Machinery safety inspection

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safety procedures boiler, NDT, hoisting crane etc

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Machinery safety inspection

  1. 1. BOILER
  2. 2. Definition "machinery" includes steam boilers, unfired pressure vessels, fired pressure vessels, pipelines, prime movers, gas cylinders, gas holders, hoisting machines and tackle, transmission machinery, driven machinery, materials handling equipment, amusement device or any other similar machinery and any equipment for the casting, cutting, welding or electro- deposition of materials and for the spraying by means of compressed gas or air of materials or other materials, but does not include—
  3. 3. Definition but does not include— (a) any machinery used for the propulsion of vehicles other than steam boilers or steam engines; (b) any machinery driven by manual power other than hoisting machines; (c) any machinery used solely for private and domestic purposes; or (d) office machines;
  4. 4. Definition "steam boiler" means any closed vessel in which for any purpose steam is generated under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, and includes any economiser used to heat water being fed to the vessel, and any superheater used for heating steam, and any pipes and fittings
  5. 5. EXAMPLES OF STEAM BOILER • Electric Boiler • Fire Tube Boiler • Water Tube Boiler • Combi Boiler • Waste Heat Boiler
  6. 6. ELECTRIC BOILER 1.Pressure Vessel Is Built To ASME Code 2. Electrical Control Panel Box 3. Electric Heating Elements 4. Low Water Cut Off Probe 5. Second (Auxiliary) Low Water Cut Off Probe 6. Pump "On" Probe 7. Pump "Off" Probe 8. Sight Glass Assembly 9. Operating Pressure Control 10. High Limit Pressure Control w/ manual reset 11. Steam Outlet 12. Safety Valve 13. Steam Gauge Assembly 14. Steam Pressure Gauge 15. High Temperature Insulation Surrounds The Pressure Vessel 16. Large (3" x 4") Easily Accessible Handholes 17. Feedwater Shut Off Valve
  7. 7. FIRE TUBE BOILER
  8. 8. FIRE TUBE BOILER
  9. 9. WATER TUBE BOILER
  10. 10. COMBI BOILER
  11. 11. WASTE HEAT BOILER (HRSG)
  12. 12.  Every steam boiler before being put into service for the first time, be subjected to hydrostatic test for at least 20 minutes:- Two times the ASWP, if the boiler pressure is < 100 psi 1½ times the ASWP + 50 psi, if the boiler pressure is > 100 psi Note: If the boiler has been tested satisfactorily by the manufacturer or if it is an old boiler, the required H.T pressure is 1½ times the ASWP STEAM BOILER
  13. 13.  Every steam boiler inspected for the first time or the ASWP has been altered shall be tested under steaming condition to the satisfaction of the Chief Inspector:- Note: The boiler other than a water tube boiler shall be tested with the safety valves set at the ASWP firing for at least 10 minutes with feed water & main stop valve closed. Where the accumulation of pressure exceeds 10% of ASWP, the area of the safety valves are considered insufficient STEAM BOILER
  14. 14. Person in charge according to boiler heating surface Note : Each boiler man should not be in charge of more than 2 boilers. Heating Surface (ft2) Person-in-charge HS ≤ 500 1st or 2nd grade Boilerman 500<HS≤2,000 1st grade Boilerman 2,000<HS< 5,000 1st grade Boilerman + Visiting Engineer 5,000<HS<10,000 1st or 2nd grade Engineer +1st grade Boilerman 10,000<HS<25,000 1st grade Engineer +1st or 2nd grade Engineer + 1st or 2nd grade Boilerman/shift 25,000<HS< 50,000 1st grade Engineer + two 1st or 2nd grade Engineer + 1st or 2nd grade Boilerman/shift HS>50,000 1st grade Engineer + 1st or 2nd grade Engineer /shift + 1st or 2nd grade Boilerman/shift
  15. 15. PACKAGE BOILER 1. Furnace (1st gas pass) 2. Tubes (2nd gas pass) 3. Tubes (3rd gas pass) 4. Combustion chamber 5. Front smoke box 6. Rear outlet box 7. Water gauge glass 8. Safety valve 9. Main stop valve 10. Feed check valve 11. Water level control 12. Manhole 13. Spare connection (steam) 14. Spare connection (water) 15. Feed pump 16. Control panel 17. Burner 18. Forced draft fan 19. Fan inlet silencer
  16. 16.  NAME PLATE  REGISTRATION PLATE  SAFETY VALVE  GAUGE GLASS  PRESSURE GAUGE  INSPECTOR‘S TEST PRESSURE GAUGE ATTACHMENT  MAIN STOP VALVE  LOW WATER ALARM  LOW WATER FUEL CUT-OUT  FUSIBLE PLUG  FEED PUMP  FEED CHECK VALVE BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  17. 17. NAME PLATE Function: To provide important information Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A name plate which bears the following:-  Name and address  Serial number  Design pressure  Design Code  Hydrostatic test pressure  Date of hydrostatic test BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  18. 18. REGISTRATION PLATE Function: To display the registration number allocated by the Chief Inspector (PMD No…………) Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A registration plate - which bears the registration number BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  19. 19. SAFETY VALVE Function: To release the boiler pressure in the event of high pressure exceeding the ASWP Every boiler shall be provided with:-  At least two safety valves - one spring-loaded type  If heating surface area < 100 sq ft - one spring- loaded type  Able to discharge the steam and maintain pressure not more than 10% of ASWP BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  20. 20. Structure of safety valves
  21. 21. Common defects with safety valves  Broken spring or spring with crack or spring with pittings.  Worn out seat or steam cut through the seat.  Bent spindle.
  22. 22. GAUGE GLASS Function: To provide level indication for boiler water Every boiler shall be provided with:-  Two gauge glasses  If evaporative capacity <300 lb/hr of steam from and at 212 0F  - one gauge glass with two test cocks  The lowest visible part shall not be lower than the lowest safe working level BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  23. 23. GAUGE GLASS
  24. 24. Common defects with water gauges  Both ends of the gauge worn out.  Inlet pipe chokes with scales.
  25. 25. WATER COLUMN
  26. 26. PRESSURE GAUGE Function: To provide pressure indication for a boiler Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A steam pressure gauge  Fitted above the highest part of the steam side  Provided with a siphon  Dial not less than 6 inches in diameter  Graduation from 0 to not < 11 3 times but not > 2 times the ASWP BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  27. 27. Pressure gauges • Every steam boiler shall have a pressure gauge. • Every pressure gauge shall be connected to a boiler above the highest water level with the dial of the gauge in the vertical plane. It can be read from the firing position. A dial shall – > 6‖ diameter – scale ranges from 0 PSI to between 1 to 2 times authorized working pressure. – Red mark to indicate max. authorized working pressure. • Pressure gauges are connected to the steam space of boiler usually have a ring type siphon tub which fills with condensed steam and protect the dial mechanism from high temperatures. . Pressure gauge with ring siphon
  28. 28. INSPECTOR‘S TEST PRESSURE GAUGE ATTACHMENT Function: To provide a connection for a reliable pressure gauge of the Inspector and check the accuracy and recalibration Every boiler shall be provided with:-  An Inspector‘s test pressure gauge attachment  Consists of a valve or cock carrying a socket fitted with a plug  Mounted near the pressure gauge BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  29. 29. PRESSURE GAUGE ATTACHMENT
  30. 30. MAIN STOP VALVE Function: To put boiler into service and stop the steam supply when the boiler is shut down Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A main steam stop valve  Fitted direct to the boiler shell  Bear the manufacturer‘s name, design pressure and direction of flow BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  31. 31. MAIN STOP VALVE
  32. 32. LOW WATER ALARM Function: To provide an audible sound when the water level is low Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A low water alarm - for boilers :-  Fired with solid fuel & press > 250 psi or  Fired with liquid/gaseous fuel not fitted with low water fuel cut out BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  33. 33. LOW WATER ALARM
  34. 34. LOW WATER FUEL CUT-OUT Function: To stop the boiler immediately by shutting off fuel and air supply in the event of very low water level Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A low water fuel cut-out - boilers fired with liquid & gaseous fuel  Connected to burner control system BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  35. 35. LOW WATER FUEL CUT-OUT
  36. 36. Common defects with water alarm  Mobrey float is water logged.  Mobrey float is dented.  Inlet pipe choked with scale.
  37. 37. FUSIBLE PLUG Function: To give early protection from direct heat in the event of loss of boiler water Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A fusible plug - boilers fired with solid fuels only  Fitted 2 to 3 inches above the highest tubes  Fusible alloy shall melt at a temp not >150 0F greater than saturated steam temp corresponding to the ASWP BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  38. 38. LOCATION OF A FUSIBLE PLUG
  39. 39. FEED PUMP Function: Draws water from the feed tank and delivers it under pressure to the boiler Every boiler shall be provided with:-  Two feed pumps - heating surface area >150 sq ft BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  40. 40. FEED CHECK VALVE Function: To control amount of feedwater to the boiler and prevent back flow of feedwater from the boiler  Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A feed check valve  Clearly marked with the flow direction  Bear the manufacturer‘s name and design pressure BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  41. 41. FEED CHECK VALVE
  42. 42. Common defects with check valve  Bent spring.  Seat worn out.
  43. 43. BLOWDOWN VALVE Function: To remove impurities and control water level Every boiler shall be provided with:-  A blowdown valve  Attached direct to the shell and at the lowest point of the boiler  Bore not < 1 inch in diameter  Clear indication of open & close position BOILER ESSENTIAL FITTINGS
  44. 44. BLOWDOWN VALVE
  45. 45. Common defects with blow down valve  Seat with steam cutting.  90° turn gear worn out.  Seat surface worn out.  Handle broken.
  46. 46. BOILER DEFECTS  Crack of metal part or welding part – nozzle crack, shell crack, header crack etc.  Tube burst  Buldging or dented at furnace side or tubesheet  Pipe sagging  Pitting and corrosion  Hard scaling
  47. 47. Inspection of FoundationTo check the existence of any cracks in the brick lying, confirmation shall be done for the expansion clearance and condition of heat insulation.
  48. 48. Flue Gas System
  49. 49. Fire Side
  50. 50. ILLEGAL REPAIR
  51. 51. Superheater : 1 - 1.25 ton steam/tube
  52. 52. Violent rupture caused by scaling This tube is bent almost to a right angle, caused by the severity of the burst
  53. 53. A rupture at a single bulge The tube had experienced long-term overheating caused by scaling
  54. 54. Rupture Caused by Scaling
  55. 55. Scaling WATER SIDE
  56. 56. WATER SIDE
  57. 57. Corrosion Pitting
  58. 58. Drums and Internal Parts
  59. 59. PRESSURE VESSEL
  60. 60. Definition "unfired pressure vessel" means any enclosed vessel under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure by any gas or mixture or combination of gases and includes any vessel under pressure of steam external to the steam boiler and any vessel which is under pressure of a liquid or gas or both, and any vessel subject internally to a pressure less than atmospheric pressure but does not include gas cylinders;
  61. 61. Definition  "fired pressure vessel" means an enclosed vessel under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure which is subjected to direct firing, but does not include a steam boiler;
  62. 62. Bekas Udara / Tangki LPG
  63. 63. Pengandung Di Loji Petrokimia / Loji Penapisan Minyak
  64. 64. Inspection External Inspection Internal Inspection Hydrostatic Test Leak Test Proof Test
  65. 65. Name Plate Inspection Hole/Door Pressure Gage Drain Cock ESSENTIAL FITTINGS Steam Receiver Stop Valve
  66. 66. Name Plate Drain Cock Pressure Gage Inspection Hole ESSENTIAL FITTINGS Air Receiver
  67. 67. Safety Valve/ Rupture Disc Pressure Gage Name Plate ESSENTIAL FITTINGS Other Vessels
  68. 68. SAFETY RELIEF VALVE
  69. 69. Conventional Metal Rupture Disc CHOOSE TYPE
  70. 70. Pressure gauge (i) not be less than three inches in diameter across the dial: Provided that where the external shell diameter of the unfired pressure vessel is less than twelve inches and the pressure in such vessel is not more than one hundred and fifty pounds per square inch, such gauge shall not be less than two inches in diameter; (ii) be graduated from zero to not less than one and one-third times and not more than twice the authorised safe working pressure of the pressure vessel to which it is fitted; (iii) have the authorised safe working pressure clearly marked in red on the dial; (iv)be provided with a single stop pin at the lowest pressure reading; (v) accurately show the pressure within a tolerance of plus or minus two per centum of the authorised safe working pressure of the pressure vessel to which it is attached.
  71. 71. Name plat
  72. 72. Stop Valve
  73. 73. Drain Pits
  74. 74. External Inspection
  75. 75.  Evident of Leakage External Inspection Any leakage of gas, vapour or liquid should be investigated. A leakage coming from behind insulation coverings, supports or settings, or evidence of a past leakage should be thoroughly investigated by removing any covering necessary to establish the source.
  76. 76.  Structure Attachments External Inspection The mountings for an unfired pressure vessel should be checked for adequate allowance for expansion and contraction, such as that provided by slotted bolt holes or unobstructed saddle mountings. Attachments of legs, saddles, skirts or other supports should be examined for distortion or cracks at welds.
  77. 77.  Vessel Connections External Inspection Manholes, reinforcing plates, nozz1es or other connections should be examined for cracks, deformation or other defects. Bolts and nuts should be checked for corrosion or defects. Tell tale holes in reinforcing plates should remain open to provide visual evidence of leakage as well as to prevent pressure built up between the vessel and reinforcing plate. Accessible flange faces should be examined for distortion and to determine the condition of gasket seating surfaces
  78. 78.  Abrasives  Dents  Distortion  Cuts and Gouges  Surface Inspection  Weld Joints (New Vessel) External Inspection
  79. 79. COMMON WELDING DEFECT
  80. 80. ?? Reduced Inlet Piping Anything wrong here? Reduced Inlet Piping
  81. 81. ?? Discharges Pointing DownAnything wrong here? Anything wrong here? Discharges Pointing Down
  82. 82. ?? Long Moment Arm Anything wrong here? Long Moment Arm
  83. 83. ?? Will these bolts hold in a relief event Anything wrong here? Will these bolts hold in a relief event?
  84. 84. Internal Inspection A general visual inspection is the first step in making an internal inspection. All parts of the vessel should be inspected for corrosion, erosion, hydrogen blistering, deformation, cracking and laminations
  85. 85. Internal Inspection
  86. 86. Uniform Corrosion
  87. 87. Pitting Pitting Corrosion showing wormhole attack pattern, where pits are interconnected.
  88. 88. Corrosion Pitting Narrow,deep Shallow, wide Elliptical Undercutting
  89. 89. Galvanic Corrosion Galvanic ringworm corrosion, often occurring four to six inches from the upset, where carbon particles have been spheroidized.
  90. 90. Heat Affected Zone  Heat-affected zone (HAZ) corrosion is a type of galvanic corrosion which occurs along a weld seam.
  91. 91. Grooving Corrosion Raindrop attack occurs in gas condensate wells. In areas, water condenses on the metal surface, causing deep pits with tails
  92. 92. Creep Corrosion  Mesa attack is a form of CO2 corrosion that occurs in flowing environments, and occurs where a protective iron carbonate coating is worn away in areas.
  93. 93. Erosion Corrosion Erosion Corrosion, or flow-enhanced corrosion, usually occurs in areas where the diameter of the pipe or direction of flow is changing. Severe metal loss can quickly occur.
  94. 94. Fatigue Corrosion due to fatigue occurs in areas of cyclic stresses. Here we see fatigue corrosion in a drill pipe.
  95. 95. Crack
  96. 96. INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGER
  97. 97. NDT is used to inspect pipelines to prevent leaks that could damage the environment. Visual inspection, radiography and electromagnetic testing are some of the NDT methods used. Remote visual inspection using a robotic crawler. Radiography of weld joints. Magnetic flux leakage inspection. This device, known as a pig, is placed in the pipeline and collects data on the condition of the pipe as it is pushed along by whatever is being transported. Pipeline Inspection
  98. 98. Non Destructive Testing
  99. 99. The use of noninvasive techniques to determine the integrity of a material, component or structure or quantitatively measure some characteristic of an object. i.e. Inspect or measure without doing harm. Definition of NDT
  100. 100. Six Most Common NDT Methods• Visual • Liquid Penetrant • Magnetic • Ultrasonic • Eddy Current • X-ray
  101. 101. Most basic and common inspection method. Tools include fiberscopes, borescopes, magnifying glasses and mirrors. Robotic crawlers permit observation in hazardous or tight areas, such as air ducts, reactors, pipelines. Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows inspection of large tanks and vessels, railroad tank cars, sewer lines. Visual Inspection
  102. 102. SPECIMEN SPECIMEN SPECIMEN STEP 1: CLEAN THE SPECIMEN WITH THE CLEANER STEP 2: WIPE DRY THE SURFACE AND SPRAY THE PENETRANT THOROUGHLY ON THE SURFACE AND LET IT SETTLES, 15-20 MINUTES. WIPE CLEAN THE SURFACE. STEP 3: APPLY THE DEVELOPER (WHITE) AND LET IT SETTLES FOR A FEW MINUTES. RED LINE APPEARS ON THE SURFACE WITH HAIR LINE CRACK HAIRLINE CRACK HAIRLINE CRACK DEVELOPERHAIRLINE CRACK APPEAR RED DYE PENETRANT PROCESS
  103. 103. • A liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the surface of the part and allowed time to seep into surface breaking defects. • The excess liquid is removed from the surface of the part. • A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen. • Visual inspection is the final step in the process. The penetrant used is often loaded with a fluorescent dye and the inspection is done under UV light to increase test sensitivity. Liquid Penetrant Inspection
  104. 104. Magnetic Particle Inspection The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity. This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.
  105. 105. Magnetic Particle Crack Indications
  106. 106. Radiography The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves that we see as visible light. The radiation can come from an X-ray generator or a radioactive source. High Electrical Potential Electrons -+ X-ray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation Exposure Recording Device Radiation Penetrate the Sample
  107. 107. Film Radiography Top view of developed film X-ray film The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. The part will stop some of the radiation. Thicker and more dense area will stop more of the radiation. = more exposure = less exposure The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object.
  108. 108. Cracks Transverse cracks Welding defect: Transverse crack. A fracture in the weld metal running across the weld. Welding defect: Longitudinal root crack. A fracture in the weld metal at the edge of the root pass. Longitudinal cracks
  109. 109. Cavities Root pass aligned porosity Welding defect : Root pass aligned porosity. Rounded and elongated voids in the bottom of the weld aligned along the weld centerline. Solid inclusion Tungsten inclusion Welding defect : Tungsten inclusions. Random bits of tungsten fused, but not melted, into the weld metal.
  110. 110. Lack of fusion and penetration Lack of sidewall fusion Welding defect : Lack of sidewall fusion (LOF). Elongated voids between the weld beads and the joint surfaces to be welded. Lack of inter-run fusion Welding defect : Inter-pass slag inclusions. Usually nonmetallic impurities that solidified on the weld surface and were not removed between weld passes.
  111. 111. Lack of fusion and penetration Incomplete root penetration Welding defect : Incomplete or lack of penetration (LOP). The edges of the pieces have not been welded together, usually at the bottom of single V-groove welds. Radiographic image : A darker density band, with very straight parallel edges, in the center of the width of the weld image.
  112. 112. Conductive material Coil Coil's magnetic field Eddy currents Eddy current's magnetic field Eddy Current Testing
  113. 113. Eddy Current Testing Eddy current testing is particularly well suited for detecting surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical conductivity and coating thickness measurements. Here a small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in a attempt to detect a crack
  114. 114. Power Plant Inspection Prob e Signals produced by various amounts of corrosion thinning. Periodically, power plants are shutdown for inspection. Inspectors feed eddy current probes into heat exchanger tubes to check for corrosion damage. Pipe with damage
  115. 115. High frequency sound waves are introduced into a material and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws. Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time, and inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen showing the depth of features that reflect sound. f plate crack 0 2 4 6 8 10 initial pulse crack echo back surface echo Oscilloscope, or flaw detector Ultrasonic Inspection (Pulse- Echo)
  116. 116. Hydrostatic Test • Every pressurised equipment must be subjected to hydrostatic test and witnessed by DOSH Inspector • Review the manufacturing data report • Carry out the measurement of the pressurised equipment and must be in accordance with the approved drawing • Hard stamp on flange and issue JKJ 127 if the test is successful
  117. 117. Why Hydrostatic Test To check the structure integrity of the vessel To check against brittle fracture To check for leak, and To obtain a more favourable strees distribution in a high localised stress region.
  118. 118. Hazard on Hydrostatic Test
  119. 119. Leak/Soap Test
  120. 120. Pemeriksaan kebocoran dengan menggunakan buih sabun untuk tangki gas Perkeliling Ketua Pengarah Bil 1 Tahun 2000
  121. 121. Leak Test Oil separator vaporiser Piping and Aboveground LPG Tank Installation
  122. 122. HOSTING MACHINE
  123. 123. Definition Hoisting Machine any equipment for lifting, raising or lowering load such as a lift, escalator, hoist, crane, winch, dragline, piling machine, aerial cableway, funicular railway, access platform, dumbwaiter, vertical conveyor lifter and mechanical loading ramp, and includes transporter, walkalator and other similar equipment, but does not include manual hoist and materials handling equipment
  124. 124. Main crane types
  125. 125. Main crane types
  126. 126. Main crane types
  127. 127. Kereta Kabel
  128. 128. Kren Kembara Atas (OTC)
  129. 129. Kren Derik
  130. 130.  OPERATOR KREN (Bergerak dan Menara)  ORANG KOMPETEN LIF PENGENDALIAN MESIN PERLU ORANG YANG TERLATIH FMA Bahagian III : Orang yang bertanggungjawab/ menerima latihan yang mencukupi. (Peraturan 26)
  131. 131. TOWER CRANE
  132. 132. Page 139 Features of OTC
  133. 133. Gantry Crane Control box Hook Hook block Girder Crab Rail Hoist Drum SWL
  134. 134. TYPES OF CRANES
  135. 135. Safety Feature
  136. 136. Structure Inspection
  137. 137. Pendant & Remote Controls  Ensure that all controls are clearly marked for their intended functions
  138. 138. Securing the hoist rope to the drum There must be a minimum of 2 wraps of wire on the drum when ever the hook block is at its lowest point
  139. 139. ANTI COLLISION
  140. 140. Flashing lights/Audible alarms
  141. 141. Wire Rope Inspection Electromagnetic devices and visual inspections are used to find broken wires and other damage to the wire rope that is used in cranes and other lifting devices.
  142. 142. Wire Rope Construction
  143. 143. Wire Rope Construction
  144. 144. Cth : Lang’s lay FSWR  - biasanya digunakan untuk luffing  - bukan untuk mengangkat  Lebih flaksibel dan kukuh berbanding kaedah pembentangan biasa.  Digunakan untuk excavator , dragline pile driving rope
  145. 145. Page 152 Wire Rope Construction
  146. 146. KEROSAKAN WIRE ROPE : KINK Bagaimanakah ianya terjadi?
  147. 147. Fatigue Bending fatigue breaks on ropes made out of compacted outer strands. The distribution of bending fatigue wire breaks is typically random.
  148. 148. Fatigue Heavily worn wire rope with a few fatigue breaks. The wire ends are displaced in different directions because of rope twist.
  149. 149. Fatigue This six-strand rope displays almost no wear but a great number of fatigue breaks.
  150. 150. Birdcage damage
  151. 151. Bagaimana cara yang betul untuk mengukur diameter ??.. Diameter berkurang kepada 85 % atau lebih
  152. 152. 159 Wire rope yang rosak Broken Strands Wire rope yang rosak perlulah dikeluarkan untuk diservis/ diganti Crushed Rope
  153. 153. Page 160 Wire Rope Defect Three randomly distributed broken wires in one strand, in one rope lay.
  154. 154. Page 161 Corrosion of the rope or end attachments. Wire Rope Defect
  155. 155. Fakta menarik Sumber : Dave Hermanowski, Manager of technical training for Harnischfeger Institute, US  Lebih 90 % kes melibatkan kemalangan barang angkatan jatuh dari overhead crane telah dilaporkan adalah akibat kegagalan pada wirerope.
  156. 156. Amalan yang baik mengendalikan wire rope SALAH BETUL
  157. 157. Amalan yang baik mengendalikan wire rope
  158. 158. Lifting hook  The lifting hook must be stamped or marked with the SWL  Is is an offence to ride on the lift hook  Only approved lifting cages are allowed to be use when lifting people
  159. 159. Page 166 Hook Requirement  Provided with safety latch  Hook opening  Hook twisting  No cracks Hook Opening Twisting
  160. 160. Hook Requirement
  161. 161. The grooves must be smooth and free from surface defects which could cause rope damage Sheaves
  162. 162. Three Types of Slings 1. Chain Slings 2. Wire Rope Slings 3. Synthetic Web Slings
  163. 163. Identification Tag
  164. 164. Sling Load Capacity and Sling Angles The load capacity of the sling is determined by its weakest component. Never overload a sling. Remember, the wider the sling legs are spread apart, the less the sling can lift! 1000 lbs Lift Capacity 707 lbs Lift Capacity 500 lbs Lift Capacity
  165. 165. Synthetic Slings Sling capacity varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, no set standard like wire rope has. User must look at Individual Sling Capacity Tag to determine Safe Lifting Capacity of that sling. If the Tag is not readable or is missing, Do not use it! Inspect sling before each days use, and as often as necessary during the day to assure safety of sling! Sharp edges can slice a sling in two without warning as the load is tensioned. Use softeners or padding on corners.
  166. 166. Synthetic Slings
  167. 167. Jangan digunakan jika terdapat Kesan kerosakan : 1. Asid 2. Terbakar 3. Terpotong 4. Terputus dari regangan 5. Geseran berlebihan 6. Kesan kelaran 7. Kesan tertebuk 8. Regangan berlebihan/ carik 9. Kehilangan tag/ pudar
  168. 168. Chain Slings
  169. 169. Hi Tensile Chain Slings
  170. 170. Chain Grade Identification  Chains are marked on a link at intervals  The word ‗grade‘ means the strength of chain  If there are no marks or stamping, the chain should be considered to be mild steel grade L
  171. 171. Chain Slings Only Grade 8 or better ALLOY Chain can be used for overhead lifting purposes! All chain is not rated the same! Chain must have a capacity tag attached to it. Chains will withstand more rough handling and abuse, but a chain with the same rated lifting capacity of wire rope will be much larger in diameter and heavier in weight. Chains must be inspected daily before use and as often as necessary during use to assure safety. It is the riggers responsibility to do the inspections!
  172. 172. Chain Sling Inspection Items  Cracks, stretches, severe nicks, gouges, welding splattered or deformed master links, coupling links, chains or other components.  One leg of a double or triple chain sling is longer than the others.  Hooks have been opened more than 25% of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.  Chain size at any point of any link is less than stated in the chart on the next slide, the sling shall be removed.
  173. 173. Chain Slings Only chain slings purchased from the manufacturer are allowed. No homemade slings allowed!!
  174. 174. Wire Rope Sling Capacities
  175. 175. Wire Rope Sling Choker Adjustments
  176. 176. Types of Wire Wire Rope Slings
  177. 177. Wire Rope Sling Inspection Items  Three randomly distributed broken wires in one strand, in one rope lay.  Wear or scraping of 1/3 the original diameter of outside individual wires.  Kinking, crushing or any damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope.  End attachments that are cracked, worn or deformed.  Corrosion of the rope or end attachments.
  178. 178. 185 Rigging Equipment Slings Types of slings include alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope, and synthetic web. Chain Wire rope Metal mesh Synthetic
  179. 179. Page 186 Wire Rope Socket
  180. 180. Page 187 Wire Rope Clip
  181. 181. Safe Usage Practices  Slings should be stored off of the floor and hung on racks whenever possible in a clean, dry environment.  Never drag slings across the floor.  Always hook with a “closed hook” arrangement (hooks facing out).
  182. 182. Spreader Bar  Spreader bars are used when our slings go outside120° (angle)
  183. 183. Spreader Bar
  184. 184. Storage  Store undercover on suitable racks or on hanging pegs  Clean, inspect and lubricate
  185. 185. Shackles There are two main types of shackle — ―Dee‖ and ―Bow‖  Never use a shackle or pin which is bent  Never allow a shackle to be pulled at an angle
  186. 186. Eyebolts
  187. 187. Minimum size for: Rope hand held as a tag-line on loads is 16mm. Load restrains – 12mm
  188. 188. Common Hooks and Shorteners
  189. 189. Plate Clamp  Plate Clamps are used to lift steel plate. They should be used at all times when lifting plate steel.  Before using the clamp always read the Operator‘s Manual supplied with the clamp. Do not UNDERLOAD the lifting clamp.  The minimum working load must be at least 10% of the W.L.L;
  190. 190. Plate Clamp
  191. 191. Plate Clamp
  192. 192. Chain blocks and come along  NEVER use a hoist for lifting, supporting or transporting people
  193. 193. 1926.550(a)(8) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or other moving parts or equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees.

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