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blood transfuson.ppt

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blood transfuson.ppt

  1. 1. Done By: R.N: ‫السردي‬ ‫خلود‬
  2. 2.  Type of Transfusion  Indication  Transfusion Reactions  Component Transfusion Blood Transfusion
  3. 3. Objective:- At the end of these presentation we will be able to:- 1. Define of Blood Transfusion 2. Idintify Type of Transfusion . 3. Sign and symptom's Transfusion Reactions 4. Treatment of Transfusion Errors 5. Ordering blood in an emergency
  4. 4. Successful blood transfusion is relatively recent  Cross-matching  Anticoagulation  Plastic storage container Blood Transfusion
  5. 5. Type of Transfusion:  Whole Blood;  Blood Component; RBC PLT FFP  Plasma Substitutes; Blood Transfusion
  6. 6.  Symptomatic anemia (providing oxygen-carrying capacity)  Transfusion trigger (HCT<30% ; HB<10g/dl)  1 Unit increases 3% HCT or 1g/dl Red Blood Cells
  7. 7.  Thrombocytopenia (< 50,000)  Platelet dysfunction  Each unit increase 5,000 PLTs after 1 H Platelets
  8. 8.  Coagulation factor deficiencies  1 ml increases 1% clotting factors  Being used as soon as possible  Albumin, hetastarch, crystalliods are equally effective volume expander but safer than FFP  After use of 5 U of RBCs, matching 2 U of FFP Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)
  9. 9. --Volume Expander Dextran  Most widely used  Low/Middle M.W. (40,000-70,000)  Massive transfusion could impair coagulation  Occasional ALLERGIC reaction Hydroxyethyl Starch Formulation (HES)  More stable  Containing essential electrolytes  No allergic reaction Plasma Substitutes
  10. 10. Indication:  Acute massive blood loss;  Anaemia and hypoalbuminemia;  Dysfunction of Coagulation; Blood Transfusion
  11. 11. Technique of Transfusion:  Approach Route: Peripheral Vein, Center Vein  Filtration before Transfusion:  Flow rate of Transfusion: 5-10ml/min Blood Transfusion
  12. 12.  Double Check: Name, Type and Crossmatch  Storage Time  Pre-heat:  No any other Medication:  Observation during / after Transfusion: Attention: Blood Transfusion
  13. 13. Incidence : 2% Chills, Fever 39-40.C Headache, Sweatiness Nausea, Vomiting, Flushing Febrile Reactions : Transfusion Reactions
  14. 14.  Immuno-reaction :  Endo-toxins:  Contamination or Hemolysis:  Analyze possible reasons:  Stop Transfusion :  General Support: Treatment: Febrile Reactions : Transfusion Reactions
  15. 15. Urticaria Abdominal cramps Dyspnea Vomiting Diarrhea Anaphylactic reactions: Transfusion Reactions
  16. 16.  Immuno-reaction: → IgE  Hereditary Immunoglobulin: → IgA Reason:  Administer antihistamines  Administer epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and corticosteroids:  Support airway and circulation as necessary: Treatment: Anaphylactic reactions:
  17. 17. Contamination: Fever Shock DIC Bacterial Contamination Reasons: Transfusion Reactions
  18. 18.  Stop Transfusion  Bacterial Exam and Culture  Antibiotics Treatment:  Double Check  Operate carefully Prevention: Contamination:
  19. 19.  Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C  HIV  Cytomegalovirus (CMV)  Syphilis  Malaria Acquired diseases : Transfusion Reactions
  20. 20. Ordering blood in an emergency  Immediately takes samples for cross matching  Inform the blood bank of the emergency,the volume of the blood required and where the blood to be dellivered  One individual should take responsibility for all communications with the bank, and should ensure that it is clear who will be responsible for the blood delivery
  21. 21. Ordering blood in an emergency  In case of top emergency for blood transfusion use group O Rh Negative blood  Don’t ask for cross-matched blood in an emergency
  22. 22. Transfusion Errors  Almost all deaths from transfusion reaction are due to ABO in compatibility  Errors in patient identification at the time of blood sampling or administration are the major cause  When taking the initial blood sample: 1. Check the patients identity verbally and on the wrist identification band 2. Label the sample fully before leaving the bedside 3. Make sure that the blood request form clearly and accurately completed
  23. 23.  Thank you

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