Manpower PlanningThe need for companies to take a searching look at their future manpower requirements has becomemore and more evident, and manpower planning is more important for management than it has everbeen. There are three main arguments in favour of manpower planning. Firstly, there is considerableevidence to indicate that for some time to come there will be a shortage of quality manpower,particularly technological and scientific manpower, the demand for which is steadily increasing.Secondly, changes in manpower requirements in skill terms are likely to be much more rapid in thefuture than they have been in the past. No longer is a man able to learn a skill in his youth which willcarry him through the whole of his working life; it is probable that the young and the not so youngman will have to change his skill once, or even twice, in the course of his working life. Thirdly, theever increasing costs of manpower. Demands for higher standards of living and increased leisure aretending to push these up at an even faster rate.Assuming that the average stay in a company of a newly recruited graduate engineer is three years,and that such a recruit is normal, but not exceptional; then the cost in salary alone over the three-yearperiod is likely to be (at current values) of the order of Rs. 8,000/- per month. If, however, one addson the other costs of staff pensions, various fringe benefits, accommodation and office services, etc.then the total cost is of the order of Rs. 20,000/- per month.No one contemplating the purchase of a piece of plant or equipment, with a similar life-span, costingthat amount would do so without the most careful study of its suitability for the purpose for which itwas intended, its capacity, the means by which that capacity could be utilized to the full, its place inthe scheme of production, and the expected return on the investment. Few companies apply the samelevel of criteria of consideration to manpower. The reason for this difference in approach lies in thetraditional attitude to manpower as a cost rather than as an investment. Yet while machinerydepreciates and eventually become obsolete, properly developed manpower can continue to grow inusefulness and capacity.The view that there is likely to be a shortage of quality staff over the longer term, or in the one thatpresently exists, is not universally shared. Some take the view that there is considerable under-use oftalents and abilities, and that there is a large, as yet untapped, potential for the exercise of higher skillsif only adequate training and education can be made available. This, in itself, is a very large subject.The objective of manpower planning is, and must be, to improve manpower utilisation and to ensurethat there is available manpower of the right number and the right quality to meet the present andfuture needs of the organisation. It must, therefore, produce, a realistic recruitment policy and planand must be very much concerned with costs and productivity.Role and Content of Manpower PlanningManpower planning, in its broadest sense, covers all those activities traditionally associated with themanagement of personnel – records, recruitment, selection, training and development, appraisal, careerplanning, management succession and so on. But it is important, both for analytical purposes andultimately for executive purposes, to disentangle these activities and to think of them as a number ofsequential phases. The three main phases as illustrated in Figure 1 (below) are:Phase 1: The development of manpower objectives: This is concerned with the development offorecasts of the manpower necessary to fulfill the company’s corporate objectives, with looking at thetotality of situations rather than at individuals. It is concerned with detailed analysis in order toidentify and foresee problem areas, to assess future demands and to establish how those demands maybe met. It is directed towards the development of manpower strategy as an integral part of companystrategy.
Phase 2: The management of manpower: In this phase, the question is one of managing manpowerresources to meet objectives and the development, in more specific and individual terms, ofrecruitment plans, training and development plans, succession plans, appraisal systems, etc.Phase 3: Control and evaluation: This concerns the continual evaluation and amendment of plans inthe light of achievement and changing circumstances. Planning starts from a given factual positionand tries to look ahead through a range of possibilities. Evaluation in this context means thoroughlychecking forecasts and forecasting methods against what eventually happens, and making suchrevisions as may prove necessary. Any planning activity must have a system for this regular checkingbuilt into it. In other words, planning must be a continuing process. The components of the secondphase are fairly familiar in industry and are often taken to be synonymous with manpower planning.It is the ultimate aim of any complete system of manpower planning that all three phases should befully integrated. Manpower planning must be fully integrated with the company plan. Indeed withouta company plan, there can be no realistic manpower planning.
Figure 1: A procedure for a manpower planning Company Objectives , Policies and Plans Economic Organisation Strategic Forecasts objectives plans Manpower Analysis (Current situation) Manpower forecasts Phase one Inventory (Future situation) Employment Overall Unit Budget Management Productivity manpower Manpower agreement manpower Organisation forecast forecast estimates Top Management Manpower objectives and Approval Policies Manpower Plans and Programs Recruitment and selection Phase Redundancy two Retirement and remuneration Training Appraisal and development Efficiency investigation Phase three Control and Evaluation
The present position and the analysis of trendsIn manpower planning there are three basic elements to be considered the present stock of manpower;wastage, and future requirements for manpower. Information will be needed in a series ofpermutations and combinations according to the needs of the company. The following are the basic‘building blocks’ that will probably be needed in most circumstances: • Present total manpower. • Manpower resources by appropriate planning groups, for example, sex, grade, function/department, profession/skill, qualification, age group, and length of service. • Total manpower costs. • Total costs by appropriate component elements, for example, salaries, wages, pension contributions, welfare, canteen, etc. • Costs by functions/departments. • Costs indices and ratios (see control and evaluation below). • Total numbers related to sales, production or such other criteria as may be appropriate, in physical and financial terms. • Attrition and retention rates by appropriate groups, that is, overall, by function/department, profession, sex, age group, etc. • Recruitment patterns by age, education, etc. for each function/department. • Resources of promotable staff.Forecasting future manpower movementsFuture manpower requirements are self-evidently governed by the company’s corporate plan and theycan only be considered in that context. Indeed, without a corporate plan there can be no realisticmanpower plan. It follows that no forecast for the forward demand of manpower can be more precisethan the formulation of the company’s overall objectives. Clearly, it is also important that acompany’s objectives should be so stated as to be interpretable in terms of manpower involvement.The factors affecting manpower demand fall into two main groups: trading and production patternsand technological change. Some indication of the extent to which volume and patterns of trade, andtechnological change affect manpower will have been gathered from the analyses.Control and EvaluationTwo broad and complementary approaches to the control and evaluation of the manpower plan arenecessary, one in terms of numerical trends and the other in terms of costs criteria.Assuming that the planning period is of five years, then the plan prepared in 1992 would go through tothe end of 1997. In the autumn of 1993, the plan should have been reviewed and up-dated wherenecessary and extended to include 1998. The first step is, as has been stated, the review and up datingof the corporate plan. This normally takes the form of a package of expectations and objectives, all ofwhich are considered mutually consistent and feasible. The strategy for achieving these objectivesdetermines the form of organisation to be used and the amount and form of resources required,including manpower.In this review, management will want to question the degree to which the various specific goals of themanpower plan were achieved. This can be shown by the use of a number of numerical controls andgauges, such as change in numbers by total/department/function, changes in wastage (turnover) ratesand the reasons for wastage, changing age structures and their implications, all related to the originaltargets set.Another approach, which has been found useful in giving a comparative picture of the contributionbeing made by personnel to the operation of the company, is the development of cost ratios.
ConclusionIn a world of rapidly changing technology with an ever-growing demand for more and different skills,the need to plan manpower is as great as the need to plan any other resource. The prosperity andgrowth of any company rests, in the end, on the quality of its manpower and the extent to which theirtalents are utilized to the full.Manpower planning is concerned with safeguarding the future, with preventing the loss ofopportunities through lack of appropriate human abilities and the wastefulness of ‘over-braining’ theorganisation. It emphasizes the need for rationalization in keeping with modern needs andtechnological capabilities and the development of organisation structures to match.
Job Analysis – A DefinitionJob analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing and setting out information about jobs in order toprovide the basis for a job description or role definition and data for job evaluation, performancemanagement and other human resource management purposes.A distinction should be made between a job description and a role definition. A job description setsout the purpose of a job, whether it fits in the organisation structure, the context within which the jobholder functions and the principal accountabilities of the job holders, or the main tasks they have tocarry out. A role definition additionally describes the part to be played by individuals in fulfillingtheir job requirements. Role definitions refer to broader aspects of behaviour, for example, workingflexibly, working with others and styles of management. They may incorporate the results of skills orcompetence analysis.Job Analysis in PracticeJob analysis is an analytical process involving gathering facts, analyzing and sorting these facts and re-assembling them into whatever consistent format is chosen. Job analysis gets the facts about a jobfrom jobholders, the jobholder’s manager (preferably both) and the jobholder’s colleagues or teammates. It is not a matter of obtaining opinions or making judgments. What goes into a job descriptionshould be what actually happens and why, not what people would like to think happens, or what theyfeel people should be like to make it happen. Thus judgmental statements such as ‘Carries out thehighly skilled work of…’ should be avoided (who is to say that the work is highly skilled and incomparison with what?)The facts can be obtained by interviews (the best but time-consuming way) or by asking jobholdersand/or their managers to write their own job descriptions in a structured format. It is helpful in bothcases to be quite clear about the questions to be asked and answered and it is essential in the latter caseto provide guidance on how the analysis should be carried out and expressed on paper. Alternativelyquestionnaires can be used – either universal questionnaires or those designed for job families:• Universal questionnairesUniversal questionnaires are designed to cover all the jobs to be analyzed. They are typically used inassociation with computer-assisted job evaluation. They should be tailored to the particularorganisation and the range and type of jobs to be covered, and they should focus on those aspects ofperformance and values which are considered to be important in the organisation concerned.• Job family questionnairesJob family questionnaires are designed to establish the main factors which differentiate between jobsat different levels in a job family. A job family consists of jobs in a particular function or disciplinesuch as research scientist, development engineer or personnel specialists which are related in terms ofthe fundamental activities carried out but are differentiated by the levels of responsibility, skill orcompetence required. A job family questionnaire is designed with the advice of an expert team ofmanagers from the organisation.Job analysis interview check lists • What is your job title? • To whom are you responsible? • Who is responsible to you? (An organisation chart is helpful). • What is the main purpose of your job? i.e. in overall terms, what are you expected to do? • To achieve that purpose, what are your main areas of responsibility (e.g. principal accountabilities, key result areas or main tasks)? Describe what you have to do and also
indicate why you have to do it? i.e. the results you are expected to achieve by carrying out the task. • What are the dimensions of your job in such terms as output or sales targets, numbers of items processed, numbers of people managed, and number of customers? • Is there any other information you can provide about your job to amplify the above facts, such as: - how your job fits in with other jobs in your department or in the company; - flexibility requirements in terms of having to carry out a range of different tasks; - how work is allocated to you and how your work is reviewed and approved; - your decision-making authority; - the contacts you make with others, inside and outside the company – the equipment, plant and tools you use; - other features of your job such as traveling or unsocial hours or unusual physical conditions; - the major problems you meet in carrying out your work; - the knowledge and skills you need to do your work.The aim is to structure the job analysis interview or questionnaire in line with these headings.Analyzing the factsHowever carefully the interview or questionnaire is structured, the information is unlikely to come outneatly and succinctly in a way which can readily be translated into a job description or role definition.It is usually necessary to sort out, rearrange and sometimes rewrite the information.Management By Objectives (MBO)Management by Objectives is basically a process whereby the superior and the subordinate managersof an enterprise jointly identify its common goals, define each individual’s major areas ofresponsibility in terms of the results expected of him, and use these measures as guides for operatingthe unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members. A number of companies have hadsignificant success in broadening individual responsibility and involvement in work planning at thelowest organisational levels. The concept rests on a philosophy on management that emphasizes anintegrated between external control (by managers) and self-control (by subordinates). It can apply toany manager or individual no matter what level or function, and to any organisation, regardless of size.The smooth functioning of this system is an agreement between a manager and subordinate about thatsubordinate’s own or group performance goals during a stated time period. These goals canemphasize output variables or intervening variables, or a combination of both. The important thing isthat goals are jointly established and agreed upon in advance. This is followed by a review of thesubordinate’s performance in relation to accepted goals at the end of the time period. Both superiorand subordinates participate in this review and in any other evaluation that takes place. Consultationand participation in this area tend to establish personal risk for the attainment of the formulatedobjective by those who actually perform the task.Prior to settling individual objectives, the common goals of the entire organisation should be clarified,and at this time, any appropriate changes in the organisation structure should be made: changes intitles, duties, relationships, authority, responsibility, span of control, and so forth.Throughout the time period what is to be accomplished by the entire organisation should be comparedwith what is being accomplished; necessary adjustments should be made and inappropriate goalsdiscarded. At the end of the time period a final mutual review of objectives and performance takesplace. If there is discrepancy between the two, efforts are initiated to determine what steps can be
taken to overcome these problems. This sets the stage for the determination of objectives for the nextperiod.Theories of MotivationThere is no simple formula to motivate people. But if you look at the theoretical emphasis of thebehavioural scientists who have been studying motivation, there is a surprising degree of agreement.MaslowHierarchy of Needs or Deficient Theory of MotivationNeeds are arranged in a definite sequence of domination i.e., unless the needs of lower order arereasonably satisfied, those of the higher order do not dominate.Lower/primary order needs includes basic physiological needs & safety and security.Higher/secondary needs are belonging or social needs, esteem and self-actualization needs. Self-actualization Esteem Belonging SafetyPhysiologicalMcClellandAchievement Theory of Motivation • We have three basic social needs: affiliation, power & achievement. • Need for achievement : The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. • Need for affiliation : The drive for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. • Need for power : The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of MotivationIn the first category are Maintenance or Hygiene factors, which are necessary to maintain areasonable level of job satisfaction. Absence of these factors may dissatisfy the employee but willnot demotivate them. In the Second category are the Motivators since they seem to be effective inmotivating people to superior performance. Hygiene/Maintenance Motivators • Company policy & Adm. • Achievement • Relationship with supervisor • Recognition • Working conditions • Work • Salary • Responsibility • Relationship with peers • Advancement • Personal life • Growth • Relationship with subordinates • Status • Job security • Technical supervision
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory YTheory X emphasizes on discipline, incentive programs, welfare measures, close supervision, pensionand other benefit programs.Theory Y represents the democratic approach and gives to the employees scope for creativity andresponsibility. It stresses man’s need for work, responsibility and involvement in serious endeavour;work force is a reservoir of untapped imagination, intelligence and commitment.Motivating ClimateEven if all your subordinates have high potential for self motivation, a climate should be provided toflourish it. Some suggestions on how to develop such an atmosphere:• Establish clear-cut objectives and standards. The individual must know what is expected of him.• Evaluate the employee’s progress against these yardsticks.• Discuss his progress with him as often as possible - help him to make necessary adjustments.• Take prompt corrective action - including disciplinary action when necessary. Good discipline is essential to any healthy environment.• Use rewards promptly. Rewards must be tied to the specific result and commensurate with the contribution. There must be some differentiation between those who contribute and those who do not. Otherwise, there is no advantage in turning out a superior performance.• Encourage and appreciate excellence among your people. Frequently when you expect great things of people, they will deliver beyond their own expectations.• Try to assign intermediate goals to give the feeling of achievement. A series of small successes can build confidence and expand their horizons.• Give a man difficult challenges on occasion, particularly in less critical areas and after he has had a few successes to build his ego.• Give him an understanding of the organisation’s total goal and the part that he is contributing. This provides him with a sense of involvement essential to his need to grow and develop.Non-Financial MotivatorsAppraisal, Praise or RecognitionPraise has its greatest value when it is given and received as recognition. An employee wouldnaturally want to be praised by his boss and his colleagues for any work done well. Recognitionsatisfies human need for esteem by others and his self-esteem. It can be shown in the form of:- Pat on the back- Recommendation for a pay raise- Promotion- Assignment of more interesting tasks- Awards- Banquets honoring certain individual- Certificates, Plaques etcStatus and PridePride is regarded as a powerful and valuable motivator towards higher productivity. Status refers to“the social rank of a person”. It satisfies the social and egoistic needs. Management can satisfy thisneed by establishing status symbol and distinctions in the organisation by providing:- Good furniture/artistic curtains for the office- Private lockers- Separate cabins/chambers- Suitable desks with drawers etc.
CompetitionCompetition to certain extent should be encouraged in the organisation. It may be in regards to sales,production or safety measures. However, competition leading to jealousy and hostility among thecompeting members and giving rise to a sense of frustration should not be encouraged.Delegation of AuthorityAn individual entrusted with authority has the right to act, to direct and to requisition resources neededto perform a designated activity. The delegation of substantial amount of responsibility to execute agiven task often proves to be a strong motivating force.ParticipationManagement must encourage its employees to participate in areas such as decision making to improvethe working conditions. This will satisfy the employee’s ego and self-esteem. It will also give anoutlet to creativity and initiatives.Job SecurityJob security implies that an employee would continue on the job in the same plant or elsewhere andthat he shall enjoy economic, social security through health and welfare programs. The welfareprograms should provide security against sickness, unemployment, disability, old age and death. Jobsecurity should make arrangements to accommodate surplus manpower in the organisation.Job EnlargementIt is a process of increasing the complexity of job in order to appeal to the higher-order needs of theemployees. Job enlargement implies that the employee performs more varied tasks, which are all onthe same level. The idea is to make the job less monotonous. The basic principle in job enlargementis to provide employees with opportunities to make greater use of their minds and skills so that theyare able to satisfy their need for self-esteem and dignity.Job RotationThe basic objective of job rotation is to increase the skill and knowledge of an employee about relatedjobs. It is basically shifting an employee from one job to another so that monotony and boredom isreduced. An employee learns to do all the different activities necessary for an operation or unit ofwork.Job LoadingTo make a job more interesting Horizontal or Vertical job loading is done. In Horizontal job loading,the employee is given more work at the same level at which he is currently performing. In Verticaljob loading, jobs are restructured to include larger areas of responsibility and make it intrinsicallymore interesting.Job EnrichmentJob Enrichment is usually more successfully in improving quality of the work than its quantity. Thejob to be performed should be less structured and less routine. The quality of work is of primeconsideration for enriching a job. The goal of this exercise is not merely to make the work morevaried but to make “every employee a manager”. The job is made to deal with the higher order needsof an employee such as need for advancement, recognition, growth and responsibility.
Quality of Work LifeThe term “Quality of Work Life” means different things to different people. In reference to the workand its environment in which the employee performs his job, the following are few factors which willimprove the quality of work life:- Adequate and fair compensation- Security and growth opportunity- Safe and healthy working conditions- Opportunity to use and develop creativity- Respect for the individual’s personal rights- Work and family lifeJob Sharing or TwinningIt is novel system, in which two employees prefer to divide one full-time job, especially: - mother and father who want to spend more time with their families - the older people - who want to retire gradually - those with physical limitations - Students• In such system, the hours of work, salary and other fringe benefits are shared between both the parties.Flexitime or Flexible Working HoursFor flexitime employees have the freedom to choose within certain limitations, what time they beginand finish their job each day. It wipes out the 9 to 5 syndrome faced by many employees and enablesthem to enjoy hours that closely match their personal styles. It improves morale, increasesproductivity and gives employees a greater sense of control over their own lives.
Change Management“To improve is to change. To be perfect is to change often”. - Winston ChurchillChangeChange is the name of the game in management today. Market, product and competitive conditionsare rapidly changing. Change is an alteration in the existing field of forces (external & internal) thattends to affect the equilibrium of an organization.In an era of accelerating change, organization’s degree to excellence is judged by its ability to copewith these changes. Organizations either become more adaptive, flexible and anticipative or theybecome rigid, stagnant and react to change after the fact, often when it is too late. Therefore,Managers must do more than just react; they must be able to anticipate the changing patterns ofpeople, markets, products, services and technology.Levels of Change1. Knowledge Changes2. Attitudinal Changes3. Individual Behaviour Changes4. Group or Organisational Performance ChangesChanges in knowledge tend to be the easiest to make; they can occur as a result of reading a book oran article or hearing something new from a respected person. Attitude structures differ fromknowledge structures in that they are emotionally charged in a positive or a negative way. Changes inindividual behaviour seem to be significantly more difficult and time consuming. While individualbehaviour is difficult enough to change, it becomes even more complicated when you try toimplement change within groups or organisations.Types Of Changes in OrganizationsMacro level• Change in Structure: e. g., amendments to the Constitution; nationalization of banks.• Change in Methodology: e.g., Automation in industry: irrigation, chemical fertilizers and crop rotation in agriculture.• Change in Behaviour : e.g., family planning program; patriotism and social discipline in time of war or emergencies.• Change in Assumptions and Values: e. g., desire for socialistic pattern of society; liberation movements.Cycles of ChangeThe levels of change become very significant when you examine two different change cycles - Participative Change Cycle - Directive Change CycleParticipative ChangeA participative change cycle is implemented when new knowledge is made available to the individualor group. It is hoped that the group will accept the data and will develop a positive attitude andcommitment in the direction of the desired change. The next step will be to attempt to translate thiscommitment into actual behaviour. This step is significantly more difficult to achieve. An effective
strategy may be to identify the informal and formal leaders among the work group(s) and concentrateon gaining their behavioral support for the desired change.Once this is accomplished, organisational change may be effected by getting other people to begin topattern their behaviour.Directive ChangeThis change cycle begins by change being imposed on the total organisation by some external force,such as higher management, the community, new laws. The new contacts and modes of behaviourcreate new knowledge, which tend to develop predispositions towards or against the change.Three Dimensions of Change1. Logical Dimension: Based on the technical evidence of economics and science. This evidence needs to be presented to employees so that they can understand the technical and economic reasons for change.2. Psychological Dimension: Based on the fact that change is logical on terms of the human values and feelings in the situation.3. Sociological Dimension: Based on change logical from the point of view of social values. Is the change consistent with norms of the group? Does it maintain group teamwork? These questions need to be resolved keeping in mind society norms.Change ProcessManaging change means managing the conversation between the people leading the change effort andthose who are expected to implement the new strategies.The critical factors of a change process are :• Skill to identify and analyze the objectives of change (knowledge of understanding what the problem is & finding solutions to it.)• Skill to devise successful methods to accomplish the objectives and solve the problems.• Skill to enlist the support of people involved and affected by change.A Model Of Adaptive Orientation Low Anticipative Reactive Management Management Environmental Stability Satisficing Conservative Management Management High High Low Adaptive Orientation
Strategies For Dealing With ChangeIn some cases where change is forced the new behaviour engaged in creates the kind of knowledgethat develops commitment to the change and therefore, begins to approximate a participative changeas it reinforces the individual and group behaviour. The hope is that “if people will only have achance to see how the new system works they will support it.” Planned change according to Benneand Chin can be divided into three basic types of strategies.Empirical – Rational Strategies:The fundamental assumption underlying empirical-rational strategies is that human beings are rationaland will follow their self-interest once this is revealed to them. This strategy is basicallystraightforward and uncomplicated. Since the person is rational and motivated by his self-interest, hewill obviously adopt the proposed change if the logic can be effectively communicated.Normative Re-educative Strategies :The normative re-educative strategies believe that human beings are guided in their actions bysociocultural norms and their commitment to these norms. Consequently, change is not exclusively atthe cognitive or intellectual level but is often at a more personal level : habits, attitudes, and values.Power-Coercive Strategies :Power-coercive strategies are based on the assumption of compliance of those with less power to thewill of those with more power.Resistance to ChangeManagers in every company must be alert to problems and opportunities, because the perceived needfor change is what sets the stage for subsequent actions that create a new product or technology. Bigproblems are easy to spot. Sensitive monitoring systems are needed to detect gradual changes that canfool managers into thinking their company is doing fine. An organization may be in greater dangerwhen the environment changes slowly, because managers may fail to trigger an organizationalresponse. Failing to use planned change to meet small needs can place the organization in hot water,as illustrated in the following passage: When frogs are placed in a boiling pail of water, they jump out – they don’t want to boil to death. However, when frogs are placed in a cold pail of water, and the pail is placed on a stove with the heat turned very low, over time the frogs will boil to death.Psychologists have studied the phenomenon of resistance to change during the past few decades.Several explanations have been given for resistance to change. Some of these are as follows:1. The change itself produces disequilibrium2. There exists a deep seated human characteristic to go against change3. The basic anxieties aroused by the working conditions4. Insecurity created by the ambiguity related to changeResistance has a protective function for the individual. All behaviour which opposes change is notnecessarily resistance. Some opposition to change may be perfectly logical.
Tactics for Overcoming Resistance to ChangeApproach When to UseCommunication, education • Change is technical. • Users need accurate information and analysis to understand change.Participation • Users need to feel involved. • Design requires information from others. • Users have power to resist.Negotiation • Group has power over implementation. • Group will lose out in the change.Coercion • A crisis exists. • Initiators clearly have power. • Other implementation techniques have failed.Top management support • Change involves multiple departments or reallocation of resources. • Users doubt legitimacy of change.Techniques for initiating ChangeStrategies for overcoming resistance to change typically involve two approaches: the analysis ofresistance through the force field technique and the use of selective implementation tactics toovercome resistance. Organisations may be in a state of equilibrium, with forces pushing for changeon one hand and forces resisting change by attempting to maintain the status quo on the other. KurtLewin expressed this phenomenon in his field force theory, which suggests that an equilibrium ismaintained by driving forces and restraining forces. When a change is introduced, some forces drive itand other forces resist it. To implement a change, management should analyze the change forces. Byselectively removing forces that restrain change, the driving forces will be strong enough to enableimplementation.Another approach, and one that is usually more effective, is to reduce or eliminate the restrainingforces and then move to a new level of equilibrium. In organizations, therefore, a change in policy isless resisted when those affected by it participate in the change. The change process involves threesteps: 1. unfreezing 2. moving or changing 3. refreezingThe first stage, unfreezing, creates motivation for change. If people feel uncomfortable with thepresent situation, they may see the need for change. However, in some cases an ethical question mayarise regarding the legitimacy of deliberately creating discomfort that may initiate change. The secondstage is the change itself. This change may occur through assimilation of new information exposure tonew concepts, or development of a different perspective. The third stage, refreezing, stabilizes thechange. Change, to be effective, has to be congruent with a person’s self-concept and values. If thechange is incongruent with the attitudes and behaviors of others in the organization, chances are thatthe person will revert back to the old behaviour. Thus, reinforcement of the new behaviour isessential.
JOB DESCRIPTION“Job description” is an important document, which is basically descriptive in nature and contains astatement of job analysis. It provides both organizational information (location is structure, authority,etc.) and functional information (What the work is). It defines the scope of job activities, majorresponsibilities, and positioning of the job in the organization.Job Description describe ‘jobs,’ not ‘job holders.’ It is a vehicle for organizational change andimprovement.Uses of Job DescriptionAccording to Zerga, who analyzed 401 articles on job description about 30 years ago, a job descriptionhelps us in : • Job grading and classification • Transfers and promotions • Adjustments of grievances • Defining and outlining promotional steps • Establishing a common understanding of a job between employers and employees • Investigating accidents • Indicating faulty work procedures or duplication of papers • Maintaining, operating and adjusting machinery • Time and motion studies • Defining the limits of authority • Indicating case of personal merit • Facilitating job placement • Studies of health and fatigue • Scientific guidance • Determining jobs suitable for occupational therapy • Providing hiring specifications • Providing performance indicatorsComponents of Job Description: • Job identification, or Organizational position • Job duties and responsibilities • Relation to other jobs • Supervision • Machine, tools and equipment • Working conditions • HazardsGuidelines for Writing a job Description• A paragraph is allocated to each major task or responsibility.• Paragraphs are numbered and arranged in a logical order, task sequence or importance.• Sentences have to begin with an active verb, e.g. “types letters,” “interviews the candidates,” “collects, sorts out, routes and distributes mail.”• Accuracy and simplicity are emphasized rather than an elegant style.• Brevity is usually considered to be important but is largely conditioned depending on the type of job being analyzed and the need for accuracy.• Examples of work performed are often quoted and are useful in making the job description explicit.
• Job descriptions, particularly when they are used as bases for training, often incorporate details of the faults which may be encountered in operator tasks and safety check-points.• Statements of opinion, such as “dangerous situations are encountered,” should be avoided.• When job descriptions are written for supervisory jobs, the main factors (such as manning, cost control, etc.) are identified and listed. Each factor is then broken down into a series of elements with a note on the supervisor’s responsibility.The British Institute of Management Publication adds four more guidelines.• Give a clear, concise and readily understandable picture of the whole job.• Describe in sufficient detail each of the main duties and responsibilities• Indicate the extent of direction received and supervision given.• Ensure that a new employee understands the job if he reads the job description.
Recruitment “Recruitment is a process of searching for prospecting employees and stimulating themto apply for jobs in the organization.”Steps on Recruitment processPersonnel recruitment process involves three elements viz.• A recruitment policy• The development of sources of recruitment• Different methods / techniques used for utilising these sourcesRecruitment PolicyA good recruitment policy must contain these elements: (a) Organisation’s objectives (b) Identification of the recruitment (c) Preferred sources of recruitment. (d) Criteria of selection and preferences. (e) The cost of recruitment and financial implications of the same.Prerequisites of a good recruitment policyThe recruitment policy of an organisation must satisfy the following conditions:• It should be in conformity with its general personnel policies;• It should be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of an organisation.• It should be so designed as to ensure employment opportunities for its employees on a long-term basis so that the goals of the organisation should be achievable; and it should develop the potentialities of employees.• It should match the qualities of employees with the requirements of the work for which they are employed; and• It should highlight the necessity of establishing job analysis.Sources of recruitment: • Internal sources • External sourcesMethods or Techniques of Recruitment • Direct Methods • Indirect MethodsFactors Affecting Recruitment• All organisations whether large or small, do engage in recruiting activity, though not to the same extent. This differs with:• The size of the organization.• The employment conditions in the community where the organisation is located.• The effects of past recruiting efforts which show the organisation’s ability to locate and keep good performing people• Working conditions and salary benefit packages offered by the organisation – which may influence turnover and necessitate future recruiting.• The rate of growth of organization.• The level of seasonality of operations and future expansion and production programmes.• Cultural, economic and legal factors etc.
Steps on Recruitment processPersonnel recruitment process involves three elements viz.• A recruitment policy• The development of sources of recruitment• Different methods / techniques used for utilizing these sourcesPrerequisites of a good recruitment policyThe recruitment policy of an organization must satisfy the following conditions.It Should:• Be in conformity with its general personnel policies• Be flexible enough to meet the changing needs of an organisation.• Be so designed as to ensure employment opportunities for its employees on a long-term basis so that the goals of the organization should be achievable; and it should develop the potentialities of employees.• Match the qualities of employees with the requirements of the work for which they are employed; and• Highlight the necessity of establishing job analysis.
SelectionSelection procedure is concerned with securing relevant information about an applicant. Theinformation is secured in a number of steps or stages. The objective of selection process is todetermine whether an applicant meets the qualifications for a specific job and to choose the applicantwho is most likely to perform well in the job. The formal definition of selection is:“ It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with thegreater likelihood of success in a job.”Role of selection:The role of selection in an organisation’s effectiveness is crucial for at least, two reasons: 1. Work performance depends on individuals 2. Cost incurred in recruiting and hiring personnel.Selection process involves the following steps: 1. Environmental factors affecting selection 2. Preliminary interview 3. Selection tests 4. Choosing tests 5. Employment interview 6. Reference and background checks 7. Selection decision 8. Physical examination 9. Job offer 10. Contracts of employment and 11. Evaluation of selection programBarriers to effective selection:• Perception• Fairness• Validity• Reliability• PressureFour approaches to selection• Ethnocentric selection• Polycentric selection• Regiocentric staffing• Geocentric staffing
Job - SatisfactionWhat Is Job - Satisfaction?There are three important dimensions to Job - Satisfaction: 1. Job satisfaction refers to one’s feelings towards one’s job. 2. Job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. 3. The term Job - satisfaction and job attitude is often used interchangeably.Some definitions of Job - satisfaction: “Job - satisfaction is the amount of pleasurable or contentment associated with a job. If you like yourjob intensely you will experience high job satisfaction. If you dislike your job intensely, you willexperience job dissatisfaction.”“ …. Job – satisfaction will be defined as the amount of overall positive affect (or feelings) thatindividuals have towards their jobs.”Consequences Of Job - Satisfaction:• High Job – satisfaction may lead to:• Improved productivity• Decreased employee turnover• Improved attendance• Reduced accidents• Less job stress• Lower unionisationSources Of Job – SatisfactionSeveral job elements contribute to Job – satisfaction they are:• Wages• Nature of work• Promotion• Supervision• Work group• Working conditionsBenefits of Job – Satisfaction Study 1. They give management an indication of general levels of satisfaction in a company 2. Improved communication 3. Improved attitude 4. It can help to discover the cause of indirect productivity problems, such as absenteeism, turnover etc. 5. They help management asses training needs 6. It is an indicator of the effectiveness of organisational reward systems. 7. It evaluates the impact of organisational change on employee attitudes. 8. They are useful to the unionsWays of Measuring Job – Satisfaction• Rating Scales• Critical Incidents• Interviews• Action Tendencies• Use Of Existing Information
Training needsThe Determination of Training Needs with an EnterpriseThere is a great difference between the way in which training needs would be determined in a perfectworld and an ideal company, and the way in which it is often done in the normal workingcircumstances.Let us consider an example - on one hand, there is a progressive company with highly organizedcentral personnel and training departments, and a plan for integrated manpower development. At theother extreme, there is a company where the personnel and training responsibilities are not very clearlydefined, and where the function, if it can be identified at all, is one of a number of generalresponsibilities carried out by an official whose main responsibility is something quite different.In the first type of company, the determination of training needs is something, which is constantlybeing carried out and reviewed as circumstances, policies, markets, and company objectives change.In the second type of company, the training is much less likely to be planned ‘globally’ for thecompany as a whole. The initiative is often left to one particular department manager who happens torealize the potential benefits of training and is keen to do something about it. He may nominate onemember of his staff as training officer and activities may be launched which are related only to thespecific needs of that particular department at that particular time. They may even conflict with theneeds of the organisation as a whole.At the one extreme, training needs are carefully analyzed and reviewed and, the other displays apiecemeal haphazard approach, unplanned, unsystematic, and often unrelated to the needs of thecompany. In between these two extremes there are all the permutations and combinations.The approach of each company will vary from that of other companies and so it should, butfundamentally there are a number of common basic steps:• Take an inventory: The present manpower should be taken stock of both quantitatively and qualitatively. Information related to manpower will be available in the personnel department, i.e., information about qualifications and previous experience and training already given by the company. Information about how effective the people are in their present job and about their promotion ability should also be included.• Forecasts of future requirements: Normal ‘wastage’ through retirement, transfers, resignations, etc. and the possible effects of changes in the company’s policies and objectives, e.g. expansion, re-organisation, contraction, etc. should be considered here.• To decide where one is going to find the people: Some of the people can be found within the organisation unless there is a well-planned scheme for ‘spotting’ talent. It is in this third step that the results of steps one and two are combined. Step two forecasts all future requirements but in particular it highlights key jobs, which will need to be filled during the review period. Step one has mentioned what type of people organisation has and what their potential is. The two can be then matched by allocating people to ‘target’ jobs. If it is unlikely to fill all vacancies from within the organisation then sources outside the company can be tapped.• Decide what one is going to do to develop the manpower: Both those who are there and those who are going to be recruited in order to help them to be fully effective in their present posts and to prepare them for their ‘target’ jobs’. In practice it is a good idea to prepare people wherever possible for two target jobs. This is because some personnel development programs are quite lengthy and in the meantime company objectives – and therefore organisations may change. The ‘two-target-job’ approach ensures greater flexibility.
This, in a nutshell, is the raison d’etre of the training officer’s job. The training needs, both short termand long term, will be spotlighted by the development program. The training officer’s task will be toadvise on what is to be done within the company to meet these training needs and also what use, ifany, is to be made of ‘external’ facilities offered by training institutions, consultants, technical andcommercial colleges, universities, etc. In order to do this, the training officer needs to keep himselfwell informed about the work of these organisations and its quality.The Training and Consultancy CycleThere is a marked difference between the knowledge of a management technique and the ability to useit properly in a practical management situation. This ability can be defined as a management skill.Knowledge of the technique can be acquired through theoretical study and through simulationexercises in the classroom or laboratory. But the essential skills in practical use and application of thetechnique cannot be acquired in the same way as the theory. Acquisition of these skills involvesidentification of practical situations to which the technique can be applied; the adaptation of thetechnique to the requirements of these situations; co-ordination of the efforts of those peopleconcerned with introduction of the technique, and the overcoming of diverse obstacles. Such skillsare only developed and refined through practice and first-hand experience. The aptitudes and effortsof the individuals concerned as well as opportunities provided by the environment greatly influencethe process of acquiring management skills.The first activity in which the managers, or young people trained for future jobs participate, aretraining courses.The next activity in the development cycle is guided practical application of the new techniques andconcepts. In some cases, this is done during the training program concerned, which consists thus oftwo major phases: the first, phase of classroom or laboratory training is followed by a phase duringwhich the participants work as individuals or in groups on practical projects. In other cases, theformal training program does not include this second phase. But it is almost invariably followed by afollow-up period, which is very similar in objectives and scope. Before the end of the course, eachparticipant is assisted in selecting a practical problem-solving task in which he will apply, in theconditions of his own enterprise, what he has learned in the course.The professional training staff keeps in touch with the participants and work with them in theirenterprise enough to ensure that each participant does, in fact, produce practical results. It isconsidered that this approach is the only way to ensure that participants receive adequate training in,and exposure to, practical management skills. Further, top management is unlikely to accept anyalternative approach to training which excludes the practical application of new techniques.At the end of this practical in-plant application phase (whether part of a general course or follow-upphase after the completion of a course) participants return to the training center for a few more days,so that each can present to the group the description of the problem he tackled, the methods used tosolve it and the obtained or expected results. Through such “evaluation seminars” everyone has afurther opportunity to learn about additional practical applications.The Determination of Training Needs with an EnterpriseThere is a great difference between the way in which training needs would be determined in a perfectworld and an ideal company, and the way in which it is often done in the normal workingcircumstances.
Let us consider an example - on one hand, there is a progressive company with highly organizedcentral personnel and training departments, and a plan for integrated manpower development. At theother extreme, there is a company where the personnel and training responsibilities are not very clearlydefined, and where the function, if it can be identified at all, is one of a number of generalresponsibilities carried out by an official whose main responsibility is something quite different.In the first type of company, the determination of training needs is something, which is constantlybeing carried out and reviewed as circumstances, policies, markets, and company objectives change.In the second type of company, the training is much less likely to be planned ‘globally’ for thecompany as a whole. The initiative is often left to one particular department manager who happens torealize the potential benefits of training and is keen to do something about it. He may nominate onemember of his staff as training officer and activities may be launched which are related only to thespecific needs of that particular department at that particular time. They may even conflict with theneeds of the organisation as a whole.At the one extreme, training needs are carefully analyzed and reviewed and, the other displays apiecemeal haphazard approach, unplanned, unsystematic, and often unrelated to the needs of thecompany. In between these two extremes there are all the permutations and combinations.The approach of each company will vary from that of other companies and so it should, butfundamentally there are a number of common basic steps:• Take an inventory: The present manpower should be taken stock of both quantitatively and qualitatively. Information related to manpower will be available in the personnel department, i.e., information about qualifications and previous experience and training already given by the company. Information about how effective the people are in their present job and about their promotion ability should also be included.• Forecasts of future requirements: Normal ‘wastage’ through retirement, transfers, resignations, etc. and the possible effects of changes in the company’s policies and objectives, e.g. expansion, re-organisation, contraction, etc. should be considered here.• To decide where one is going to find the people: Some of the people can be found within the organisation unless there is a well-planned scheme for ‘spotting’ talent. It is in this third step that the results of steps one and two are combined. Step two forecasts all future requirements but in particular it highlights key jobs, which will need to be filled during the review period. Step one has mentioned what type of people organisation has and what their potential is. The two can be then matched by allocating people to ‘target’ jobs. If it is unlikely to fill all vacancies from within the organisation then sources outside the company can be tapped.• Decide what one is going to do to develop the manpower: Both those who are there and those who are going to be recruited in order to help them to be fully effective in their present posts and to prepare them for their ‘target’ jobs’. In practice it is a good idea to prepare people wherever possible for two target jobs. This is because some personnel development programs are quite lengthy and in the meantime company objectives – and therefore organisations may change. The ‘two-target-job’ approach ensures greater flexibility.This, in a nutshell, is the raison d’etre of the training officer’s job. The training needs, both short termand long term, will be spotlighted by the development program. The training officer’s task will be toadvise on what is to be done within the company to meet these training needs and also what use, ifany, is to be made of ‘external’ facilities offered by training institutions, consultants, technical andcommercial colleges, universities, etc. In order to do this, the training officer needs to keep himselfwell informed about the work of these organisations and its quality.
The Training and Consultancy CycleThere is a marked difference between the knowledge of a management technique and the ability to useit properly in a practical management situation. This ability can be defined as a management skill.Knowledge of the technique can be acquired through theoretical study and through simulationexercises in the classroom or laboratory. But the essential skills in practical use and application of thetechnique cannot be acquired in the same way as the theory. Acquisition of these skills involvesidentification of practical situations to which the technique can be applied; the adaptation of thetechnique to the requirements of these situations; co-ordination of the efforts of those peopleconcerned with introduction of the technique, and the overcoming of diverse obstacles. Such skillsare only developed and refined through practice and first-hand experience. The aptitudes and effortsof the individuals concerned as well as opportunities provided by the environment greatly influencethe process of acquiring management skills.The first activity in which the managers, or young people trained for future jobs participate, aretraining courses.The next activity in the development cycle is guided practical application of the new techniques andconcepts. In some cases, this is done during the training program concerned, which consists thus oftwo major phases: the first, phase of classroom or laboratory training is followed by a phase duringwhich the participants work as individuals or in groups on practical projects. In other cases, theformal training program does not include this second phase. But it is almost invariably followed by afollow-up period, which is very similar in objectives and scope. Before the end of the course, eachparticipant is assisted in selecting a practical problem-solving task in which he will apply, in theconditions of his own enterprise, what he has learned in the course. The professional training staffkeeps in touch with the participants and work with them in their enterprise enough to ensure that eachparticipant does, in fact, produce practical results. It is considered that this approach is the only way toensure that participants receive adequate training in, and exposure to, practical management skills.Further, top management is unlikely to accept any alternative approach to training which excludes thepractical application of new techniques.At the end of this practical in-plant application phase (whether part of a general course or follow-upphase after the completion of a course) participants return to the training center for a few more days,so that each can present to the group the description of the problem he tackled, the methods used tosolve it and the obtained or expected results. Through such “evaluation seminars” everyone has afurther opportunity to learn about additional practical applications.Strategic Training System (Planned training)Planned training, as defined by Kenney and Reid (1994), is a ‘deliberate intervention aimed atachieving the learning necessary for improved job performance’ the process of planned trainingconsists of the following steps (as shown in the figure below):• Identify and define training needs – This involves analysis of corporate, team, occupational and individual needs to acquire new skills or knowledge or to improve existing competencies. The analysis covers problems to be solved as well as future demands. Decisions are made at this stage on the extent to which training is the best and the most cost-effective way to solve the problem.• Define the learning required – It is necessary to specify as clearly as possible what skills and knowledge have to be learnt, what competences need to be developed and what attitudes need to be changed.• Define the objectives of training – Learning objectives are set, which define not only what has to be learnt but also what learners must be able to do after their training program.• Plan training programs – These must be developed to meet the needs and objectives by using the right combination of training techniques and locations.
• Decide who provides the training – The extent to which training is provided from within or outside the organisation needs to be decided. At the same time, the division of responsibility between the training department, managers or team leaders and individuals has to be determined.• Implement the training – Ensure that the most appropriate methods are used to enable trainees to acquire the skills, knowledge, level of competence and attitudes they need.• Evaluate training – The effectiveness of training is monitored during programs and, subsequently, the impact of training is assessed to determine the extent to which learning objectives have been achieved.• Amend and extend training as necessary – Decide, on the basis of evaluation, the extent to which the planned training program needs to be improved and how any residual learning requirements should be satisfied.Identification of Training NeedsTraining must have a purpose and that purpose can be defined only if the learning needs of theorganisation and the groups and individuals within it have been systematically identified and analyzed.Training needs analysis – AimsTraining needs analysis is partly concerned with defining the gap between what is happening and whatshould happen. This is what has to be filled by training i.e. the difference between what people knowand can do and what they should know and be able to do. What is Training gap What should be Corporate or Corporate or functional results functional standards Knowledge and skill Knowledge and skill possessed required Actual performance The Training Gap of individualsTraining needs analysis – AreasTraining needs should be analyzed, first, for the organization as whole – corporate needs; second, fordepartments, teams, functions or occupations within the organization – group needs. And third, forindividual employees – individual needs. These three areas are interconnected, as shown in the abovefigure. The analysis of corporate needs will lead to the identification of training needs in differentdepartments or occupations, while these in turn will indicate the training required for individualemployees. The process also operates in reverse. As the needs of individual employees are analyzedseparately, common needs emerge which can be dealt with on a group basis. The sum of group andindividual needs will help to define corporate needs, although there may be some super ordinatetraining requirements which can be related only to the company as a whole to meet its businessdevelopment needs – the whole training plan may be greater than the sum of its parts.
Training needs analysis – Areas and Methods Corporate Group Individual PerformanceAnalysis of Analysis of & Job and Training strategic human development role surveys plans resource reviews analysis plansMethods of analyzing training needsThe four methods of training needs analysis are:• Analysis of business and human resource plans• Job analysis• Analysis of performance reviews• Training surveysBusiness and human resource plansThe training strategy of an organisation should largely be determined by its business and HR strategiesand plans from which flow human resource plans. The plans should indicate in fairly general termsthe types of skills and competences that may be required in the future and the number of people withthose skills and competencies who will be needed. These broad indicators have to be translated intomore specific plans which cover, for example, the outputs from training programs of people withparticular skills or a combination of skills (multi-skilling).
HRD – An OverviewIntroductionIn recent times, particularly with liberalization of the Indian economy and its gradual and haltingintegration with the world economy, the Human Resources (HR) function in India has finally acquiredthe importance that it has in the developed world. Perhaps, due to the abundant manpower availableand relatively low cost, this did not merit undue consideration earlier. But now it is realized that withequal opportunities to acquire technology, finance, systems, the cutting edge of an organisation will beits Human Resources. That is, the difference between one company and another in the market place,other things being equal, will be the quality, skill, attitudes and commitment of the Human Resources,which will either see the company achieve good results – profits – or, decline – losses.Human Resource Development is incorporated in organisations to cope with the corporate culturalchange. It is important to make the implicit explicit: to continually examine the culture through avariety of feedback mechanisms, mapping out the culture, assessing where the organisation is, where itwants to go and thus carefully identifying strategies for change.Thus, HRD is a continuous process, which matches organisational needs for human resources and theindividual needs for a career development. It enables the individual to gain their best human potentialby attaining a total all round development. It promotes dignity of employment of every employee ofan organisation, and provides opportunities for teamwork, personal development and careerdevelopment. Hence a well-planned HRD system must be a part of human resource management ofevery organisation.Evolution of The HRD FunctionHR management tries to focus on “people” in the workplace, the need to understand their contributionto the organization’s purpose. Consequently, there is now an emphasis on trying to build on HRsystems and processes. The evolution of the HRD function went through the following phases:The Initial Phase: This was characterized by a labor welfare approach. The feature of this approachwas that the function was basically concerned with maintaining records of employees – such asattendance records, leave of different sorts – Casual Leave / Earned Leave / Sick Leave /Extraordinary Leave / Study Leave / Restricted Holiday and so on and this data was fed to calculatethe wages. Besides the basic wage, other wage components like PF were also recorded. Records werealso maintained of PF loans and other retirement benefits, and implementation of safety measures asper the Factories Act. In addition there was some amount of monitoring and providing information tothe employee, the accounts department and for the concerned department head.With the advent of trade unions, dealing with the union was an add-on function. This involvedreceiving the charter of demands from union leaders and interpreting it.Fire Fighting: In this phase, the function was frequently, “dousing fires” i.e. resolving conflicts andkeeping the wheels of production moving (union demands, dissatisfaction etc.) Management waspreoccupied with keeping the engines of production moving at all times, and so work stoppages anddiscord was an aberration to be speedily got over with, so that the ‘fundamental’ business ofproduction was not held up. The major policy decisions and negotiating was done by the TopManagement, the Personnel Management and Industrial Relations (PMIR) function played asupportive/informative role and was more preoccupied with backroom discussions and negotiations.Such an approach is also referred to as the maintenance role and the obverse is the development role.If the HR position is in the lower rung of the management hierarchy, for example, in the production
department or in a labour welfare-oriented department, the HR person would be playing more of thereactive role – if there is a problem, he reacts and the problem is sought to be solved. Productionshould receive the first priority and all industrial disputes should be settled. With the emphasis on thecurrent issues, aspects like long-term strategy, planning, etc. are given low priority. The PMIRfunction was in the unenviable position of having to douse fires all the time. The major decisions weretaken at the factory manager or the managing director level. When the fire or strife erupted thefunction got some attention, but when the fire was put out, it got no time anymore.Third Phase: This stage in the evolution of the function came about due to the influence of a varietyof factors: the increasing cost of human resources due to the increased number of benefits, increasedcost of living, higher expectations and higher costs of scarce skilled manpower. The increased HR costbecame more pronounced in the service industry than in the manufacturing industry as the HumanResource was the main input in the service sector. The other major influence was that of thebehavioral scientists and their contribution to understanding the nature of human behavior at workfocusing on issues like leadership, work motivation, participation and factors influencing workproductivity. The third factor was the attempt to integrate the Trade Unions/Workers withmanagement’s vision of the enterprise, that survival and prosperity was common to both. In fact themarket was such that in many products there was more of rationing distribution, due to either capacityor input constraints. Monopoly or dominant market share remained the major concern rather thanproduction cost and technological efficiencies.Integrated HR FunctionAt the end of the Third Phase organizations soon began focusing on their human resources. HumanResource was in abundant supply and not a very significant cost in the total operating cost, butworking in industry itself was a new experience for most people in the initial phase. The PMIRfunction was thus playing a reactive maintenance role, because of a combination of market, cost,supply and finance factors. But with a few corporations experimenting with innovative approaches tocombat the negative fall-out of the traditional approaches to labour, they focused on the positive andthe significant contribution they could make to a congenial working environment and consequently,smooth production, including changeover to new technology, flexible manning and increasedproductivity.The significant shift was that management now began to take the initiative and introducing HRsystems and procedures, rather than reacting to a particular problem or a demand. HR issues of majorpolicy initiatives e.g. new products, new plants, and so on, were discussed taking to account the HRimplications, which hitherto was not the case. Top managers reviewed and took stock of the situation.Finally, the HR position itself was upgraded to come on par with the other functions in terms of statusand salary.A Broad perspective of Personnel, IR and HRD FunctionsThe Management process is made up of four steps embracing the ‘people’ dimension-‘getting them,preparing them, activating them and keeping them.’ The Management of human resources is a verycomplicated and challenging task for those who are entrusted with the successful running of anorganization; and this implies considerable knowledge of various aspects of “Personnel Managementand Industrial Relations.”The Personnel Function– The nervous system of the organisation structurePersonnel management may be conveniently described as the part of the management process, whichis primarily concerned with the human constituents of an organisation. Its object is the maintenance ofhuman relationships on a basis by which, consideration of well-being of the individual, enables allthose engaged in the undertaking to make their maximum personal contribution to the effectiveworking of that undertaking.
The personnel function has two aspects: there is, in the first place, this responsibility attaching to allmanagers and supervisors for the way in which they manage their people and weld this humanmaterial into the team that carries out effectively the activities of the operating departments orsections. While this is primarily a matter of the exercise of leadership, it is also linked up with thecarrying out of the established personnel policy and the smooth application of the procedures designedto secure the fulfillment of that policy. It necessarily entails on the part of the managers andsupervisors an understanding of the principles of personnel management as well as close acquaintancewith the personnel procedures and methods of the organisation itself.A “Service’ facilityThe second aspect is the specialized responsibility, which falls to the charge of the personnelspecialist. His task includes advising the company’s Managing Director or General Manager, andthrough him the Board of Directors, on the formulation of personnel policy and planning andsupervising the procedures by which that policy is to be carried into effect. The Personnel Manager isan expert retained to deal with all policy, planning and methods concerning the management of people,parallel, for instance, to the engineering expert who has to deal with production policy, processlayouts, engineering methods, tooling or the chemist who is responsible for formulation of qualitystandards. The Personnel Officer’s responsibility entails mainly rendering a service to other managers,as well as advising them in the discharge of their own human responsibilities. He serves the othermanagers by many of the activities which are carried out within his own specialist department: theprocedures of selecting and engaging, the records and returns, the statistics and study of absenteeism,the provision of canteen and medical services, and numerous other facilities. In the language oforganisation theory, he holds a “functional responsibility” for all personnel matters.The nearest analogy is in the human body. Personnel management is not the brain, the controller, notonly just a limb, a member, nor yet the bloodstream, the energizing force. It is the nervous system. Itis centered in the controlling unit of the brain, for personnel policy is a Board responsibility andinterpreted through the Managing Director. It is a two-way channel of information reaching out toevery part of the body i.e. organisation: it is a live channel, not just a duct, and in some respects hasautomotive force. It is used in every action; if it atrophies, partial paralysis results; if it gets out ofbalance, there ensues instability, chaotic action, dis-equilibrium, which can be found in all stages ofadvancement, in close parallel with neurosis. But, above all this, it is inherent in the whole body andintimately associated with its every movement. The nervous system can never be thought of as anadjunct of the body – no more can personnel management be an extraneous or superimposed elementon the structure of organisation. The personnel function lies embedded in the structure, is inherent inthe dynamism of that structure, an integral part of the process of management itself.
INDUCTION AND PLACEMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCESWhenever new employees join an organisation there is always a period of learning and adaptationbefore they become fully effective. Partly, this involves finding out about the practicalities of the joband facts about pay, other employee benefits and the organisation’s rules and regulations. But there isalso the need to understand the less tangible but very powerful influence of ‘the way we do thingsaround here’. Every organisation has its own style or culture and new employees are unlikely to befully effective or feel comfortable in their work until they have absorbed this cultural influence andadjusted to it.In a very general sense, induction is this process of initial learning and adjustment, whether or not theprocess is planned or structured by the employer. In organisations that provide no form of induction,many new staff may eventually settle in, relying on their own efforts to learn about the organisationand with informal help from their colleagues. But there are two major risks involved in leavinginduction to chance.The process is likely to take far longer than if induction was planned, and this slow learning periodcarries hidden costs.Not all new entrants will learn and adapt.Not all new entrants will learn and adapt successfully, and the organisation is them likely toexperience the significant disruption and costs of replacing early leavers.The costs of early leavingMany employees who leave soon after joining an organisation do so because they have not beenhelped either to understand their role or to adapt to the organisational culture – both aspects beingcentral to effective induction.An organisation that experiences a high incidence of employees leaving during their first few monthsmay also acquire a reputation as a poor employer. Early leavers are often disillusioned and tend to putall the blame on the organisation – even if in some cases they may themselves have failed to putsufficient effort into making a success of their new jobs. Most are likely to tell friends and family thatthe organisation as a bad employer, and a reputation of this kind will spread and make it increasinglydifficult to recruit good-quality staff. One aim of an effective induction policy is to generateenthusiasm for working for the organisation, and this enhances its employment reputation.Elements of InductionInduction is a planned and systematic process, structured and implemented by the organisation, to helpnew employees settle into their new jobs quickly, happily and effectively. There is much more to itthan the running of formal induction courses, useful though these are. The longer-term process oftuning in to the style of the organisation and understanding its aims and values cannot be achieved bysimply attending a course. New employees bring with them expectations about the job and theorganisation, gained through the organisation’s reputation and by contact during the recruitment andselection process – so parts of that process need to be treated as pre-induction. How the new employeeis received on the first day at work creates a strong first impression and so requires particular attention.Also, the way supervisors and managers behave in their day-to-day contacts with their staff has amajor influence on how well and how quickly new employees settle in.It is also important to recognise that existing employees who transfer or who are promoted within theorganisation require help in settling into their new jobs, as do those returning to work after lengthycareer breaks. Home-based employees and part-timers are often omitted from formal inductionprogrammes, but their needs for assistance in adjusting to new working circumstances can be
considerable. So induction should not be limited to new recruits to full-time jobs. It is necessary, too,for induction to reflect the specific characteristics of different types of work and of different economicsectors. A thorough and well-planned approach to induction carries dividends to the employer inhelping to secure a competent, motivated workforce; and it benefits the individual employee bycontributing positively to career development.An Induction ChecklistTopicReceptionInitial receptionInitial documentationBank account detailsNext of kinIssue of :ID/security passCar park permitStaff handbookIntroduction to supervisor or managerTopicSite geography and facilitiesGeneral tour of the siteCloakrooms and lavatoriesStaff restaurant and vending machinesCar/motor cycle/bicycle parkingNotice boardsEmployee’s work locationFire exitsFirst aid room/first aid boxesTime recording equipmentIssue of equipmentProtective clothingPager/mobile phoneTopicHeath and safetyFire and emergency drillsSecurity alertsGeneral safety rulesSpecific hazards (e.g. toxic chemicals0Smoking regulationsAccident proceduresHygiene regulationsIntroduction to workplace safety representativeIntroduction to workplace first-aiderOccupation health serviceTopicPayPay systemBasic payBonus schemes
Grading/job evaluationAllowances (shift, overtime, standby, etc.)Deductions (savings schemes, etc.)Explanation of payslipMethod of paymentTopicOther conditions, benefits and employment policiesAttendance : hours of work, flexitime, meal/restBreaksLeave : entitlement, notificationSick pay : notification of absence, entitlementsExtra-statutory holidaysPension scheme and life assuranceCompany carsExpenses : entitlements and claims procedurePrivate medical/dental insuranceStaff purchase/discounts etc.Maternity/paternity leaveCompany loans (season tickets, mortgages, etc.)Any flexibility in choice of benefitsSocial sports, fitness facilitiesCounselling and welfare schemeDisciplinary rules and procedureGrievance procedureEqual opportunity policyAlcohol/substance abuse policyDisability policy and equipmentAnti-harassment/bullying policy and procedureCustomer care and contact policies and proceduresCode of conduct (organisational ethics, anti-corruption, etc.)HR ChallengesAs companies rush to become global, HR professionals are being asked to navigate through the white-water rapids of a multicultural workplace, complex markets, and a new global competitors. Beneaththe turbulent water are the hidden challenges of lost talent, inequities, and the unknown. The signals,the warnings, are often not seen or heard until it is too late, and the damage is done. Moreover,navigating one river successfully is no guarantee of success on another just as one new global businessexperience rarely resembles another.Technology and HRIt’s become a cliché to talk about the accelerating pace of change in the business environment . Everycommentator on any business trend pays homage to it. But undeniably, today’s organization seems toexperience change like never before. Over the past decade, HR professionals task was simple - attract,retain, and motivate good people. Certainly nothing was said or expected about creating workenvironments that encourage interconnecting people, knowledge, and markets. The winds of changeare heralding the emergence of the new economy, the information economy, and the digital economy.Seamlessly creating new work environments, shaping new corporate cultures and dictating newbusiness ethics. A new breed of professionals have raised the challenge sweepstakes for the HRmanagers.
The technology of the business exerts a major influence on the internal environment how work isorganized, managed and carried out. The introduction of new technology may result in considerablechanges to systems and processes. Different skills are required, new methods of working aredeveloped. The result may be an extension of the skills base of the organization and its employees,including multi-skilling . But it could result in downsizing. Technology can therefore present aconsiderable threat to employees.The consequences of changing technology • Smaller, more productive organizations • Growing need for training on how to use technology • Increasing need for people to cope with the expectation that they can perform anytime or anywhere • Increased productivity • Flatter organizations • Increased efficiency • Reduced interpersonal contactThreats of changing technology and the role of HR • Increased productivity Technology offers the greatest opportunity for improved productivity and will continue to change abilities and expectations for how and where work is done and who does work. Changing technology necessitates changes in organizational structures, job design, hiring practices, compensation structures, training, and employee relations. As technology changes faster, so too must ways of managing the people who work in technologically dependent work. That responsiveness will require increasingly flexible HR efforts and increasingly rapid HR decision making. • Changes in the way work is doneThe ability to share information is escalating exponentially with personal computers in virtually every office and in many residences and connected to a network. The ability to perform work anywhere and at any time - the “virtual office” calls for new performance measurement systems and different managerial skills. • Increased need for Training To keep pace with changing technology, organizations must increasingly devote resources to training employees on how to use it. Organisations meet this demand by providing continuous retraining to help employees keep pace with changing technology. The human element is key to taking full advantage of technological change, and managing that human element is essential if any benefits of technological change are to be realized. HR can take the leadership role by directing the formulation of systematic action plans or strategies developed to enable people to deal with technological change.Attraction and Retention of talentBetter talent is worth fighting for. At senior levels of an organization, the ability to adapt, to makedecisions quickly in situations of high uncertainty, and to steer through wrenching change is critical.But at a time when the need for superior talent is increasing, big US companies are finding it difficultto attract and retain good people. Executives and experts point to a severe and worsening shortage ofthe people needed to run divisions and manage critical functions, let alone lead companies. Everyoneknows organizations where key jobs go begging, business objectives languish, and compensationpackages skyrocket.
THE RETENTION MEASURES T Increasing the organization’s level of professionalism I Moving from family to professional management M Making performance appraisals objective M Involving employees in the decision making process I Ensuring a match between authority and accountability E Measuring employee satisfaction M Achieving a match between individual and organizational goals A Designing a competitive compensation package D Increasing organizational transparency I Promoting employees from within P Helping employees acquire new skills H Offering stock options O Focusing on welfare measures propositionIncreasing the organization’s level of professionalismEmployees leave companies where intra-organizational interactions are unstructured, and decisions,ad-hoc and driven more by personal prejudice rather than professional consideration. By adoptingsystems that introduce an element of objectivity into its internal operations, a company can create abetter workplace.Moving from family to professional managementIn most family managed organizations, professional managers leave because they cannot seethemselves holding key positions, or functioning with the level of independence that their designationsmerit. By inducting professionals into senior management positions, a company can lower its attritionrate.Making performance appraisals objectiveEmployees like to know how, when and by whom their performance is going to be measured. Anappraisal process that lists objective and measurable criteria for performance appraisal removes theuncertainty in the minds of employees that their superiors can rate their performance any which waythey please.Involving employees in the decision making processPeople like to work in organizations where their opinions count. The higher an employee’sinvolvement in decision-making, the higher the organization’s retention level. A participativedecision-making process is good; total empowerment, better.Ensuring a match between authority and accountabilityMost companies fall into the trap of holding an employee accountable for a specific activity withoutempowering him/her with the authority to perform it well. Often, the situation is exacerbated by thefact that they vest another employee with the same authority, but do not hold him accountable.Measuring employee satisfactionObsessed with catering to the demands of their external customers, companies ignore their internalcustomers. Periodic employee satisfaction surveys can highlight the potential flashpoints, and enablethe company to take corrective action.Achieving a match between individual and organizational goalsMany companies fall into the trap of expecting their employees to subsume their individual objectivesbefore the organizations one, which forces the employee to leave. The best companies achieve abalance between the two.
Designing a competitive compensation packageMoney isn’t a motivator, but it is an effective de-motivator. While organizations that pay best-in-industry salaries may find themselves unable to use that fact to motivate their employees, those thatcould not find their best employees leaving.Increasing organizational transparencyPeople do not like to work in black box like organizations, where information is rationed out on aneed-to-know basis. They prefer a transparent organization that is willing to share every aspect of itsfunctioning with its employees.Promoting employees from withinA company that constantly fills vacancies by hiring from outside is certain to face retention problems.Employees who realize that they are unlikely to be promoted to fill the vacancies will leave theorganization. Growing your own is a sound retention strategy.Helping employees acquire new skillsAs the job-profiles and desired skills-sets for a particular job change, companies may feel the need tohire employees with new skills, or retrain their existing employees. Companies that choose to do thelatter will find it easier to retain their people since the training signals that the organization values theircontribution, and is willing to invest in upgrading their skills.Offering stock optionsESOPS are a sign that the organization recognizes the role of the individual in its performance, and iswilling to share the benefits with her.Focusing on welfare measures propositionEmployees are not just warm bodies; they are individuals with families and lives of their own outsidethe workplace. Organizations that recognize this, and help employees achieve a better balance betweenlife work are likely to face fewer problems than those that do not.ATTRACTING TALENT FROM CAMPUSNever before has it been more important for companies to recruit the best and brightest from thecampuses of India’s business and engineering schools. The days are over when companies used torecruit raw talent, train and polish them all the facts they needed. This is the day of attractingreadymade knowledge worker. As campuses are being the natural filter of intelligence and managerialprowess, the entry barrier to the business & engineering schools for students ensure the major sourceof top talent from their campuses.We know that Campuses are the major sources of talent. But it is not that easy to select the talent fromthat pool as there are more than 200 companies try scouting for management trainees from thecampuses. Hence it is essential for the companies to prepare themselves adequately before enteringany campuses. Here are some insights for the organizations intend to hire talent from campuses.Shortlist campusesGather the curricula and specialization of the business and engineering schools, mode of selection ofstudents; also find out the faculty at the schools and the mix of teaching staff and visiting faculty.Concentrate on the schools whose curricula and specialization matches the needs of your organization.Choose recruiting team carefullyIt is essential for the organization to develop a recruiting team from within. Most companies usuallysend a team of one senior HR Manager, one or more middle managers and senior executives. But