Atomic Bombing Of Hiroshima & Nagasaki


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This Presentation brings forth the Causes, Aftermaths and many other facts regarding the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It also includes Albert Einstein's Letter.

This was made for Educational Purpose.

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Atomic Bombing Of Hiroshima & Nagasaki

  1. 1. Atomic Bombing ofAtomic Bombing of Hiroshima AndHiroshima And Nagasaki & Its AfterNagasaki & Its After effect…effect…
  2. 2. • An atomic bomb, called Little Boy, was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6th , 1945. • More than half of the buildings in the city were destroyed. • It was estimated that about 70,000 people were killed instantly. • And by 1946, about 140,000 had died due to injuries and radiation. HIROSHIMA - Summary ofHIROSHIMA - Summary of
  3. 3. Reasons for Bombing in Hiroshima & Nagasaki… • Many historians believe that a main reason for the use of the bomb was retaliation for the surprise and brutal attack on Pearl Harbor. • United states came with a new tactic to force Japan to surrender – By Potsdam Declaration. • Potsdam DeclarationPotsdam Declaration • Truman’s First attempt at negotiating with Japan • Called for Japan’s unconditional surrender and an end to Militarism in Japan. • Issued on July 26.
  4. 4. Reasons for Bombing in Hiroshima & Nagasaki… (Cont.) Harry Trauman The U.S. President • Japan refused the Declaration. • The USA did not want to invade Japan. • They reasoned that using an Atomic- bomb would deliver a huge blow to Japan. • This would save the lives of hundreds of thousands of American troops. Potsdam Declaration
  5. 5. Possible Target Locations…• The target committee at Los Alamos from May 10 – 11, 1945, recommended Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, and arsenal at Kokura as possible targets. • The psychological effects on the Japanese citizens were important to the committee members. • The target location for the detonation of the bomb should be spectacular for international recognition. • Kyoto, Hiroshima, Kokura, and Niigata.
  6. 6. The Manhattan Project….• The research on atom bomb was called Manhattan project • Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were the two laboratories in the United States where work towards the design of nuclear weapons have been undertaken. • The first nuclear test was located near Alamogordo, New Mexico, under code name “Trinity” on July 16, 1945 TrinityNuclearTest
  7. 7. Fat Man and Little Boy..
  8. 8. The Bomb Day… • In the morning of the 6th August 1945 plans of first atomic mission were set. • A B-29 Superfortress bomber named the Enola Gay, under colonel Paul Tibbits was chosen to drop the first bomb on Hiroshima • They left Tinian north field airbase in the West Pacific. • The six hour flight went exactly as expected. • The bomb was armed midway and clear weather permitted for accuracy. Enola Gay with Its Crew
  9. 9. Atomic Bombers… Special Mission 13, Primary target Hiroshima, 6 August 1945 Aircraft Pilot Call Sign Mission role Straight Flush Major Claude R. Eatherly Dimples 85 Weather reconnaissance (Hiroshima) Jabit III Major John A. Wilson Dimples 71 Weather reconnaissance (Kokura) Full House Major Ralph R. Taylor Dimples 83 Weather reconnaissance (Nagasaki) Enola Gay Colonel Paul W. Tibbets Dimples 82 Weapon Delivery The Great Artiste Major Charles W. Sweeney Dimples 89 Blast measurement instrumentation Necessary Evil Captain. George W. Marquardt Dimples 91 Strike observation and photography Top Secret Captain Charles F. McKnight Dimples 72 Strike spare—did not complete mission
  10. 10. ‘Little Boy’ before loading to B-29 bomber ‘Enola Gay’ • ‘Little boy’ was one of the first kind of nuclear weapons that the world had seen. • ‘Little boy was a Gun-type fission bomb or a non nuclear explosive blasts a uranium wedge down a gun barrel into a uranium target causing the fission reaction. • Fission occurs when the nucleus of an atom is split. When it happens, gamma rays are emitted. If fission occurs, high amounts of energy in the form of radiation are released. More About Little Boy…
  11. 11. The Bomb Day… • At 8.15 am, the Bomb The Bomb was fused and set to explode about 2000 ft. above the center of the town. • It took 43 sec to reach its designated altitude. • It had a blast that was equivalent to 13 kilotons of TNT. • The radius of total destruction was about one mile (1.6 km), with resulting fires across 4.4 square miles (11 km2 ). Mushroom cloud that appeared after the atomic bomb was dropped
  12. 12. Hiroshima – Before the Blast.. Detail from a U.S. Air Force map with pre-bombing circles radiating out from ground zero, the site directly under the explosion
  13. 13. Hiroshima – After the Blast.. Detail from a U.S. Air Force map with pre-bombing circles radiating out from ground zero, the site directly under the explosion
  14. 14. Immediate Aftermath.. • According to most estimates the bombing of Hiroshima killed approximately 70,000 people due to immediate effects of blast. • Estimate of total deaths by the end of 1945 “140,000” due to burns, radiation and related diseases. • Most deaths and injuries occurred when people were trapped in their burning houses or struck by debris. • Of the city’s 90,000 buildings, 60,000 were destroyed • This left many survivors homeless
  15. 15. Pictures – Hiroshima After Blast.. A bridge across the Ota river. Note where roadway is burned and the ghostly shadow imprints left where the surface was shielded by cement pillars. A View of ground zero in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945
  16. 16. Pictures – Hiroshima After Blast.. Smoke rising from the atomic explosion above the city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 View from ground Zero..
  17. 17. Pictures – Hiroshima After Blast.. A Human Body turned into carbon.. The energy that was released from the bomb caused severe burns and scarring.
  18. 18. Photos – Hiroshima After Blast.. Chart on %. of Death due to Atom Bomb in Hiroshima.. A man with sickness due to Radiation
  19. 19. A victim who was about 6,500 feet from ground zero when the rays struck him from the left. His cap was sufficient to protect the top of his head against flash burns.
  20. 20. Photos – Hiroshima After Blast.. A atomic bomb Victim… A atomic bomb Victim…
  21. 21. Bomb damage to Okita Iron Works
  22. 22. View of Hiroshima after blast
  23. 23. • Three days later on August 9, 1945, the second atomic bomb named “Fat Man” was dropped on Nagasaki. • The Fat Man weapon, containing a core of about 6.4 kilograms (14 lb.) of plutonium, was dropped over the city's industrial valley. • It exploded 43 seconds later at 469 m(1,539 ft.) above the ground. This was nearly 3 km (1.9 mi) northwest of the planned hypocenter. • The resulting explosion had a blast yield equivalent to 21 kilotons of TNT (88 TJ). Next Target..
  24. 24. • Bockscar a B-29 bomber Superfortress, flown by Major Charles W. Sweeney dropped the “Fat Man” on August 9, 1945. • Sometimes called Bock’s car. • The Bockscar did didn't have enough fuel to return to Tinian or Iwo Jima, so Major Sweeney flew the aircraft to Okinawa for an emergency landing with practically dry fuel tanks. Next Target.. Bockscar With its crew
  25. 25. Immediate Aftermath.. • The death toll (of all related deaths) was about 135,000. • More than 40% of the city was destroyed. • 75.000 instantaneous deaths, 50,000 explosion injured. • Total deaths by the end of 1945 may have reached 80,000. • The radius of total destruction was about 1 mile (1.6 km), followed by fires across the northern portion of the city to 2 miles (3.2 km) south of the bomb. Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet into the air
  26. 26. Nagasaki – Before And After.. Nagasaki before the bombing. Nagasaki after the bombing
  27. 27. Before After Nagasaki – Before And After..
  28. 28. Photos – Nagasaki After Blast.. Devastated City After Blast
  29. 29. Finally… • Japanese Foreign Minister Shigenori Togo, proposed acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration. • The Emperor Hirohito convened an Imperial Conference and at noon on August 15, 1945, announced Japan's surrender. • On Sept. 2, 1945, Japanese Foreign Minister Shigenori formally signed the surrender documents on board the USS Missouri. Signing of Document Japan Emperor
  30. 30. Involvement Of Einstein• In 1905 Albert Einstein discovered that a large amount of energy could be released from a small amount of matter. • However Bombs were not in his mind because even he considered himself a pacifist. • The first letter Einstein stated the Germany is pursuing the interest of an A bomb and we should do the same. • Einstein felt very guilty for what he caused after he saw the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Albert Einstein
  31. 31. In the course of the last four months it has been made probable - through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in America - that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future. This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable - though much less certain - that extremely powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat and exploded in a port, might very well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might very well prove to be too heavy for transportation by air... Yours very truly, (Albert Einstein) Einstein’s Letter ToEinstein’s Letter To American President..American President..
  32. 32. THE END ByBy Moideen ThashreefMoideen Thashreef Anoop JohnAnoop John Mithun MathewMithun Mathew Rifas UmmerRifas Ummer