Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Bs 2 4 history

Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Ad
Upcoming SlideShare
History bd
History bd
Loading in …3
×

Check these out next

1 of 116 Ad

More Related Content

Slideshows for you (20)

Advertisement

Similar to Bs 2 4 history (20)

Recently uploaded (20)

Advertisement

Bs 2 4 history

  1. 1. Birth of Bangladesh: Historical Evolution Dr. Anisur Rahman Khan
  2. 2. Stages of Evolution Ancient Bengal Muslim Rule Mughal/The East India Company  British Rule Pakistan Rule Formation of Bangladesh 2
  3. 3. Ancient Bengal The word Bengal/Bangla derived from a tribe known Vanga, written in Hindu scripture Aitaraya Aranyaka (composed between 500 BC & 500 AD) Vanga-an Indo-Aryan & Mongol group migrated to the upper Ganges valley around 1000 year B.C With the advent of improved Iron Age tools (500 years later) broadly human habitation begun in lower Ganges and the Brahmaputra valleys (Bengal) 3
  4. 4. Different views on the land Vanga is derived from Tibetan word Bans- “wet & moist” or “wetland” Bangala is derived from Bodo words “Bang” & “la” or “wide plains” Mughal historian Abul Fazal: “The original name of Bengal was Bang. Its former rulers raised mounds measuring ten yards in heights & twenty in breadth throughout the province which was called al. From this suffix, the name of Bengal took its rise and currency” 4
  5. 5. Bangla ”vanga” mentioned in the Hindu scripture Aitareya Aranyaka (Composed between 500 BC and 500 AD) Tibetan word “bans” which means wet and moist Bodo (aborigines of Assam) words “bang” and “la” which mean wide plains
  6. 6. Ancient Bengal Bengal was divided into various kingdoms (little Bengals)/Janapada such as; Harikela (Sylhet), Samatata (Comilla), Pundavardhana (Bogora, Dinajpur), Varendra (Rajshai), Tamralipti (Medinipur), Radha (West Bengal), Gauda (Murshidabad, Malda etc.) 6
  7. 7. Ancient Bengal 7
  8. 8. The territorial units of Ancient Bengal • Vanga: Part of today’s 24 Pargana Districts in India (Bengali: Uttar Chobbish porgona) district in the southern West Bengal, of eastern India and the Khulna Division of Bangladesh
  9. 9. The territorial units of Ancient Bengal • Pundra located in the district of Bogra and adjacent areas. • Capital of Pundra, Pundranagara was the earliest urban centre in Bangladesh.
  10. 10. The territorial units of Ancient Bengal • Radha: Large part of modern Indian state of West Bengal • Had important trade, commerce and administration in the ancient period
  11. 11. The territorial units of Ancient Bengal • Gauda: lay to the north-west of Bhagirathi
  12. 12. The territorial units of Ancient Bengal • Samatata located in the Meghna river valley • Consisted of Comilla and Noakhali areas of Bangladesh
  13. 13. The territorial units of Ancient Bengal • Harikela identified as Chittagong and its adjacent areas.
  14. 14. Ancient Bengal Evidently, the first dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in the early 3rd century BC. The dynasty encompassed different religious influences: Hiduism & Jainism, Ashoka is the best-known ruler (265- 238 BC)  Pundurunagara (Mahastan) was the their provincial capital 14
  15. 15. Ancient Bengal Other dynasties: Sunga 170-70 BC, Gupta dynasties (320-510), the dynasty of Shasanka (7th century), Palas (750-1159) Gupta (320-510/331-650) dynasty: Bengal became a part of this dynasty. North Bengal, also West Bengal (Pushakara), Faridpur  Notable rules were Chandragupta (1st & 2nd), Samudragupta . Great promoter of Hindu religion Were they Bengalis? 15
  16. 16. Ancient Bengal Shasanka (600-650): The independent Gauda Empire of Sasanka. The most important & famous ruler. However, East Bengal was not a part of Gauda empire. 16
  17. 17. Ancient Bengal The Period of Anarchy/Matsanay (650-750): No permanent dynasty, foreign invasion, internal conflict During 7th century Bengal came under the control of Pala dynasty (750-1159)-they were Buddhist Bengalis Khatriya tribal chief Gopal founded the Pala dynasty 17
  18. 18. Ancient Bengal There were 18 successive Pala rules having their capital in Pataliputra (Patna), and the dynasty reached its zenith during in 8th and 9th centuries  Gopal, Dharpal and Debpal were the notable rulers They ruled for about 400 years, primarily confined to Bihar, certain areas of North Bengal, much of the Bengal remained out of their orbit Great promoter of art, literature & universities 18
  19. 19. Paharpur 19
  20. 20. Sovereign Kingdom Khadage dynasty (650-700) Nath and Ratna dynasty (700-750)  Deva dynasty (750-800)  Harikela dynasty (800-900)  Chandra dynasty (900-1040)  The Varman (1080-1150)  Pattikera dynasty (1000-1100) 20
  21. 21. Ancient Bengal The Palas gave away to the Hindu Sena dynasty (1095-1245), originated from Karnatak, founded by Samanta Sen Gaur became the capital of the dynasty, they had lack of tolerance for Budhism, and promoted the Hindu caste system (Ballan Sen). Orthodox and militant Hindus Notable ruler was Laxan sen 21
  22. 22. Culture in Ancient Bengal Economic Activities: • Agriculture was the main occupation of the people in ancient Bengal ( Paddy and Sugarcane) • Village weavers produced fabrics in hadlooms • Market, bazaar and business centers grew up by the side of the rivers.
  23. 23. Culture in Ancient Bengal Dress and recreation • Men wore Dhooti and Chadar and women wore Saree and orna as attires • Fashionable for men to keep long hair, long nails colored to attract women • Both men and women wore rings and studs in their ears, rings on their fingers, necklaces and hair ornaments • Chess and dice were most common games in the ancient Indian society
  24. 24. Culture in Ancient Bengal • Art and Architecture • Buildings, temples and other structures built in ancient Bengal hardly survived in their original forms • Evidence of Bengal being rich in architecture: Huge structures and Vihars found at Mahasthangarh, Paharpur and Maynamati
  25. 25. Muslim Rule Great Bengal was a political reality during Muslim rule (1204-1757), even before there were attempts by Sasanka and Pal rulers to unite Bengal but couldn’t Iktear Mod. Bin Bokthir Khildgi introduced Muslim rule in Bengal
  26. 26. Muslim Rule Sultan Shamsuddin Ilyass Shah (1342- 1357) united different areas of Bengal, and named it as Bangla, and also assumed the tile Shah-i-Banglah Notable, Raja Gonesh briefly captured the power in 1415, but Ilyas shahis were again restored in 1432 Notable Muslim rulers were Fakraddin Mubarak Shah, Ala-uddin Hosen Shah
  27. 27. Muslim Rule Bengal was only nominally controlled under the rule of Delhi sultanate, & achieved a de facto independence  Muslim rulers were patrons of Bengali language & literature Bengal sultanate is often regarded as the golden age, territory extended widely The spread of Islam challenged the spiritual leadership of upper caste Hindus
  28. 28. The Mughals ♥Babar, the founder of Mughal empire the last Lodhi ruler in Panipat in 1526, and it was the end of Delhi Sultanate ♥In 1538, Sher Shah Suri was defeated by Humayn, the first end of independent Bengal, held his capital in Gaur. Soon his army was defeated
  29. 29. The Mughals ♥Akbar defeated Sultan Daud Karrani in 1576, this made Bengal province under Mughal rule, at least in names ♥There were many Bengali attempts to resist Mughal rule, notable was the Bara Bhuian group led by Isha Khan
  30. 30. The Mughals ♥ In 1610, Mughal moved to Dhaka, and it was renamed as Jahangirnagar. Dhaka was made the capital. ♥ Mughal covered Bengal with the exception of South-eastern region of Chittagong & the Chittagong Hill district (independent chiefdoms) ♥ They introduced a layer of centralized authority where zamindars remained semi- independent
  31. 31. The Mughals ♥ Their administration includes: Dewans (revenue official), Thana (garrison), Suba (province), Sarkar (region), Subdivision (Pargana), Mauza (revenue village) ♥ Mughal conquest brought political unification, expansion of agricultural cultivation, and Bengal political gravity shifted east to Dhaka region ♥ It attracted the traders, and the Mughal government actively encouraged European trade
  32. 32. The Mughals ♥After the death of Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707, most of the Mughal provinces became independent, the influence of Mughal over Bengal declined ♥Dewan Murshid Kuli Khan became an independent Nawab of Bengal, shifted capital to Murshidabad
  33. 33. The East India Company ♥The Potuguese (1498) were the first Europeans, but it was the East India Company (founded 1600) made a forceful impact on the fortunes of the province
  34. 34. • The British traders came to India for trading purpose. • Britain needed a market to sell its finished goods. • Found Bengal as inexhaustible source of wealth & began trading indigo, textiles, and other things, established warehouse with hidden aims. By 1750, 75% of traded goods were Indian. Started systematically abusing right to free trade REASONS FOR COMING TO INDIA
  35. 35. British establish their control over India • The British came to India for trading purpose. • During this period there was internal struggle in India. The Mughal power was declining. • Britain needed a market to sell its finished goods. • This gave the British the chance to establish their control over India. • They did this through – wars – treaties – annexations i.e. forcible acquisition – alliances.
  36. 36. 37
  37. 37. The East India Company ♥ In 1756, Shiraj-ud-Daula challenged the excessive power of the company & attempted to block unauthorised trade ♥ He marched on Calcutta and secured the Fort William ♥ the Company’s forces regrouped and devised strategies to give pain to the Bengali leadership ♥ Robert Clive conspired with Mir Jafar, commander in chief of the Nawab, Jagat Shet and others
  38. 38. The East India Company ♥ Confrontation with the traders led to the battle of Palasy on June 23, 1757. An Army of 50000 orgnised soldiers were defeated by a irregular group of 800 Europeans ♥ Palasy paved the way of British rule. Mir Jafor gave away to the company’s force, Nawab was executed, and Mir Jafor became the puppet Nawab ♥ In 1760, Mir Kaseem was replaced by his son- in- law, Mir Qasim. ♥ in India---it was the longest and deepest colonial experience in modern history ♥ This victory was further consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar
  39. 39. BATTLE OF PLASSEY Sir Clive meets Mir Jaafar at Battle of Plassey
  40. 40. The East India Company ♥ In 1765 the company secured Dewani from the Mughal emperor- the right to collect revenue from Bangla, Bihar and Orissa ♥ A system of increased tax collection, depletion of people’s income, drought & flood, unchecked profit-making in food-grain market led to “Great Famine” (1769-70) (Chityattarer Manantar, 1176 ♥ 10 million population, just perished
  41. 41. The Great Famine 42
  42. 42. The East India Company ♥The Permanent Settlement Act 1793 by Lord Cornowallis was introduced with an aim to boost up agricultural revenue collection-it created a new class, “gentlemen farmers” ♥The Permanent Settlement Act changed the whole agrarian relations, the cultivators become peasants without rights, and zaminders became the de facto landowners, and they were prominently high caste who worked for the company
  43. 43. The East India Company ♥The hope for agricultural moderanisation leading to higher production never materialised, zaminders turned themselves into rentiers & transformed responsibilities to intermediaries (hierarchical social structure/sub-infeudation/pattanidari)
  44. 44. The East India Company ♥This change in agrarian relation had a long lasting consequence. The rise of the money lending class in India for agriculture ♥The permanent settlement created the culture of Bhadralok who carried forward the Bengal renaissance (High caste Hindu rentier class) ♥It became associated with the idea that the Hindus should dominate Bengal
  45. 45. Before ……. 1793 46 RULER DIWAN (EIC) ZAMINDAR PEASANT/ TENANT CHAINOF COMMAND Pay rent
  46. 46. After ….. 1793 47 EAST INDIA COMPANY ZAMINDAR PEASANT/ TENANT CHAIN OF COMMAND Paying fixed rent: for specific annual revenue. Zamindar was sought to invest more into agriculture UNDEFINED
  47. 47. The East India Company ♥Introduction of large-scale export oriented crash-cropping such as opium, indigo, tea, silk and jute was the second major change in colonial period ♥Some of these crops grown through coercive means ♥ Regional crop growing specialisation
  48. 48. Indigo Cultivation
  49. 49. The East India Company ♥ As the condition of Bengali Muslim peasantry worsened, various types resistance against the British rule formed ♥ Fakir movement, Farizi movement, movement of Titumir, Pabna revolt are important ♥ Relations between the Muslims and the British improved after 1870 ♥ By the 1880s an Islamic renaissance begun and English was adopted as a strategy to empower Bengali Muslims
  50. 50. British Rule After the Rebellion of 1857 the British government took control of India by passing Government of India Act Bengal was a centre of Indian political resistance to British rule, much of it was led by the Hindus At times there were separate Muslim-led efforts aimed to increase Muslim political participation 51
  51. 51. THE PARTITION OF BENGAL, 1905 AND ITS AFTERMATH • End of 19th Century Bengal had a population of 85 million (54 million Hindus and 31 million Muslims) • British found it too large to administer • In 1905 Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal by detaching East Bengal and added it to Assam • Capital of East Bengal- Dhaka • Capital of West Bengal – Calcutta • It was backed by the “divide and rule” strategy and was intended to curb growing resistance to British rule by the Hindu elites
  52. 52. 1905 Division 53
  53. 53. SWADESHI AND BOYCOTT MOVEMENTS • Partition was Strongly opposed by the Hindus, and finally annulled in 1911, and capital was shifted to Delhi from Kolkata • The main goal of the movement was: - Put economic pressure on the British - Promote Indian Industry • Bengali people were urged to boycott British cloth and other goods and instead use Indian products
  54. 54. Two nation Theory • The Two-Nation Theory was the basis for the Partition of India in 1947. • It stated that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations by every definition, and therefore, Muslims should have an autonomous homeland in the Muslim majority areas of British India • Poet Philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), provided the philosophical explanation. 55
  55. 55. British Rule Partition was Strongly opposed by the Hindus, and finally annulled in 1911, and capital was shifted to Delhi from Kolkata In 1906 the All-India Muslim league was formed in Dhaka  Muslim league followed Jinnah, that led up to the formation of Pakistan 56
  56. 56. British Rule Lahore Resolution asserts that Muslim majority states should be grouped into independent, autonomous, self-governing states Finally, the British divided India in 1947 into two states such as; Pakistan (east and west) and India 57
  57. 57. The Bengal Famine of 1942-43 Famine caused 3.5 million lives Caused due to stockpile of food against probable Japanese invasion. A total administrative incompetence The Quit India Movement launched in 1942, irked Churchill, and as a revenge-seeking measure, he chose to overlook the catastrophe in Bengal, and preferred sending rice and wheat to the Imperial Indian Army fighting on behalf of the British Empire in World War II 58
  58. 58. The Bengal Famine of 1942-43 59
  59. 59. Map 1947 60
  60. 60. Pakistan Experiment 61
  61. 61. The Pakistan Experiment • The word “PAKISTAN” originated in Cambridge (1933) by Choudhury Rahmat Ali in the Pamphlet “Now or Never: Are We to live or Perish Forever?“ • Pakistan was an acronym that stood for Punjab, Afgania (Pathan/North-Western Frontier), Kashmir, Sind, and istan (Baluchistan) • The country Pakistan emerged on the basis of “two nation theory” • The riots in Kolkata in 1946 hastened partition
  62. 62. The Pakistan Experiment “A unique experiment of state-making” (V. Schendel) 1. Hybrid principle of religious nationalism 2. Two separate geographically dispersed location- population ratio 45%:55%, 1500 miles away 3. No central institution (Army, Police Bureaucracy-all were inherited by India • A severally fractured old state of Bengal, without capital Kolkata • Largest province in terms of population •
  63. 63. Language Movement • Language issue stood as cultural and political divide between two sides • Direndra Nath Datta, an East Pakistan member of the Constituent Assembly proposed Bangla as a national language • Urdu was spoken by 3% only (elite class language), & imposing Urdu was part of a mission to Islamise East Pakistan (Bengali was viewed as un-Islamic
  64. 64. Language Movement • First systematic attack was to declare Urdu as the state language, in his first trip to East Bengal on March 21, 1948 Jinnah declared: “Let me make it clear to you that the State Language of Pakistan is going to be Urdu and no other language. Anyone who tries to mislead you is really the enemy of Pakistan…so far as the State Language is concerned Pakistan’s language shall be Urdu”
  65. 65. Language Movement • Language movement during 1948-52 demanded the designation of Bengali as the state language, • The protests on the language issue culminated on February 21, 1952, when police fired on a student demonstration and killed several people
  66. 66. Electoral Politics • In 1954 Provincial Election, Muslim League was uprooted through out East Pakistan • Jukta Fornt (Awami Muslim League, Krishak Praja Party) won (228 out of 237) • It developed Ekush Dapha (major demands: autonomy for Bengal and formal recognition of Bengali language) election document • Government was led by Sher-e-Bangla, but soon dismissed from the centre
  67. 67. Six-point Programme Aiub Khan declared Marshall Law in 1958 in the wake of political instability  Aiub’s weighting towards west Pakistan added grievance to the East Pakistani  In 1966, Sheikh Mujibor Rahman, the president of AL declared “Six-point Programme”
  68. 68. Six-point Programme The program called for (i) a Federation based on the Lahore Resolution, (ii) central government dealt only with defense and foreign affairs, (iii) either two separate currencies or same currency for both wings with provision that flight of capital is prevented and each wing maintain separate revenue accounts, (iv) the units be given the authority to levy taxes and to collect revenue, (v) separate foreign exchange accounts for both the wings, and (vi) setting up a para-military force for East Bengal
  69. 69. Six-point Programme It was a statement of democratic resistance, and focused on securing self-government for Bengalis. Ayub Khan tried to ruin the credibility of Mujibur Rahman and his program by charging that he was involved in a conspiracy to create an independent state in East Bengal with Indian aid. This case came to be known as the “Agartala Conspiracy Case”
  70. 70. Politics focused During March 1969 and December 1971 tremendous political mobilisation begun, and turned into mass struggle  the Awami League won a triumphant victory in 1970’s national assembly election, but could not assume power. General Election - 12 Dec 1970, Awami League won 167 out of 313 seats. On March 7, 1971 Sheik Mujib, asked the Bangalis to prepare for a resistance to the regime
  71. 71. Politics focused On March 25, 1971 night, troop movements started (Operation Search Light). In Dhaka and elsewhere in East Bengal, the Pakistan army began an orgy of killings, rape, violence, and looting. Fateful day for Bangalis. Led by Tikka Khan (Butcher of Bengal) Mujib declared Independence before he was arrested (25 March) by the military. Awami League managed to set up a provisional government and organised the armed resistance to the Pakistani army. Thus, the Bengali National Liberation began.
  72. 72. Exm. of disparity There were absolute deprivation in terms of resource allocation and infrastructure Imbalance economic relations  Resources of the East were diverted to the West (economic colonisation and expropriation of wealth) Foreign investment was lower in east Pakistan During 1950s per capita income rose in the West but declined in the East
  73. 73. Exm. of disparity While East Bengal was earning a larger share of Pakistan’s exports, West Pakistan had the greater share in imports of consumer goods, industrial machineries, and raw materials The Pakistani ruling elites were interested more in the development of provinces of West Pakistan, though the majority of the country’s population lived in East Bengal
  74. 74. Disparities East Pakistan vs West Pakistan West Dominated Politically and Received More Budget. Year Spending on West Pakistan (in crore Rupees) Amount spent on West as % of Total Spending on East Pakistan (in crore Rupees) Amount spent on East as % of Total % of Total Population 36.23 63.77 1950–55 1,129 68.31 524 31.69 1955–60 1,655 75.95 524 24.05 1960–65 3,355 70.5 1,404 29.5 1965–70 5,195 70.82 2,141 29.18 Total 11,334 71.16 4,593 28.84 Source: Reports of the Advisory Panels for the Fourth Five Year Plan 1970-75, Vol. I, published by the planning commission of Pakistan (Quick reference: crore = 107, or 10 million)
  75. 75. War of independence Initial response to Army assault was uncoordinated, but gradually became developed Freedom fighters received supports from India Freedom fighters were grouped in 11 sectors, under the command of “Mukti Bahini” and commander was General Osmani  Bangladesh as an independent state was declared on 17 April at Meherpur with Sheikh Mujib as president
  76. 76. War of independence Superpower Soviet Union backed India and supported the liberation movement. The USSR played role in the UN  USA and China favoured Pakistan  India formally joined on 6 Dec, 1971 and the Pak army surrendered on 16 December
  77. 77. Dialogue was ongoing with Yahya but on 25 Mar 1971 Pak Military arrested Shiekh Mujib and launched Attack on unarmed Bangalee’s.
  78. 78. Declaration of the War of Independence • Just few minutes before his arrest by Pakistan Army BangaBondhu Declared the War of Independence on night 25/26 Mar 1971 by a written statement . • Later Maj Ziaur Rahman also Declared the War of Independence through Radio( Kalurghat Radio Station, Chittagong) on 26 and 27 Mar 1971.
  79. 79. Marks of Tank Shell at Dhaka University Hall
  80. 80. Sectors of War of Liberation • Total 11 sector where the country was divided into 10 sector and the Naval Commando operating in the water ways which was known as Sector 10 • Over 1,00,000 fighters comprising regular and Irregular soldiers fought against Pak Army
  81. 81. Sector Commander's Maj Ziaur Rahman, Sec Comd - 1 Maj Khaled Musarraf, Sec Comd - 2 Maj A T M Hyder, Sec Comd - 2 Maj K M Safiullah, Sec Comd - 3 Maj A N M Nuruzzaman Maj C R Dutta, Capt Rafiqul Islam, Sec Comd - 1
  82. 82. Sector Commander's W Cmd K Basahr, Sec Comd - 6 Maj Nazmul Haq Sec Comd 7 Maj Abu Osman Sec Comd 8 Maj MA Manzur Sec Comd 8 Maj Kazi Nuruzzaman Sec Comd 7 Maj MA Jalil Sec Comd 9 Maj Abu Taher Sec Comd 11 Maj Mir Shawkat Ali Sec Comd 5
  83. 83. Bangladesh become the 139th country in the world Victory Day 16 Dec 1971 Bangladesh become 139th country in the world
  84. 84. The green represents the greenery of Bangladesh while Red circle stands rising sun & blood of Martyrs during liberation war
  85. 85. National Memorial • During the war more than 3 million Lives were lost, more than 2,00,000 women were tortured and molested by the Pakistani Forece and at least 3,00,000 children died at the refugee camps due to malnutrition and diseases. • We must show our respect to them by visiting the National Memorial at Savar, Dhaka
  86. 86. Take home activity Prepare an essay How The Language Movement and The Six Point Demand have shaped our independence?

Editor's Notes

  • Sectors of the War of Liberation In the War of Liberation in 1971 the whole geographical area of the then East Pakistan was strategically divided into eleven sectors with a sector commander for each of them. Sector 1 comprised the districts of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, and the entire eastern area of the Noakhali sector commander was Major Ziaur Rahman
    groups.  Sector 2 comprised the districts of Dhaka, Comilla, and Faridpur, and part of Noakhali district. The sector commander was Major Khaled Mosharraf,
    Sector 3 comprised the area between Churaman Kathi (near Sreemangal) and Sylhet in the north and Singerbil of Brahmanbaria in the south. The sector commander was Major KM Shafiullah,
    Sector 4 comprised the area from Habiganj sub-division of Sylhet district on the north to Kanaighat Police Station on the south along the 100 mile long border with India. The sector commander was Major Chittarajan Datta, Sector 5 comprised the area from Durgapur to Danki (Tamabil) of Sylhet district and the entire area upto the eastern borders of the district. Sector commander was Major Mir Shawkat Ali.
    Sector 6 comprised Rangpur district and part of Dinajpur district. Wing Commander M Khdemul Bashar was the sector commander. Sector 7 comprised the districts of Rajshahi, Pabna, Bogra and part of Dinajpur district. The sector commander was Major Nazrul Haq,
    Sector 8 In April 1971, the operational area of the sector comprised districts of Kusthia, Jessore and Khulna districts, Satkhira and the northern part of Faridpur district. The sector commander was Major Abu Osman Chowdhury Sector 9 comprised the districts of Barisal and Patuakhali, and parts of the district of Khulna and Faridpur. The sector commander was Major ma jalil ,
    Sector 10 This sector was constituted with the naval commandos
    Sector 11 comprised the districts of Mymensingh and Tangail, Major M Abu Taher was the sector commander.

×