation of self from matter, perceiving Brahman everywhere, entering into Brahman etc. are all described as goals of yoga. Samkhya and yoga are conflated together and some verses describe them as being identical. Moksha dharma also describes an early practice of elemental meditation. Mahabharata being narrated by Vedvyas and written by Lord Ganesha.
  19. 19. 5. Classical yoga During the period between the Mauryan and the Gupta era (c. 200 BCE–500 CE) philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge.  Early Buddhist texts Werner notes that "only with Buddhism itself as expounded in the Pali Canon" do we have the oldest preserved comprehensive yoga practice: "But it is only with Buddhism itself as expounded in the Pali Canon that we can speak about a systematic and comprehensive or even integral school of Yoga practice, which is thus the first and oldest to have been preserved for us in its entirety" Another yoga system that predated the Buddhist school is Jain yoga. But since Jain sources postdate Buddhist ones, it is difficult to distinguish between the nature of the early Jain school and elements derived from other schools. Most of the other contemporary yoga systems alluded in the Upanishads and some Pali canons are lost to time. Pali canons- Collection of scriptures
  20. 20. The early Buddhist texts describe meditative practices and states, some of which the Buddha borrowed from the ascetic (shramana) tradition. One key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption must be combined with liberating cognition. Meditative states alone are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest meditative state is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some sort of mental activity must take place: a liberating cognition, based on the practice of mindful awareness. The Buddha also departed from earlier yogic thought in discarding the early Brahminic notion of liberation at death. While the Upanishads thought liberation to be a realization at death of a nondual meditative state where the ontological duality between subject and object was abolished, Buddha's theory of liberation depended upon this duality because liberation to him was an insight into the subject's experience. The Pali canon contains three passages in which the Buddha describes pressing the tongue against the palate for the purposes of controlling hunger or the mind, depending on the passage. However there is no mention of the tongue being inserted into the nasopharynxas in true khecarī mudrā. The Buddha used a posture where pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, similar to even modern postures used to stimulate Kundalini.
  21. 21. Samkhya Samkhya emerged in the first century CE. When Patanjali systematized the conceptions of yoga, he set them forth on the background of the metaphysics of samkhya, which he assumed with slight variations. In the early works, the yoga principles appear together with the samkhya ideas. Vyasa's commentary on the Yoga Sutras, also called the Samkhyapravacanabhasya (Commentary on the Exposition of the Sankhya Philosophy), brings out the intimate relation between the two systems. Yoga agrees with the essential metaphysics of samkhya, but differs from it in that while samkhya holds that knowledge is the means of liberation, yoga is a system of active striving, mental discipline, and dutiful action. Yoga also introduces the conception of god. Sometimes Patanjali's system is referred to as Seshvara Samkhya in contradistinction to Kapila's Nirivara Samkhya.
  23. 23.  Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Pada (Chapter) English meaning Sutras Samadhi Pada On being absorbed in spirit 51 Sadhana Pada On being immersed in spirit 55 Vibhuti Pada On supernatural abilities and gifts 56 Kaivalya Pada On absolute freedom 34 In Hindu philosophy, yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox (which accept the testimony of Vedas) philosophical schools. The yoga school was founded by Patanjali. Karel Werner, author of Yoga And Indian Philosophy, believes that the process of systematization of yoga which began in the middle and Yoga Upanishads culminated with the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Scholars also note the influence of Buddhist and Samkhyan ideas on the Yoga Sutras.
  24. 24. Patanjali's Yoga Sutras reminds us of Buddhist formulations from the Pāli canon,Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma and Sautrāntika. The yoga school accepts the samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than the samkhya, as evidenced by the addition of a divine entity to the samkhya's twenty-five elements of reality. The parallels between yoga and samkhya were so close that Max Müller says that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord....”. The intimate relationship between samkhya and yoga is explained by Heinrich Zimmer: These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline. Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage ("bandha"), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release ("mokṣa"), while yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or "isolation-integration" ("kaivalya").
  25. 25. Traditional Hindu depiction of Patanjali as an avatar of the divine serpent Shesha.
  26. 26.  Yoga Yajnavalkya संयोगो योग इत्युक्ततो जीवमत्र्परर्मत्र्नोोः॥ saṁyogo yoga ityukto jīvātma-paramātmanoḥ॥ Union of the self (jivātma) with the Divine (paramātma) is said to be yoga. —Yoga Yajnavalkya The Yoga Yajnavalkya is a classical treatise on yoga attributed to the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya. It takes the form of a dialogue between Yajnavalkya and his wife Gargi, a renowned female philosopher. The text contains 12 chapters and its origin has been traced to the period between the second century BCE and fourth century CE. Many yoga texts like the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, theYoga Kundalini and the Yoga Tattva Upanishads have borrowed verses from or make frequent references to theYoga Yajnavalkya. In the Yoga Yajnavalkya, yoga is defined as jivatmaparamatmasamyogah, or the union between the individual self (jivatma) and the Divine (paramatma).
  27. 27. "Goddess Saraswati appears before Yajnavalkya" (early 20th-century devotional illustration)
  28. 28. Jainism According to Tattvarthasutra, 2nd century CE Jain text, yoga is the sum of all the activities of mind, speech and body. Umasvati calls yoga the cause of "asrava" or karmic influx as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation. In his Niyamasara, Acarya Kundakunda, describes yoga bhakti—devotion to the path to liberation—as the highest form of devotion. Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion. The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali bear a resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a history of strong cross-fertilization between these traditions. Mainstream Hinduism's influence on Jain yoga is noticed as Haribhadra founded his eightfold yoga and aligned it with Patanjali's eightfold yoga.
  29. 29. Tirthankara Parsva in Yogic meditation in the Kayotsarga posture.
  30. 30.  Yogacara School In the late phase of Indian antiquity, on the eve of the development of Classical Hinduism, the Yogacara movement arises during the Gupta period (4th to 5th centuries). Yogacara received the name as it provided a "yoga," a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva. The yogacara sect teaches "yoga" as a way to reach enlightenment. Maitreya Bodhisattva and disciples. Gandhāra, 3rd century CE
  31. 31. 6. Middle Ages Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Hatha yoga emerged as a dominant practice of yoga in this period.  Bhakti movement The Bhakti movement was a development in medieval Hinduism which advocated the concept of a personal God (or "Supreme Personality of Godhead"). The movement was initiated by the Alvars of South India in the 6th to 9th centuries, and it started gaining influence throughout India by the 12th to 15th centuries. Shaiva and Vaishnava bhakti traditions integrated aspects of Yoga Sutras, such as the practical meditative exercises, with devotion. Bhagavata Purana elucidates the practice of a form of yoga called viraha(separation) bhakti. Viraha bhakti emphasizes one pointed concentration on Krishna.
  32. 32. Tantra By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from tantra. Tantrism is a practice that is supposed to alter the relation of its practitioners to the ordinary social, religious, and logical reality in which they live. Through Tantric practice, an individual perceives reality as maya, illusion, and the individual achieves liberation from it. Both Tantra and yoga offer paths that relieve a person from depending on the world. Where yoga relies on progressive restriction of inputs from outside; Tantra relies on transmutation of all external inputs so that one is no longer dependent on them, but can take them or leave them at will. They both make a person independent. This particular path to salvation among the several offered by Hinduism, links Tantrism to those practices of Indian religions, such as yoga, meditation, and social renunciation, which are based on temporary or permanent withdrawal from social relationships and modes.
  33. 33. During tantric practices and studies, the student is instructed further in meditation technique, particularly chakra meditation. This is often in a limited form in comparison with the way this kind of meditation is known and used by Tantric practitioners and yogis elsewhere, but is more elaborate than the initiate's previous meditation. It is considered to be a kind of Kundalini yoga for the purpose of moving the Goddess into the chakra located in the "heart", for meditation and worship.
  34. 34.  Vajrayana While breath channels (nāḍis) of yogic practices had already been discussed in the classical Upanishads, it was not until the eighth-century Buddhist Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti, that hierarchies of chakras were introduced. Nāḍi (tube, pipe") are the channels through which, in traditional Indian medicine and spiritual science, the energies of the subtle body are said to flow. They connect at special points of intensity called chakras.
  35. 35. Chakra Kundalini Diagram
  36. 36. Hatha Yoga The earliest references to hatha yoga are in Buddhist works dating from the eighth century. The earliest definition of hatha yoga is found in the 11th century Buddhist text Vimalaprabha, which defines it in relation to the center channel, bindu etc. The basic tenets of Hatha yoga were formulated by Shaiva ascetics Matsyendranath and Gorakshanathc. 900 CE. Hatha yoga synthesizes elements of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras with posture and breathing exercises. Hatha yoga, sometimes referred to as the "psychophysical yoga", was further elaborated by Yogi Swatmarama, compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika in 15th century CE. Students in a Hatha Yoga class practicing the reclining bound angle pose, sometimes called bound butterfly pose
  37. 37. . This yoga differs substantially from the Raja yoga of Patanjali in that it focuses on shatkarma, the purification of the physical body as leading to the purification of the mind (ha), and prana, or vital energy (tha). Compared to the seated asana, or sitting meditation posture, of Patanjali's Raja yoga, it marks the development of asanas (plural) into the full body 'postures' now in popular usage and, along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the wordyoga today. It is similar to a diving board – preparing the body for purification, so that it may be ready to receive higher techniques of meditation. The word "Hatha" comes from "Ha" which means Sun, and "Tha" which means Moon.
  38. 38.  Sikhism Various yogic groups had become prominent in Punjab in the 15th and 16th century, when Sikhism was in its nascent stage. Compositions of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, describe many dialogues he had with Yogis, a Hindu community which practiced yoga. Guru Nanak rejected the austerities, rites and rituals connected with Hatha Yoga. He propounded the path of Sahaja yoga or Nama yoga (meditation on the name) instead. The Guru Granth Sahib states: Listen "O Yogi, Nanak tells nothing but the truth. You must discipline your mind. The devotee must meditate on the Word Divine. It is His grace which brings about the union. He understands, he also sees. Good deeds help one merge into Divination."
  39. 39. Guru Nanak Illuminated Guru Granth folio with nisan (Mul Mantra) of Guru Gobind Singh.
  40. 40. Eight Limbs of Yoga
  41. 41. Asanas Pranamayas Mudras Meditation Yama Niyama Pratyahara Dharana Samadhi
  42. 42. S ASANAS
  43. 43. PADMASANA Position The position is like that of a lotus Procedure Sit on the ground by spreading the legs forward. Place the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh. Place the hands on the knee joints. Keep the body, back and head erect. Eyes should be closed. One can do Pranayama in this asana. Benefits # It helps in improving concentration. # It helps to preserve vital fluids in the body. # It prevents abdominal diseases and female disorders connected with the reproductive organs. # It brings peace, solitude and longevity to the practitioner.
  44. 44. Padmasana
  45. 45. MANDUKASANA Posture Position like that of a frog Procedure Take the legs backwards. Let the feet touch each other. Stretch the knees on both the sides. Rest the hands as shown in the figure. Keep the knees as apart as possible. Keep the trunk straight. Look straight and breathe normally. Remain in this position for eight to twelve seconds. Perform this asana in the first week. Later, practice this asana four times. Benefits Abdominal organs are massaged in this yoga Its controls your weight It will cure the pain in knees, ankles and toes Keep your blood pressure normal Stretches the inner thighs, groins, and hips Opens the chest and shoulders Relieves stress, anxiety, and mild depression Therapeutic for menstrual cramps Keep all your gastric problems at bay Exercises pancreas and cures diabetes This asana provides good exercise for heart
  46. 46. Mandukasan
  47. 47. MAKARASANA Posture Position like that of a crocodile. Procedure In the prone position place your both hands crossed around head or rest your forehead on it, relax all the muscles, continue normal breathing. 1. Bring the arms forward and fold them. Then place the forehead on the folded elbows and relax the neck. 2. Spread the legs and keep them at a distance of a foot or so, with the heels inside and the toes outside. Then relax the legs. 3. Keep the whole body relaxed. Try to touch as many parts of the body to the floor as possible. Keep the breathing normal and the head in a positoin which is comfortable. Benefits As all the muscles are relaxed, they need less blood and oxygen supply. Consequently, the heart beats and the breathing also slow down. Now as the whole basic operation turns slow, the body gets good rest.
  48. 48. Makarasana
  49. 49. BHADRASANAPosture The posture is like that of a butterfly Procedure Sit down with your legs stretched forward. Bend your legs to bring your feet towards you so that your heels get closer to the body. With the legs should be on the ground let your soles maintain contact. Hold your toes with your fingers and draw your feet closer to the perineum. Keep your spine erect throughout. You may proceed to bring your body forward to place your forehead on the floor.
  50. 50. BHADRASANA Benefits Bhadrasana is a highly successful posture for incontinence. Lower back and the abdominal organs receive good blood circulation and hence it helps to address problems in the area. It helps to reduce kidney problems. The pose is good for breathing disorders. It helps to keep the mind focused and relaxed. It strengthens the legs, tones the thighs and makes the hips flexible. It activates the root chakra. Pregnant women can practice this yoga regularly as this is the yoga for easy birth. However, they should not attempt to bend forward. They should sit straight with the heels closer to the body without applying force. The pose helps with sciatic conditions and it is good for varicose vein. Women can practice this yoga to get relieved from menstrual disorders.
  51. 51. Bhadrasana
  52. 52. GOMUKHASANAPosition The position is like that of a cow’s face ( go=cow mukh=face) Procedure Place the heel of the left leg under the left part of the anus. Bring the right leg in such a way that the right knee will be above the left knee and the right sole along the side of the left thigh in close contact. By gradual practice, you will have to bring the right heel to touch the left buttock. Sit quite erect. Now you will have to make a finger-lock of the two index-fingers at the back dexterously, of course with a little difficulty in the beginning. Take the left hand to the back, raise the left index- finger upwards. Bring the right index-finger downwards and catch hold of the left index-finger firmly. Make a finger-lock now. If it slips, try again, and keep the lock for two minutes. Breathe slowly. The Asana will now look like the face of a cow. When you make the finger-lock, do not turn the body, do not bend the heel and chest. Keep the trunk quite straight. Change the hands and legs alternately. Fat people will find it difficult to do this Asana, to adjust the heels and thighs and to make the finger- lock. But continual practice will make them all right.
  53. 53. GOMUKHASANABenefits This Asana removes rheumatism in the legs, sciatica, piles or haemorrhoids, neuralgia of the legs and thighs, indigestion, dyspepsia, muscular pain in the back, and sprain in the forearms. This helps in maintaining Brahmacharya and good health. Hence, this Asana is suitable for the practice of Pranayama. Ordinarily you can sit at all times in this Asana for long meditation also. Lean persons with thin thighs and legs will like this Asana very much. If you find a little congestion (accumulation) of blood in the thighs and legs, massage or shampoo the legs and thighs with your hands as soon as you release the Asana.
  54. 54. Gomukhasana
  55. 55. Vajrasana Position The position is like that of thunderbolt Procedure If you sit in this Asana for about half an hour immediately after food, the food will be digested well. Dyspeptics will derive much benefit. The nerves and muscles of the legs and thighs are strengthened. Myalgia in the knees, legs, toes and thighs disappears. Sciatica vanishes. Flatulence is removed. The stomach works vigorously. The practice of Vajrasana exercises a stimulating, beneficial influence on Kanda, the most vital part, and which is situated 12 inches above the anus and from which 72,000 Nadis spring.
  56. 56. Vajrasana
  57. 57. BAKASANA Position The position is like that of a crane Procedure: While in a squatting position on a yoga mat, maintain equal distance between both the knees and keep the feet flat on the mat. Then place the palms in between the knees and flat on the ground while maintaining the knees and elbows at the same level. Bend the torso forward while lifting both the legs up so that the whole body balances solely on the palms. While in this posture, maintain a straight gaze so that the body balances properly. Finally to return to the original position, slowly bring the feet down on the ground and go back into a Tadasana posture.
  58. 58. BAKASANA Benefits:  It helps in strengthening the wrists and arms.  It stretches the upper back and increases the flexibility and elasticity of the spine.  It strengthens and tones various muscles and organs in the abdominal region.  It also opens up the groin region.  The sense of balance, concentration, and co-ordination improves by practicing this posture regularly.
  59. 59. Bakasana
  60. 60. KUKKUTASANA Position The position is like that of a cockerel. Procedure Sit in padmasana. Release the Dhyanmudra and insert the left arm between the thigh and calf of the left leg. Gradually, push the arm through the legs up to the elbow. Similarly, insert the right arm between the thigh and calf of the right leg, pushing the arm through, up to the elbow. Spread the fingers and place both hands on the floor, about 4 to 6 inches apart. With the hands on the floor, raise the body from the floor, balancing only on the hands. Gaze forward and breathe normally. Benefits Strengthens the arms, shoulders, elbows and wrists. Strengthens the abdominal muscles. Stretches the chest muscles. Stimulates the mooladhara chakra.
  61. 61. Kukkutasana
  62. 62. PARVATASANA Position The position is like that of a mountain Procedure Take both the hands forward and lock the fingers of both the hands together. Take the hands over the head and turn the palms downside up facing the roof. Stretch the body upwards with the arms stretched towards the sky. Stabilize the position and continue normal breathing. Benefits Stretching the arm, back and abdominal muscles improves the functioning of theses parts of the body. This helps cure certain problems of spinal column & cord.
  63. 63. Parvatasana
  64. 64. SIMHASANA Position The position is like that of a lion Procedure Bend the right leg and place the foot under the left buttock. Bend the left leg and cross the left ankle over the right ankle, placing the left foot under the right buttock. Rest the hands onto the knees with the fingers spread out. Lean the body to the front slightly, placing the body weight onto the hands. The hands should be kept straight. Tilt the head slightly downwards, open the mouth and stick the tongue out, pointing the tip of the tongue down. Widen the eyes and tense all facial muscles. Breathe normally. The gaze should either be at the nosetip or eyebrow centre. Benefits Facial, eye and tongue muscles are stretched, refreshing the blood supply to these muscles, improving their efficiency. The folded legs redirects the flow of prana from the lower chakras to the higher chakras.
  65. 65. Simhasana
  66. 66. YOGANIDRASANA Position The position is like that of ‘sleeping on a mattress.’ Procedure Lying on the back in a supine position bring the knees to the chest. Open them and cross the feet over one and other. Hold the feet in the middle or beside the toes so that you can get a little more leverage. Roll back a little and draw the feet towards the top of the head. Try to bring them over the top of the head so that the hook behind the head. Benefits This is one of the few stretches that really stretches the deep muscles in the spine. These muscles run along the vertebrae. (The bones in the spine) Some of these are the multifidus which extend and laterally bend the trunk and neck and rotate it. The erector spinae muscles that run the length of the vertebral column. Little muscles and ligaments in the neck below the skull are stretched. Some of these are the rotatores cervicis which are little muscles that attach each bone in the neck and are involved with neck rotation and spinalis capitis and semispinalis capitis and the rectus capitis major and minor. Hip flexors are also stretched.
  67. 67. Yoganidrasana
  68. 68. GARBHASANA Position In this asana, the body is folded up tightly, resembling a foetus. Procedure Sit in padmasana. Release the Dhyanmudra and insert the left arm between the thigh and calf of the left leg. Gradually, push the arm through the legs up to the elbow. Similarly, insert the right arm between the thigh and calf of the right leg, pushing the arm through, up to the elbow. Raise the legs and fold the arms upwards and catch hold of the left earlobe with the right hand and the right earlobe with the left hand. You may have to stick your neck out so that the hands can reach the ears. Benefits Has a regulating effect on the adrenal glands and calms an excited mind.2.Alleviates nervous disorders.3.Helps to control anger.4.Massages and tones the abdominal organs.5.Stimulates the digestive fire and increases the appetite.6.Improves sense of balance.
  69. 69. Garvasana
  70. 70. GARUDASANA Position The position is like GARUD (the king of birds). Procedure Shifting the weight of the body onto the right leg and bending it slightly, lift the left leg up by bending it slightly at the knee. The body is now balanced entirely on the right leg. Cross the left leg over the right leg and hook the top of the left foot behind the right calf. The toes of the left leg should be showing from the left side of the right lower leg. The right leg remains slightly bent at the knee. Bend both arms at the elbows and raise them to chest level. Place the right upper arm over the left upper arm, and continue to entwine the two arms. Touch both hands together in a namaskar pose. Benefits 1.Strengthens the leg muscles.2.Increases the blood supply to and loosens the joints in the legs and arms.
  71. 71. Garudasana
  72. 72. VRIKSHASANA Position The position is like that of tree. Procedure Sit in Vajrasana. >Inhale deeply. >Exhaling place the hands and head on the floor so they form an equilateral triangle. Palms are flat on the floor and elbows are brought in towards the body. >Breathing normally lift the knees and place them on the upper arms. The back should be as straight as possible. The body weight is distributed over the head and hands. Slowly straighten the legs upwards. >Hold the posture. >Exhaling bend the legs again until the knees rest on the upper arms. Slowly return to the starting position. Benefits This exercise guides the body’s energy into the higher Chakras. It strengthens the shoulder and back muscles as well as the neck and arms.
  73. 73. Vrikshasana
  74. 74. UTKATASANA Position The position is like that of a chair and it is also known as powerful pose. Procedure From Mountain pose / Tadasana. Inhale as you lift your arms up, keep your arms so you can see them through the sides of your eyes and so you can keep the neck long and shoulders down. Exhale as you bend the knees as if you’re about to sit down on a chair, bringing your thighs as close to parallel to the floor, as possible. Most weight is in the front of the heels. Keep the knees in line with the toes, not beyond. Your back stays straight, but it leans forward over the thighs a bit, you're looking to form a right angle between the thighs and the torso. Pull your abdomen slightly in and up, this helps to extend the lower back. Sitting bones point down. Slide your shoulder blades down along your spine and firm them in to the back. You can stay in Utkatasana between the 5-15 breaths To come out of this pose, exhale, and press into the 4 corners of your feet straighten the legs, lenghtening through the crown of your head to come back into Mountain pose, lower your arms.
  75. 75. UTKATASANA Benefits Strengthens the muscles of the legs. Strengthens the pelvis. Strengthens the lower back. Stabilizes the knee joints. Opens and stretches the abdomen, diaphragm and heart. Stretches shoulders.
  76. 76. Utkatasana
  77. 77. SAVASANA Position The position is like that of a corpse (sav). Procedure Lie flat on the back with arms resting comfortably along the sides of the body, palms upward. Legs are extended and slightly turned outward; this translates down to the ankles and feet. Find your place of complete physical comfort by making slight adjustments. Could your hips feel "more free" if you separated your ankles and feet a tiny bit more? What is going on along your spine? Is support of a blanket needed anywhere? Are your head and spine in a straight line? Be secure in your foundation before proceeding. Close your eyes. Gently guide them to the place between your eyebrows, the Ajna or Sun Center. Relax the entire brow. Relax the jaw and let your chin drop down. Become aware of your natural breath and its rhythm. Focus upon your Sun Center and call forth a feeling of tranquility. Let this sense of stillness and calm stream down into your whole body. Feel how Earth supports the weight of your body in its entirety. Let Go. Remain here for 2 to 15 minutes.
  78. 78. SAVASANA Benefits  Relaxes the entire psycho- physiological system.  Quiets heart and pulse rates.  Develops BodyMind awareness.
  79. 79. Savasana
  80. 80. BHUJANGASANA Position The position is like that of a cobra. Procedure Lay face down with the palms flat on the floor next to the chest, and the elbows close to the body. The heels and toes are together. Place your forehead on the floor. If that is uncomfortable, begin with placing the nose or chin on the floor. Inhale and lengthen the entire body. Continue to lengthen the crown of the head forward as you begin to lift the head up and expand the chest forward. Soften the shoulder blades down the back. Use the hands and arms as guides, while lifting mainly with the back and the neck muscles. The pelvis remains grounded on the floor. Only come up as far as it is comfortable. Pay close attention to the lower back. Look upward at about 45 degrees or to your comfort level.
  81. 81. BHUJANGASANA Stay with the breath remaining relaxed in the pose. Breathe evenly and deeply, lifting with the inhalation and settling with the exhalation. Hold for as long as it is comfortable. To release, exhale and drop the forehead to the floor while relaxing your head to one side or push back into Child's pose. Benefits Helps relieve injured spines and displaced vertebrae Opens the chest, allowing deeper breathing Tones and strengthens abdominal muscles May help people with diabetes
  82. 82. Bhujangasana
  83. 83. dhanurasana Position This yoga posture has been named after the shape it takes – that of a bow. Dhanurasana (Bow Pose) is part of the padma sadhana sequence. This yoga posture is pronounced as DHUN-ur-AAHS-uh-nuh. Procedure Lie on your stomach with your feet hip-width apart and your arms by the side of your body. Fold your knees and hold your ankles. Breathing in, lift your chest off the ground and pull your legs up and back. Look straight ahead with a smile on your face. Curve your lips to match the curve of your body! Keep the pose stable while paying attention to your breath. Your body is now taut as a bow. Continue to take long deep breaths as you relax in this pose. But don’t get carried away! Do not overdo the stretch. After 15 -20 seconds, as you exhale, gently bring your legs and chest to the ground. Release the ankles and relax.
  84. 84. Benefits Strengthens the back and abdominal muscles Stimulates the reproductive organs Opens up the chest, neck and shoulders Tones the leg and arm muscles Adds greater flexibility to the back Good stress and fatigue buster Relieves menstrual discomfort and constipation Helps people with renal (kidney) disorders dhanurasana
  85. 85. Dhanurasana
  86. 86. Position Chakra - Wheel; Asana – Pose Procedure Lie on your back with arms horizontally stretched out in line with the shoulders. Bend your knees and bring your feet close to your hips. The soles of the feet are fully on the ground. Swing the knees to the left until the left knee touches the ground (the right knee and thigh are resting on the left knee and thigh). Simultaneously, turn the head to the right and look at your right palm. Checkpoint: Shoulder blades must touch the ground. While the body is twisted, there is a tendency for one of the shoulder blades to get lifted off the ground. One must work against this tendency for the stretch to be effective. chakrasana
  87. 87. Feel the stretch in the thighs, groin, arms, neck, stomach and back as you hold the pose. With each exhalation, relax deeper into the pose. After a few minutes, you may slowly turn the head back to the center, and straighten the torso and legs. Mirror the pose on the other side Benefits Stretches the spine and quadriceps. Brings deep relaxation to the body and mind chakrasana
  88. 88. Chakrasana
  89. 89. vrischikasana Position ‘Vrishchika’ means a scorpion. In this asana, the body assumes the pose of a scorpion. So it is called Vrishchikasana. Those who can practise, Sheershasana or Hastavrikshasana for a long time can practise this asana with ease and comfort. Procedure A beginner should practise this asana with the support of a wall. Place the forearms and the elbows on the floor. Push against the floor lightly with the legs. Slowly move the legs five cms away from the wall and try to balance the body on the forearms. Breathe normally. Practise this for a few days. After achieving proficiency, bend the legs at the knees and try to place the soles on the head. Patient practice will in time impart the necessary ability to balance the body on the palms braced on the ground.
  90. 90. vrischikasana Benefits This asana strengthens the arms and shoulders. It gives sufficient exercise to the abdominal muscles. The spine is turned backward in this asana which brings flexibility and imparts radiance and youth to the body. It has all the advantages of Sheershasana, Chakarasana and Dhanurasana.
  91. 91. Vrischikasana
  92. 92. Position The position is like that of a rabbit. Procedure 1. From Child pose, hold onto the heels with the hands and pull the forehead in towards the knees with the top of the head on the floor. 2. Holding tightly onto the heels, inhale and lift the hips up towards the ceiling. Roll onto the crown of the head and press the forehead as close to the knees as possible. 3. Breathe and hold for 4-8 breaths. 4. To release: slowly exhale and lower the hips to the heels and slide the forehead back to the floor into child pose. sasangasana
  93. 93. Benefits Rabbit pose lengthens the spine and stretches the back, arms, and shoulders while stimulating the immune and endocrine systems. sasangasana
  94. 94. Sasangasana
  95. 95. Position The position is like that of a camel. Procedure How to do Ustrasana (Camel pose) Kneel on the yoga mat and place your hands on the hips. Your knees should be in line with the shoulders and the sole of your feet should be facing the ceiling. As you inhale, draw in your tail-bone towards the pubis as if being pulled from the navel. Simultaneously, arch your back and slide your palms over your feet till the arms are straight. Do not strain or flex your neck but keep it in a neutral position. Stay in this posture for a couple of breaths. Breathe out and slowly come back to the initial pose. Withdraw your hands and bring them back to your hips as you straighten up. ustrasana
  96. 96. Benefits Improves digestion Stretches and opens the front of the body. It also strengthens the back and shoulders Relieves the body of lower back ache Improves flexibility of the spine and also improves posture Helps overcome menstrual discomfort ustrasana
  97. 97. Ustrasana
  98. 98. Position It is of a headstand pose. Procedure Start by practicing against a wall. Kneel down in front of a wall. Interlace your hands. Place your elbows a shoulder width apart on the floor and then place the outer edges of your interlaced hands on the floor, touching the wall. Place the crown of your head on the floor, inside your hands. Raise your hips and straighten your legs. Pull your upper back away from the wall, press your forearms down and lift your shoulders away from the floor. Come up, one leg at a time. sirshasana
  99. 99. Benefits Like most inverted positions, the practice of sirsasana may increase the flow of blood to the brain, improve memory and other functions of the cerebrum. Included in the physiological benefits are the drainage of blood and lymph which are held in reserve in the legs. Any inversion, when the legs are held over the heart, helps to move stored fluids into the core for oxygenation, filtration and elimination of metabolic/cellular wastes. sirshasana
  100. 100. Sirshasana
  101. 101. PRANAYAMS
  102. 102. "Pranayama is control of Breath". "Prana" is Breath or vital energy in the body. On subtle levels prana represents the pranic energy responsible for life or life force, and "ayama" means control. So Pranayama is "Control of Breath". One can control the rhythms of pranic energy with pranayama and achieve healthy body and mind. Patanjali in his text of Yoga Sutras mentioned pranayama as means of attaining higher states of awareness, he mentions the holding of breath as important practice of reaching Samadhi. Hatha Yoga also talks about 8 types of pranayama which will make the body and mind healthy. Five types of prana are responsible for various pranic activities in the body, they are Prana, Apana, Vyan, Udana & Samana. Out of these Prana and Apana are most important. Prana is upward flowing and Apana is downward flowing. Practice of Pranayama achieves the balance in the activities of these pranas, which results in healthy body and mind.
  103. 103. TYPES OF PRANAYAMS  Quiet Breathing , Deep Breathing , Fast Breathing  Tribandha and Pranayama  Nadi Shuddhi Pranayama or Anuloma - Viloma (Alternate nostril breathing - I)  Anuloma - Viloma (Alternate Nostril Breathing - II)  Suryan Bhedan Pranayama (Right Nostril Breathing)  Ujjayi Pranayama  Bhramari Pranayama  Pranayama from Hatha Yoga  Surya Bhedan, Bhasrika, Ujjayi, Shitali, Sitkari, Bhramari, Murchha & Plavini Pranayama
  104. 104. DEEP BREATHING The total capacity of our lungs is about 6000 c.c., but during normal breathing we only breath about 600 c.c. air per breathe in to our lungs. In deep breathing the practitioner can inhale up to the total capacity of the lungs, which increases breathing efficiency per breath. The normal breath rate is 15 to 18 breaths per minute but in deep breathing this rate is reduced to about 4 to 8 breaths per minute. The air is inhaled mostly using diaphragm or muscle of respiration and expanding the chest. The movement of abdomen helps the movement of diaphragm. The intercostal muscles help the movement of chest. In this the diaphragm movement requires less efforts than the rib movement and more air can be inhaled as the diaphragm can be vertically moved up and down to about 6 inches. So Deep breathing involves efficient movement of abdomen.
  105. 105. Following are the benefits of Deep Breathing -  Due to slowing of respiration rate (15 breaths/min to 4 breaths/min), the heart rate / pulse rate is reduced. The blood pressure is also reduced. So deep breathing is very good for stress and related ailments.  More oxygen is made available per breath, making the breathing most efficient.  Conscious deep breathing greatly affects the cortical activities, relaxing the nervous system, which calms the mind by removing thoughts and emotions.  Enhanced movement of the diaphragm gives good massage to the internal organs as liver, pancreas, stomach, heart, lungs are attached to the diaphragm which is moved up and down during the breathing.  It is observed that the animals who breath slowly have more life span, so reducing the breath rate with deep breathing may help increase the life span of human beings.
  106. 106. ANULOMA VILOMA Right nostril is Pingala Nadi(Sun principle or body), left nostril represents Ida nadi (moon principle or mind). In alternate nostril breathing, one inhales through right and exhales through left then inhales through left and exhales through right nostrl. This purifies the Ida and Pingala nadis. This purification brings balance to body and mind. The metabolic processes are balanced. The purpose of the Alternate Nostril Breathing is to balance the physical energy and mental energy. It is recommended for all types of problems. As Hatha Yoga principle says that the health conditions are due to imbalance between this Ida and Pingala. Alternate nostril breathing balances this two forces.
  107. 107. Following are the benefits of ANULOMA VILOMA Breathing –  Proper supply of oxygen is ensured and carbon dioxide is effectively removed.  More oxygen is made available per breath, making the breathing most efficient.  Blood is purified of toxins.  Very effective for stress management.  Helps reducing the anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses. Also it reduces hyperactive disorders related to mind.  Balancing Ida and Pingala removes all the blockages in the pranic energy channels, which may lead to spiritual awakenings.  It gives all the benefits of Deep breathing as well.
  108. 108. ANULOMA VILOMA
  109. 109. BHRAMARI The word "Bhramari" comes from the sanskrit name bhramar which is Humming black bee. The practice of bhramari breathing calms the mind, reduces the stress or fight - flight response. It reduces celebral tensions, anger, anxiety, insomnia, The blood pressure is also lowered. This pranayama is very effective in speeding up the healing of body tissues and may be practiced after surgeries. The purpose of the Bhramari breathing is to reduce throat ailments. This may have positive effect on the endocrine glands specially thyroids and nervous system. In ancient text of Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Swami Swatmaram says that person becomes Lord of Yogis and mind gets absorbed in the supreme bliss. It has a calming effect on entire nervous system, especially it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, which induces muscular relaxation and is very effective in stress management. So this pranayama is very effective for relaxation of body and mind. In this pranayama one needs to create a sound while exhaling and inhaling in the throat. The sound is similar to chanting of Om, especially the long mmm.. in Omkar. The sound should be deep, steady and smooth
  110. 110. BHRAMARI
  111. 111. UJJAYI The word Ujjayi means victorious in Sanskrit, it is difficult to see why this pranayama is called victorious's breath. May be practice of Ujjayi results in high energy state of mind. But this is also called psychic breath. So this pranayama can be very effectively used in therapy. Especially psychosomatic diseases and stress related ailments can be effectively treated with Ujjayi breath. The purpose of the Ujjayi breathing is to increase the psychic sensitivity, it also helps bring down blood pressure & heart beats. Also it makes the mind calm and peaceful by removing the stress. It has a calming effect on entire nervous system, especially it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system. If you are stressed then 10 minutes of Ujjayi breath can reenergise you. So this pranayama is very effective for relaxation of body and mind.
  112. 112. UJJAYI
  113. 113. SURYA BHEDA Right nostril is Pingala Nadi, which represents physical energy and body. The breath through right nostril is important for many important metabolic processes. The purpose of the Right nostril breathing is to increase the Pranic energy , the physical energy, to revitalize the body. It increases the efficiency of digestive system, also boosts the nervous system, especially the sympathetic nervous system.
  114. 114. Following are the benefits of Right Nostril Breathing –  It increases the body temperature, which removes the Kafa (mucus) imbalance. This is very effective in obesity. Regular practice of Right nostril breath is used for weight loss.  Prana increases in the body, increasing the vitality.  Very effective for depression, low energy.  Very effective for stress management.  Helps reducing the anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses.  Balancing Ida and Pingala removes all the blockages in the pranic energy channels, which may lead to spiritual awakenings.  It gives all the benefits of Deep breathing as well.
  115. 115. SURYA BHEDA
  116. 116. BHASTRIKA (Bellow's Breathe) - This literally means one has to operate lungs like the bellow, fast inhalation and fast exhalation, followed by inhaling through right nostril and performing kumbhaka with bandhas and exhaling through left nostril, this is is Bhastrika Pranayama. This is vitalizing type of Pranayama. This rhythmic inhalation and exhalation stimulates the circulation of cerebral fluid, creating compression and decompression in the brain. Rhythmic diaphragm movements stimulate heart & lung muscles improving blood circulation. Accelerated blood circulation and rate of gas exchange in each cell produces heat and washes out gases.
  117. 117. Plavini (Floating Breathe) - After inhalation the air is filled in to stomach and kept inside for some time. Swami Satyananda mentions that one can inhale the air via mouth while practicing this. Text of Hatha Yoga Pradipika mentions that one can float easily on water with this Pranayama. This Pranayama helps remove most of the ailments of stomach or digestive system.
  118. 118. Murchha (Swooning Breathe or Fainting) - This type of Pranayama induces a state of "conscious unconsciousness" (in the words of Swami Satyananda of Bihar School of Yoga). One should inhale through both the nostrils, the kumbhaka with Bandhas, but while exhaling the Jalandhar Bandha (Chin Lock) is kept intact and then exhalation is done with the Jalandhar bandha (Chin lock). Excess pressure is exerted on carotid sinus during exhalation with Jalandhar bandha, which further reduces blood pressure and one can experience a state of unconsciousness with practice. This Pranayama involves high risks so should not be practiced with out the Direct Guidance of Guru.
  119. 119. MURCHHA
  120. 120. Sheetali (Cooling Breath) The word "sheetali" means cooling in Sanskrit, it is taken from the original word "Sheetal" which is soothing or cold. The practice of sheetali breathing calms the mind, reduces the stress or fight - flight response. It cools the body and mind, The blood pressure is also lowered. This pranayama is very effective in hyperacidity or even ulcers.
  121. 121. The purpose of the Sheetali breathing is to reduce the body temperature, this may have positive effect on the endocrine glands and nervous system. In ancient text of Hatha Yoga Pradipika, Swami Swatmaram says that person becomes young and attractive by practicing this pranayama. Also he says that this pranayama removes excess heat accumulated in the system, reduces the excess biles, corrects the disorders of spleen, works on fever. This pranayama gives control over hunger and thirst. It has a calming effect on entire nervous system, especially it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system, which induces muscular relaxation and is very effective in stress management. If you are stressed then 10 minutes of Sheetali breath can calm you. So this pranayama is very effective for relaxation of body and mind. In this pranayama the tongue is rolled in a specific manner as shown in figure. But many people can not roll their tongue in this fashion. For these people alternate Sitkari Pranayama gives very similar effects.
  122. 122. Sheetali
  123. 123. MUDRA
  124. 124. A mudrā is a "seal", "mark", or "gesture"; Tibetan. ཕྱག་རྒྱ་, chakgya) is a symbolic or ritual gesture in Hinduism and Buddhism.[1] While some mudrās involve the entire body, most are performed with the hands and fingers.[2] A mudrā is a spiritual gesture and an energetic seal of authenticity employed in the iconography and spiritual practice of Indian religions and traditions of Dharma and Taoism. One hundred and eight mudras are used in regular Tantric rituals.[3] In yoga, mudrās are used in conjunction with pranayama (yogic breathing exercises), generally while seated in Padmasana, Sukhasana or Vajrasana pose, to stimulate different parts of the body involved with breathing and to affect the flow of prana in the body.
  125. 125. EXERCICES
  126. 126. There are 4 types of exercices
  127. 127. The musculoskeletal system
  128. 128. The musculoskeletal system The musculoskeletal system consists of the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons. Function The function of the musculoskeletal system is to: protect and support the internal structures and organs of the body allow movement give shape to the body produce blood cells store calcium and phosphorus produce heat. The skeletal system The skeletal system is comprised of bones and joints and provides the basic supporting structure of the body. It consists of the joined framework of bones called the skeleton. The human skeleton is made up of 206 bones.
  129. 129. Bones Bone is a dry, dense tissue composed of a calcium- phosphorus mineral and organic matter and water. Bone is covered with a living membrane called the periosteum. The periosteum contains bone- forming cells, the osteoblasts. The centre of bone contains marrow where blood vessels, fat cells and tissue for manufacturing blood cells are all found. There are four main shapes of bones: flat e.g. ribs irregular e.g. vertebrae short e.g. hand (carpals) long e.g. upper arm (humerus)
  130. 130. Joints A joint is an area where two or more bones are in contact with each other. Joints allow movement. The bones forming the joint are held together by ligaments. There are 3 types of joints: fibrous or immovable e.g. skull cartilaginous or slightly moveable e.g. vertebrae synovial or freely movable: ball and socket e.g. hip hinge e.g. elbow. gliding e.g. carpals at wrist pivot e.g. radius and ulna
  131. 131. Movement There are certain terms that are used to describe the movement of bones: abduction - movement away from the body adduction - movement towards the body flexion - bending a limb towards the body extension - extending a limb away from the body rotation - movement around a central point You have learnt the names of the various joints of the bods that describe the various directions in which limbs move.
  132. 132. The muscular system The muscular system allows us to move and you will need to learn about the muscles of the body in order to understand how this system contributes to the overall design of the human body. The human body is composed of over 500 muscles working together to facilitate movement. It is very important to understand the muscular system and how it works in conjunction with the skeletal system to allow us to move and maintain our posture. The major function of the muscular system is to produce movements of the body, to maintain the position of the body against the force of gravity and to produce movements of structures inside the body.
  133. 133. Structure Tendons attach muscle to bone. There are 3 types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary) muscles are attached to bone by tendons smooth (involuntary) muscles control the actions of our gut and blood vessels cardiac muscle in the heart Muscles contract (shorten) and relax in response to chemicals and the stimulation of a motor nerve. Some examples of muscles are the triceps, deltoid and the biceps in the upper arm and the gluteal muscle, the hamstrings and the quadriceps in the buttocks and the top of the leg (Sorrentino 1997). Movement Movement occurs when muscles contract or shorten, pulling the bones with them. Muscles work in pairs; when one shortens, the corresponding muscle lengthens.
  134. 134. Yoga and musculoskeletal system
  135. 135. Yoga for the musculoskeletal system is extremely important for overall good health. A weak musculoskeletal system results in extreme pain and discomfort. Our bodies are composed of our Skeletal System and Skeletal Muscles that are worked and overworked and, very often, used in wrong ways. Since this is the system that is fundamentally concerned with our mobility and the protection of internal organs, we ought to be even more careful. The Muscles Stiff knees, tight joints and taut muscles, more often than not, tend to be awfully painful. Then again, thank god for yoga. Yoga helps release muscle tension that subsequently translates into ease of movement in all physical activities, be they sedentary or dynamic. The Skeletal System For every movement – even standing, for that matter – your body depends upon the complex framework of around 206 bones. The numerous Yoga poses help free all your joints and throws them open, thus helping to ease the pressure on cartilages. Yoga helps realign the a number of physical disorders such as arthritis, cervical spondylitis, hiatus hernia, rheumatism, slipped disc, umbilical hernia and a host of others. The different Yogasanas and exercises help deal with the problem every effectively. These asanas place or alter the amount of stress and strain borne by the different parts of the bones, ligaments, muscles and nerves.
  136. 136. The Knees The knees are the center of your legs and are used for to support as well as motion. It follows, therefore, that our knees are extremely vital organs of our body. The Neck and Upper Back The health of our upper backs highly affects the health of our necks. A strong, supple upper back is imperative in keeping the neck safe free of strain that could result in so much distress. The Back Our backs are supported and held in place by our Spinal Column. It is, in fact, one of the fundamental and most crucial parts of our body. Spinal injuries can be terribly painful and serious cases could even result in paralysis. Fortunately, all these misfortunes can be prevented with the help of Yogasanas and exercises that primarily correct your posture. Yoga practice thus helps improve the strength and flexibility of your Musculoskeletal System. This, together with a yoga diet – which includes lots of calcium as well as plenty of other nutrients, so essential to healthy bones and muscles – keeps you fit right into old age. Most Yogasanas are designed to loosen up, warm up and stretch and expand your muscles, joints and bones with a view to make them more flexible and strong.
  137. 137. RAMDEV BABA (introducer of a new trend in yoga)
  138. 138. Baba Ramdev (born as Ramkrishna Yadav in Haryana) is a spiritual leader known for his contributions in yoga, Ayurveda, politics and agriculture. He is best known for popularising yoga among health conscious Indians through his mass yoga camps and TV shows. He has been the inspiration and guide for the Patanjali group of institutions (including some firms). Ramdev has more recently become a vocal advocate on Indian political issues.
  139. 139. Early life Baba Ramdev was born as Ramkrishna Yadav to Ram Nivas Yadav and Gulabo Devi in the Alipur village of Mahendragarh district in Haryana state of India. He then studied Indianscripture, Yoga and Sanskrit in various gurukuls. He became a sanyasi & eventually came to be called with his popular name "Baba Ramdev“. While living in Kalva Gurukul of Jind district in Haryana, he offered free yoga training to villagers for some time. Then he moved to Haridwar, Uttarakhand and spent several years studying ancient Indian scriptures at Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya. This included a rare book of Aurobindo Ghosh, Yogik Sadhan, translated from Bengali into Hindi by Ram Prasad Bismil. After reading this small bookletयोगिक साधन (en. yaugika- sadhana) he went to the caves of Himalaya and practised intense self-discipline and meditation.
  140. 140. Patanjali yogpeeth and research on yoga Patanjali Yogpeeth is an Institute of Medical Science & Research in Yoga & Ayurveda. It has two Indian campuses, Patanjali Yogpeeth-I & Patanjali Yogpeeth-II, with locations in the UK, US, Nepal, Canada, and Mauritius. Ramdev established the Patanjali Yog Peeth (UK) Trust in 2006, with the aim of promoting the ancient Indian science of yog and thus spreading its benefits as widely as possible in the UK. A view of Patanjali Yogpeeth in Haridwar (Uttarakhand) India Patanjali YogPeeth has acquired a Scottish island for about £2 million which was donated by Mr. Sam and Mrs. Sunita Poddar, originally from India and living in Scotland for 25 years, who have been running the UK branch of the Patanjali Yoga Peeth Trust. The Little Cumbrae Island, off the fishing town of Largs in Scotland, will also serve as the Patanjali Yog Peeth's base overseas, whereyoga will be taught. This project will be run by Patanjali Yogpeeth (UK) Trust. They have plans to set up a wellness retreat there. People come to visit Patanjali Yogpeeth in Haridwar as a tourist spot also.
  141. 141. A view of Patanjali Yogpeeth in Haridwar (Uttarakhand) India
  142. 142. Beginning of public life Ramdev was born in 1965.(But some where mentioned 11,Jan-1971 -> what is correct) He entered prominence when he started the Divya Yog Mandir Trust with the company of Acharya Nitin Soni. In 2003, Aastha TV began featuring him in its morning yoga slot. Within a few years, he had gathered a huge following. The New York Times called him "an Indian, who built Yoga Empire, a product and symbol of the New India, a yogic fusion of Richard Simmons, Dr. Oz and Oprah Winfrey, irrepressible and bursting with Vedic wisdom." A large number of people and many celebrities in India and abroad have attended his yoga camps. He has taught yoga to many actors including Amitabh Bachchan and Shilpa Shetty. He has also taught yoga in the British Parliament, at the MD Anderson Cancer Center affiliated to the University of Texas and at the seminary of Muslim clerics at Deoband in Uttar Pradesh, becoming the first ever non-Muslim to publicly address thedeobandi Muslim clerics. Apart from making Yoga a household word in India, he has also taught Yoga in Britain, USA and Japan among other countries. Soon after getting popular outside India, he was invited byKofi Annan in 2006 to deliver a lecture on poverty alleviation in a United Nations conference.