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Proposed Financing Solution to the Clean Water, Waste
Water and sewage, treatment and Disposal challenge
facing Mombasa Co...
SDG No 6. Clean Water and Sanitation - Ensure
Availability and Sustainable Management of
Water and Sanitation for all – Ta...
Indirectly Linked to the Following SDG’s
SDG 3 Ensure Healthy Lives and promote well-being
for all at all ages.
SDG 7 Ensu...
Current Water Supply to Mombasa County
Source http://www.mombasawater.co.ke/index.php/water-sources
Baricho/ Sabaki Well f...
Challenges of the
current situation The Solution
The present water demand for Mombasa
County is estimated at182,000m³/day....
Water Pump in Rural areas of Mombasa
A Modern Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant in Barcelona Spain
The Barcelona desalination plant: http://www.water-
technol...
Sewerage and Waste Disposal system in Mombasa County
Source: http://www.mombasawater.co.ke/index.php/services
Currently, t...
The Financing
 According to the Kenya Constitution 2010, County Governments source of revenue
apart from the allocation f...
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Proposed financing solution to the clean water challenge

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Piped, clean and safe water and waste water and sewerage treatment and disposal provision is challenge for the County Government of Mombasa. The Solution lies in having a seawater Desalination plant and modern Waste water and sewerage disposal plant, which saves the marine/ocean environment, protects ocean life from pollutants and reduces preventable diseases for the people of Mombasa.

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Proposed financing solution to the clean water challenge

  1. 1. Proposed Financing Solution to the Clean Water, Waste Water and sewage, treatment and Disposal challenge facing Mombasa County in Kenya. Directly Linked to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) No 6. Clean Water and Sanitation Ensure Availability and Sustainable Management of Water and Sanitation for all Prepared in pursuant to the Development Finance Impact Project– Digital Artifact for the Financing for Development MOOC – By World Bank Group
  2. 2. SDG No 6. Clean Water and Sanitation - Ensure Availability and Sustainable Management of Water and Sanitation for all – Targets 6.1 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all 6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations 6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally 6.4 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity 6.5 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate 6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes 6.a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies 6.b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management
  3. 3. Indirectly Linked to the Following SDG’s SDG 3 Ensure Healthy Lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. SDG 7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all. SDG 11 Make cities and Human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable SDG 14 Conserve and sustainably use the Oceans, Seas and Marine Resources for sustainable development.
  4. 4. Current Water Supply to Mombasa County Source http://www.mombasawater.co.ke/index.php/water-sources Baricho/ Sabaki Well field (The main source of supply to Mombasa) Mzima pipeline (The second biggest source) Location : Kilifi County Design capacity : 96,000m³/day Commissioned : in 1981 Length: 105km Size : 700 – 900mm diameter (28”- 36”) Pipeline make: Ductile Iron Pipeline capacity: 60,000m3./day Currently supplying: 27,000M³/day Also supplies water to Malindi, Kilifi and surrounding areas. Finance by World Bank in 1975 http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P001251/mombasa- coastal-water-supply-project-01?lang=en Location: At Mzima Springs, Taita-Taveta County Design capacity: 35,000m³/day Commissioned : in 1957, Length : 227 Km, Size : 24” – 36” or 500 – 900mm diameter, Pipeline make: Asbestos Concrete (AC) and steel Current supply : About 15,000m³/day (to Mombasa ) Also serves Voi, Maungu, Taru, Mariakani, Mazeras, Kaloleni etc
  5. 5. Challenges of the current situation The Solution The present water demand for Mombasa County is estimated at182,000m³/day. Current production is about 46,500m³/day. The available supply can therefore meet only about 30% of demand. Consequently the available water in Mombasa is distributed on a rationing program. The Key Sources are situated in other Counties dependence on the Goodwill of the Governments of these County’s, which also have rapidly growing towns and urban settlements of their own, which in future will receive priority.  Dependent on Rainwater to fill the Sabaki Well/dam and non-renewable source Mzima Spring.  Due to Mombasa County having a Coastline, it has the opportunity to have a water desalination plant, which would ease the chronic water problem facing the County and Mombasa City resident of clean water for sanitation.  This would give Mombasa County an increased degree of Independence from the neighboring Counties and also give the neighbouring Counties to serve their own Citizens with Clean piped water as Town like Malindi, Kilifi and Takangu grow in Kilifi County and Voi and Mwatate grow in Taita-Taveta County.
  6. 6. Water Pump in Rural areas of Mombasa
  7. 7. A Modern Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant in Barcelona Spain The Barcelona desalination plant: http://www.water- technology.net/projects/barcelonadesalinatio/ Key Facts Capacity: Drinking water output of 200,000m³/day, it is the largest reverse osmosis- based desalination plant in Europe. It was awarded the "Desalination Plant of the Year" award by the Global Water Awards 2010. (Roughly Mombasa’s full requirement. Builders: The plant was built by Aguas Ter Llobregat (ATLL), the public utility that is responsible for the supply of water to the city of Barcelona and the surrounding eight districts. It was intended to increase the water security and availability in the Barcelona metropolitan region. The contract was awarded in 2007 and plant was officially inaugurated in July 2009. It is currently supplying drinking water to about 1.3m inhabitants in the region, catering to almost 20% of the population. Cost and Financing: The project was co-financed by the EU, which contributed €150m. The Spanish Ministry of Environment contributed €52m, while €28m was contributed by ATLL.
  8. 8. Sewerage and Waste Disposal system in Mombasa County Source: http://www.mombasawater.co.ke/index.php/services Currently, the core role of the waste water services department is to operate and maintain sewers, manholes, pumps and sewage treatment plants in the central sewered areas (West mainland and the Island) Kipevu Sewerage Plant  Commissioned in 2003  Electrical fence was installed  The plant is fully operational.  Major rehabilitation works completed under the Afd funding through CWSB.  Final effluents meet the discharge standards set by NEMA for marine life.  But not used as pumps are not working. The Solution: A modern waste water and sewerage treatment plant, which treats the water before discharging it into the Indian Ocean has to be built, so the marine eco-system is not destroyed and neither are chemical pollutants discharged which affect the fish which is caught by local fishermen consumed by the local people, causing alien diseases. Kizingo Treatment Plant Kizingo Treatment plant is in the Island and is not fully operational Study has been undertaken and required budget for rehabilitation is Kshs 300m Pump Stations There are 8 pumping stations namely, West Mainland: Miritini, Mikindani, Jomvu and Port -Reitz - to discharge to the Kipevu treatment plant The Island: Stations no. 1 – 4. - to discharge to the Kizingo treatment plant None of the eight pump stations are working There is only general maintenance and desludging taking place in these stations
  9. 9. The Financing  According to the Kenya Constitution 2010, County Governments source of revenue apart from the allocation from the national Government as per the Commission of Revenue Allocation are as per below:- “(3) A county may impose— (a) property rates; (b) entertainment taxes; and (c) any other tax that it is authorised to impose by an Act of Parliament. (4) The national and county governments may impose charges for the services they provide.” As the County Government of Mombasa, is unlikely to have the revenue resources to undertake the projects, its most feasible course of action would be to finance the water desalination and waste water and sewerage disposal projects using Public-Private Partnership with Official Development Assistance as the catalyst. The Private sector financing with would be repaid by the charges for the water services provided to the County’s residents. A feasible plan would be for Mombasa Water & Sewarage Co. (The water utility entity, responsible for water and sanitation) to go one of the following Multi-National Development Banks, The World Bank Group, African Development Bank, East African Development Bank or Islamic Development Bank, to package a Sukuk (Islamic Equivalent of a Bond, which is suitable for long term infrastructure development) and assist in listing in either the Dubai International Financial Centre, Qatar International Financial Centre, or Bursa Malaysia (formerly known as Kuala Lampur Stock Exchange.

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