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Environmental management concepts


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Environmental management concepts

  1. 1. Environment Management ConceptDefinition  Its an attempt to control human impact on and interaction with the environment in order to preserve natural resources  Environmental management focuses on the improvement of human welfare for present and future generations.  Administrative functions that develop, implement, and monitor the environmental policy of an organization.Sustainable Development  is a pattern of resource use, that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come.  The development initiatives be initiated in such a way that the future generations can enjoy the benefits of Nature without any compromise.  Using the resources to the extent to which it is sustained.  Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
  2. 2. Significance in India  WHY factor  India is the worlds sixth largest and second fastest growing producer of greenhouse gases.  Delhi , Mumbai and Chennai are three of the worlds ten most polluted cities.  Two-thirds of city dwellers lack sewerage; one-third lack potable water.  India urban population grows equivalent of another New York City every year. This equals to a projected urban population of over 500 million in 20 years.Trends in Environmental Management  Impact Assessment and Planning (IAP)Assessing environmental and social impacts prior to setting up operations and obtaining environmentalapproval from the authorities is almost mandatory in most project categories. IAP assessments may berequired not only for newly constructed facilities, but also for new operations that will be housed in anexisting building.  Environmental Liability and Clean-upForeign investment has resulted in heightened scrutiny of current and historic environmental liabilitiesassociated with property transactions in India.  Sustainability and Regulatory ComplianceThe increasing desire of Indian companies to meet world class standards has caused establishedcompanies in India to take on sustainability initiatives as a means of improving their global brand andreputation.  Climate ChangeWhile India still lags the West in coming up with concrete regulations based on the development versusenvironment debate, there is an increasing awareness in India that climate change is not about scoringpoints but about the existence of entire communities inside and outside of India.National Environmental Policy  The National Environment Policy seeks to extend the coverage, and fill in gaps that still exist, in light of present knowledge and accumulated experience.  It does not displace, but builds on the earlier policies.
  3. 3.  National Forest Policy, 1988  National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development, 1992  Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution,1992  The National Environment Policy is intended to mainstream environmental concerns in all development activities.Objectives of the National Environment Policy  Conservation of Critical Environmental ResourcesTo protect and conserve critical ecological systems and resources, and invaluable natural and man-madeheritage, which are essential for life support, livelihoods, economic growth, and a broad conception ofhuman well-being.  Intra-generational Equity: Livelihood Security for the PoorTo ensure equitable access to environmental resources and quality for all sections of society, and inparticular, to ensure that poor communities, which are most dependent on environmental resources fortheir livelihoods, are assured secure access to these resources.  Environmental GovernanceTo apply the principles of good governance (transparency, rationality, accountability, reduction in timeand costs, participation, and regulatory independence) to the management and regulation of use ofenvironmental resources.  Enhancement of Resources for Environmental ConservationTo ensure higher resource flows, comprising finance, technology, management skills, traditionalknowledge, and social capital, for environmental conservation through mutually beneficialmultistakeholder partnerships between local communities, public agencies, the academic and researchcommunity, investors, and multilateral and bilateral development partners.Multilateral Development Banks are institutions that provide financial support and professional advicefor economic and social development activities in developing countries. The term MultilateralDevelopment Banks (MDBs) typically refers to the World Bank Group and four Regional DevelopmentBanks:The African Development BankThe Asian Development BankThe European Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentThe Inter-American Development Bank Group
  4. 4. Principles National Environment Policy  Human Beings are at the Centre of Sustainable Development Concerns  The Right to DevelopmentThe right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmentalneeds of present and future generations.  Environmental Protection is an Integral part of the Development Process  The Precautionary ApproachWhere there are credible threats of serious or irreversible damage to key environmental resources, lackof full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to preventenvironmental degradation.  Economic EfficiencyThe services of environmental resources be given economic value, and such value to count equally withthe economic values of other goods and services, in analysis of alternative courses of action.Example: Polluter Pays  Entities with “Incomparable” ValuesSignificant risks to human health, life, and environmental life-support systems, besides certain otherunique natural and man-made entities, which may impact the well-being, broadly conceived, of largenumbers of persons, may be considered as ”Incomparable” in that individuals or societies would notaccept these risks for compensation in money or conventional goods and services.  EquityThe cardinal principle of equity or justice requires that human beings cannot be treated differentlybased on irrelevant differences between them.  Legal LiabilityThe principle of legal liability may be viewed as an embodiment in legal doctrine of the “polluter paysapproach.  Fault Based Liability In a fault based liability regime a party is held liable if it breaches a preexisting legal duty,for example, an environmental standard.
  5. 5.  Strict Liability Strict liability imposes an obligation to compensate the victim for harm resulting from actions orfailure to take action, which may not necessarily constitute a breach of any law or duty of care.  Public Trust DoctrineThe State is not an absolute owner, but a trustee of all natural resources, which are by nature meant forpublic use and enjoyment, subject to reasonable conditions, necessary to protect the legitimate interestof a large number of people, or for matters of strategic national interest.  DecentralizationDecentralization involves ceding or transfer of power from a Central Authority to State and LocalAuthorities, in order to empower public authorities having jurisdiction at the spatial level at whichparticular environmental issues are salient, to address these issues.  IntegrationIntegration refers to the inclusion of environmental considerations in sectoral policymaking, theintegration of the social and natural sciences in environment related policy research, and thestrengthening of relevant linkages among various agencies at the Central, State, and Local Self-Government levels, charged with the implementation of environmental policies.  Environmental Standard SettingEnvironmental standards must reflect the economic and social development situation in which theyapply. Standards adopted in one society or context may have unacceptable economic and social costs ifapplied without discrimination in another society or context.  Preventive ActionIt is preferable to prevent environmental damage from occurring in the first place, rather thanattempting to restore degraded environmental resources after the fact.  Environmental OffsettingThere is a general obligation to protect threatened or endangered species and natural systems that areof special importance to sustaining life, providing livelihoods, or general well-being.
  6. 6. Regulatory Reforms  Revisiting the Policy and LegislativeFramework  Process Related Reforms  Substantive ReformsProcess Related Reforms  ApproachThe objective is to reduce delays and levels of decision-making, realize decentralization ofenvironmental functions, and ensure greater transparency and Accountability.  Framework for Legal ActionA judicious mix of civil and criminal processes and sanctions will be employed in the legal regime forenforcement, through a review of the existing legislation.Substantive Reforms  Environment and Forests ClearancesUnder the new arrangements, there would be significant devolution of powers to the State/UT level.  Coastal Areas  Living Modified Organisms (LMOs)  Environmentally Sensitive Zones  Monitoring of Compliance  Use of Economic Principles in Environmental Decision-makingLMOsIn order to ensure that development of biotechnology does not lead to unforeseen adverse impacts, thefollowing actions will be taken:  Review the regulatory processes for LMOs so that all relevant scientific knowledge is taken into account, and ecological, health, and economic concerns are adequately addressed.  Periodically review the National Bio-safety Guidelines, and Bio-safety Operations Manual to ensure that these are based on current scientific knowledge.
  7. 7.  Ensure the conservation of bio-diversity and human health when dealing with LMOsEnvironmentally Sensitive ZonesThe following actions will be taken:  Identify and give legal status to Environmentally Sensitive Zones in the country having environmental entities with “Incomparable values” requiring special conservation efforts.  Formulate area development plans for these zones on a scientific basis, with adequate participation by the local communities.  Create local institutions with adequate participation for the environmental management of such areas, to ensure adherence to the approved area development plans, which should be prepared in consultation with the local communities.Monitoring of ComplianceThe following actions will be taken:  Take measures, including capacity development initiatives to enable Panchayati Raj Institutions and urban local bodies to undertake monitoring of compliance with environmental management plans. Measures will also be taken to encourage municipalities to annually report their environmental performance to their governing bodies.  Develop feasible models of public-private partnerships to leverage financial, technical, and management resources of the private sector in setting up and operating infrastructure for monitoring of environmental compliance, with ironclad safeguards against possible conflict of interest or collusion with the monitored entities.  Use of Economic Principles in Environmental Decision-making:It is necessary that the costs associated with the degradation and depletion of natural resources beincorporated into the decisions of economic actors at various levels, to reverse the tendency to treatthese resources as “free goods” and to pass the costs of degradation to other sections of society, or tofuture generations of the country.EnvironmentThe term environment refers to an organization’s natural and human surroundings. An organization’senvironment extends from within the organization itself to the global system, and includes air, water,land, flora, fauna, as well as human beings.Current Condition in India  Rapid growing Population
  8. 8.  Economic Development  Uncontrolled Growth of Urbanization  Industrialization/ Globalisation  Expansion and Massive Intensification of agriculture  Destruction of ForestsRapid Growth of Population50% of population to be in Urban cities by 2020UN projection half of world population to stay in Urban cities by 2008Environmental Conflict  India lags behind in putting forward any system for planned management of its fragile eco- system that is in constant conflict with the needs of development .  Indian scenario is bleak, what with all round failures in arresting the population growth with attendant pressures on land and scarce natural resources , increasing urbanisation , industrialisation , growth in rapacious consumption , wasteful life styles  In India, relationship between westernised models of development and the preservation environment on the face of its fight against poverty, the conflict exists broadly on three levels:- o Some castigate excessive concern for environment as a result of conspiracy of the developed nations against progress in the underdeveloped countries like India and maintain that India may address issues concerning environment only after it reaches the level of production and consumption of the industrialised nations.  Some others feel that concern for environment is bound to divert attention from the problems of the poor. Environment, to this group has nothing to do with trying to give a better deal to the large and ever growing population.  Some believe that in India at least the very large and ever-growing population is responsible for the environment crises.Environmental Issues in India  Forest and Agricultural Degradation of land  Resource depletion (water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc.) is an economic term referring to the exhaustion of raw materials within a region.  Environmental Degradation
  9. 9.  Public health  Loss of biodiversity  Loss of resilience in ecosystems  Livelihood security for the poorForest and Agricultural Degradation of land  Degradation means reduction of  Forest quality - the density and structure of the trees, the ecological services supplied, the biomass of plants and animals, the species diversity.  Fertility and output Quality of Agricultural Land.Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.  Causes:  Land clearance, such as clearcutting and deforestation.  Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices.  Livestock including overgrazing.  Inappropriate Irrigation and overdrafting.  Urban sprawl and Commercial development.  Land pollution including industrial waste.  Vehicle off-roading.  Quarrying of stone, sand, ore and minerals.Overdrafting is the process of extracting groundwater beyond the safe yield or equilibrium yield of theaquifer.An aquifer is a wet underground layerThe Urban sprawl is the spreading of urban developments (as houses and shopping centers) onundeveloped land near a cityA commercial clear cut is when cutters remove only the valuable trees and leave others standing.  Effects  Accelerated soil erosion by wind and water  Soil acidification and the formation of acid sulfate soil resulting in barren soil.
  10. 10.  Soil alkalinisation owing to irrigation with water containing sodium bicarbonate leading to poor soil structure and reduced crop yields.  Soil salination in irrigated land requiring soil salinity control to reclaim the land.  Soil waterlogging in irrigated land which calls for some form of subsurface land drainage to remediate the negative effects.  Destruction of soil structure including loss of organic matter.Environmental Degradation  is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.  Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through  depletion of resources such as air, water and soil  the destruction of ecosystems  the extinction of wildlife.Water resources  Usage of Ground and Underground water by the Industry - causes huge droughts and contamination to a massive area by exploiting an excessive amount of ground water and then replacing it with toxic discharge.  85% of rural drinking water and 55% of urban water comes from underground sources has caused the national water table to suddenly and very dramatically drop.  The rivers are slowly being polluted and destroyed by sewage, chemicals and other agricultural and industrial waste.Deforestation  almost 5.3 Million hectares of forest have been destroyed since the independence for housing, industrialisation and river projects.  Poor management and abuse of power are again the increasingly sad cause behind the mass deforestation- Poaching.  The invasion of foreign tree species such as Eucalyptus etc.  Eucalyptus is water intensive and nutrient intensive.
  11. 11. Eucalyptus is toxic, due to allelopathic properties, which serve to reduce not only other plant life,including crops, by restricting germination of other species, but is also detrimental to soil micro andmacrofauna.macrofauna (biology), in soil science, animals that are one centimetre or more long but smaller than anearthworm. Potworms, myriapods, centipedes, millipedesPublic Health  Public health has often been defined as a science dealing with the determinants and defence of health at the population level, while clinical medicine deals with multiple maladies and their remedies at the level of an individual patient.  Public health aims to understand and influence the social, cultural and economic determinants of health as well as to study and structure health systems as efficient channels for health services delivery.Loss of Biodiversity  Biodiversity is the distribution and number, variety and variability of living organisms over time.  Biodiversity may be diversity within species (genetic diversity), between species (species diversity), and between ecosystems (ecosystem diversity).  Biodiversity includes all ecosystems—wildlands, nature preserves or national parks, plantations, farms, croplands, aquaculture sites, rangelands and urban parks too have their own biodiversity.  Loss in biodiversity has direct and indirect negative effects on Food security, Vulnerability, Health, Energy security, Clean water and Social relations.  Fragmentation of habitats and the sharp decline in small subpopulations of plants and animals bring them on the edge of decline.  18 domestic poultry breeds are under threat and around 40 species of plants and animals have extincted.  India has lost about 40% of its mangroves and some crucial part of its wetlands.Major problems with biodiversity conservation  Low priority for conservation of living natural resources.  Exploitation of living natural resources for monetary gain.  Values and knowledge about the species and ecosystem inadequately known.  Unplanned urbanization and uncontrolled industrialization.
  12. 12. Major biodiversity threats  Habitat destruction.  Extension of agriculture.  Filling up of wetlands.  Conversion of rich bio-diversity site for Human settlement and industrial development.  Destruction of coastal areas.  Uncontrolled commercial exploitation.Loss of resilience in ecosystem  Ecosystem resilience describes the capacity of an ecosystem to cope with disturbances, such as storms, fire and pollution, without shifting into a qualitatively different state.  A resilient ecosystem has the capacity to withstand shocks and surprises and, if damaged, to rebuild itself.  In a resilient ecosystem, the process of rebuilding after disturbance promotes renewal and innovation.  Without resilience, ecosystems become vulnerable to the effects of disturbance that previously could be absorbed.Livelihood security for the poor  Poor farmers are unable to cope with adverse climatic conditions can only resort to seasonal migration due to lack of any productive assets or availability of alternative employment options in the village.  Slowdown in agricultural growth and productivity, changing cropping patterns, increase in distress migration, changing consumption patterns, government policies favouring industrial houses, among others have seriously undermined the food and livelihood security of the poorer households.Environmental issues in India  Water pollution  Growing water scarcity  Air pollution  Poor management of waste
  13. 13.  Falling groundwater tables  Preservation and quality of forests  Biodiversity loss, and land/soil degradationWater pollution  Discharge of untreated sewage is single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India.  Large gap between generation and treatment of domestic wastewater in India.  India lacks sufficient treatment capacity.  Sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained.  Improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management.  The untreated industrial wastes have resulted in calcium, magnesium, fluoride, mercury, beta- endosulphan and heptachlor pesticide were more than permissible limit (MPL) in ground and tap waters.  The water has high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), ammonia, phosphate, chloride, chromium, arsenic and chlorpyrifos pesticide in many of the dwellings along the industrial belt.  The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium.Endosulfan is an off-patent organochlorine insecticide and acaricide that is being phased out globally.Heptachlor is an organochlorine compound that was used as an insecticide.Acaricide: An agent, usually a chemical, that kills mites.Water is Precious and scarce Resource  Only a small fraction (about 3%) is fresh water  India is the wettest country in the world, but rainfall is highly uneven with time and space (with extremely low in Rajasthan and high in North-East)  On an average there are only 40 rainy days  Out of 4000 BCM(Billion Cubic Meter) rainfall received, about 600 BCM is put to use so far.  Water resources are over-exploited resulting in major Water Quality problems.
  14. 14. Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974  Preamble: Maintaining and restoring of wholesomeness of water – level of WQ  Provision for consent.  Every polluter (industry or municipality) has to obtain consent from SPCBs/PCCs-State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) Pollution Control Committee (PCC)  Consent is conditional.  Standards prescribed for effluents.  Monitoring the compliance.Major Factors Responsible for WQ Degradation  Domestic: 423 class I cities and 499 class II towns harboring population of 20 Crore generate about 26254 mld of wastewater of which only 6955 mld is treated.  Industrial: About 57,000 polluting industries in India generate about 13,468 mld of wastewater out of which nearly 60% (generated from large & medium industries) is treated.  Non-point sources also contribute significant pollution loads mainly in rainy season. Pesticides consumption is about 1,00,000 tonnes/year of which AP, Haryana, Punjab, TN, WB, Gujarat, UP and Maharashtra are principal consumers.  Domestic sewage is the major source of pollution in India in surface water which contribute pathogens, the main source of water borne diseases along with depletion of oxygen in water bodies.  Sewage along with agricultural run-off and industrial effluents also contributes large amount of nutrients in surface water causing eutrophication  A large part of the domestic sewage is not even collected. This results in stagnation of sewage within city, a good breeding ground for mosquitoes and contaminate the groundwater, the only source of drinking water in many cities.WATER POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGY  Urban sources – National River Action Plan  Industrial Sources – through consent ( SPCB)  Special Drives: 17 categories of industries  Industries discharging into rivers and lakes
  15. 15.  24 Problem areas action plan  Environmental auditing  Common effluent treatment plants for cluster of SSI units (124)  Promotion of low-waste and no-waste technologyRecent efforts to address water issues  US$100 billion project to interlink all major river networks in India.  Connect water-deficient areas to water-abundant ones by interlinking 37 Indian rivers.  Transfer water through 30 links across 9,600 kilometers and the project would connect 32 dams.  Aims a transformation of Indias water treatment, management, transmission and distribution.Water Scarcity- Indian Scenario  The thirst of water for India’s rapid development is growing day by day.  Large area under the less water conditions/drought prone.  The quality of groundwater is not good.  Water supply of the 90% of India’s territory is served by inter-state rivers.  Growing number of conflicts across the states on water sharing issues.Major Reasons behind Water Scarcity  Population growth and Food production (Agriculture)  Increasing construction/ infrastructure development Activities  Massive urbanization and industrialization throughout the country  Climatic change and variability- Depleting of natural resources due to changing climate conditions (Deforestation etc.)  Lack of implementation of effective water management systems.http://youtube/XGgYTcPzexE
  16. 16. Air Pollution  Vehicle emissions are responsible for 70% of the country’s air pollution.  Air pollution from vehicle exhaust and industry is a worsening problem for India.  Exhaust from vehicles has increased eight-fold over levels of twenty years ago; industrial pollution has risen four times.  At average trip speeds between 20 to 40 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emission was twice and At average trip speeds between 5 to 20 kilometers per hour, the cars pollutant emissions were 4 to 8 times as much as much as when the average speed was 55 to 75 kilometers per hour.  Some Indian taxis and auto-rickshaws run on adulterated fuel blends.  Some adulterants increase emissions of harmful pollutants from vehicles, worsening urban air pollution.  Fuel adulteration is essentially an unintended consequence of tax policies and the attempt to control fuel prices, in the name of fairness.  India’s environmental problems are exacerbated by its heavy reliance on coal for power generation.  Emits a high amount of carbon and greenhouse gases.  Harmful pollutants like nitrogen and sulphur oxides emitted by aircraft at approximately 35,000ft combine with other gases in the atmosphere to create noxious particulate matter.  8,000 people will die due to aircraft pollutants this year, and 3,500 of them would be from India and China.  Fuelwood and biomass burning is the primary reason for near-permanent haze and smoke observed above rural and urban India, and in satellite pictures of the country.  Fuelwood and biomass cakes are used for cooking and general heating in over 100 million Indian households, and are used two to three times a day, daily.  World Health Organization, claim 300,000 to 400,000 people die of indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide poisoning in India because of biomass burning and use of chullahs.Recent trends in Indias air quality  Most Indian cities continue to violate Indias and world air quality PM10 targets. Respirable particulate matter pollution remains a key challenge for India.
  17. 17.  A decreasing trend has been observed in sulphur dioxide levels in residential areas of many cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Lucknow, Bhopal during last few years. The decreasing trend in sulphur dioxide levels may be due to recently introduced clean fuel standards, and the increasing use of LPG as domestic fuel instead of coal or fuelwood, and the use of LPG instead of diesel in certain vehicles.PM10 (meaning Particulate Matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter).  Most Indian cities greatly exceed acceptable levels of suspended particulate matter. This is because of refuse and biomass burning, vehicles emissions, power plant emissions, industrial sources.  The Indian air quality monitoring stations reported lower levels of PM10 and suspended particulate matter during monsoon months possibly due to wet deposition and air scrubbing by rainfall. Higher levels of particulates were observed during winter monthsPoor management of waste  Huge amount of wastage pileups have been created in the cities because of high population density and congestion in most Indian cities.  Large numbers of factories have been established across the city area and in the outer circles of the city which ignore the system of proper waste disposal.  Unplanned drains coming out of the slum areas.  Drainage water gets added to the drinking water and resulting in serious health problem to the public.  In India, ineffective drainage has been a major reason for the spread of water borne diseases.  Improper disposal of bio-medical waste by several health centres, mainly dental clinics, primary health centres, community health centres and diagnostic centres poses a health hazard to the general public, sanitation workers and rag pickers.  Lack of regular supervision of health centres by the Pollution Control Board on disposal of bio- medical wasteFalling groundwater tables  Groundwater levels have dropped in many places across the globe over the past nine years.  The decline is due to expanding agriculture which in turn has increased water demand.  Climate change may also accelerate declines in groundwater in some places as precipitation patterns are becoming more extreme, increasing the severity of droughts.
  18. 18.  Groundwater currently makes up about 97 percent of all the available fresh water on the planet and presently accounts for about 40 percent of our total water supplyPrecipitation is Rain, sleet, hail, snow and other forms of water falling from the sky.Falling groundwater tables  Groundwater is a key driver of the global economy. If it becomes depleted, entire industries may be forced to shut down or move. Whole regions could face acute water scarcity.  Over-extraction also has serious implications for the environment, especially when the climate is warming, as falling water tables can lead to emptying lakes and rivers and dying landscapes as the water they depended on is withdrawn.  In the 10 years since Coca-Cola started operations (2000-2010), groundwater levels have plummeted 25.35 meters (83.2 feet)Preservation and quality of forests  When deforestation perpetrates, a whole gamut of consequences from soil infertility to global warming arises.  Depletion of forests increases the risk of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere with the resultant effect of the reduction of the ozone layer, which leads to global warming.  Global warming is said to pose a serious danger to civilisation because of its devastating effects on the ecosystem.  Deforestation changes the quantity of water that percolates into the soil which results in reduction of evaporation.Preservation and quality of forests  Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental issue.  Indias forest cover to be about 68 million hectares, or about 20 percent of the countrys area.  Indias consumption of fuelwood is about five times higher than what can be sustainably removed from forests.  The variety and distribution of forest vegetation is large. There are 600 species of hardwoodsTo achieve sustainable forest and ecological security  India must pursue rural development and animal husbandry policies to address local communities need to find affordable cattle fodder and grazing.
  19. 19.  To avoid destruction of local forest cover, fodder must reach these communities on reliable roads and other infrastructure, in all seasons year round.  Revenue generated from lease of mines must be pooled into a dedicated fund to conserve and improve the quality of forests in the region where the mines are located.  Power to declare ecologically sensitive areas must be with each Indian state.  Sustainable agro-forestry and farm forestry must be encouraged through financial and regulatory reforms, particularly on privately owned lands.  Government should reform regulations and laws that encourages sustainable Growth of Forest.  Social organisations and Local people be involved in activities that preserve and conserve forest and to maintain ecological security.Biodiversity loss  Biodiversity is defined as ‘the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems’.  India has a total of 89,451 animal species accounting for 7.31% of the faunal species in the world and the flora accounts for 10.78% of the global total.  44 plant species are critically endangered, 113 endangered and 87 vulnerable. Amongst animals, 18 are critically endangered, 54 endangered and 143 are vulnerable.  The major proximate causes of species extinction are habitat loss and degradation.  However, the Underlying causes of biodiversity loss are:  Poverty  Macroeconomic policies  International trade factors  Policy failures  Poor environmental law/weak enforcement  Unsustainable development projects and lack of local control over resources  Population pressures and concomitant increases in the collection of fuelwood and fodder, and grazing in forests by local communities too take their toll on the forests, and consequently its biodiversity.
  20. 20. Industrial Ecology, CSR and SustainabilityIndustrial Ecology  Industrial ecology is the study – of the flows of materials and energy in industrial and consumer activities, – of the effects of these flows on the environment, – and of the influence of economic, political, regulatory, and social factors of the flow, use, and transformation of resources .  Industrial Ecology has been defined as a "systems-based, multidisciplinary discourse that seeks to understand emergent behaviour of complex integrated human/natural systems". The field approaches issues of sustainability by examining problems from multiple perspectives, usually involving aspects of sociology, the environment, economy and technology.  Industrial ecology operates at 3 levels o Firms  design for environment  pollution prevention  eco-efficiency  green accounting  environmental management o Across Firms  industrial symbiosis  product life-cycles  industrial sector initiatives o Regional / Global  materials and energy flow studies  policies and strategies  supply chain management
  21. 21. Corporate Social Responsibility  Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is about business and industry taking responsibilities beyond that of creating economic value.  “A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis”  CSR policy functions as a built-in, self-regulating mechanism whereby a business monitors and ensures its active compliance with the spirit of the law, ethical standards, and international norms.  The goal of CSR is to embrace responsibility for the companys actions and encourage a positive impact through its activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere.Corporate Social Responsibility in India  The problem with corporate social responsibility (CSR) is that nobody is very clear about what exactly it encompasses.  The Indian government has been trying to make it mandatory for companies to spend at least 2% of net profits on CSR.  Facing strong criticism, it gave up the effort in mid-July 2011 and made the spending voluntary.  Instead of defining CSR, the Indian government recast it as "responsible business" in a set of voluntary guidelines for firms.  No Clear Definition, but Plenty of Debate  CSR should actually relate to the way you conduct your business, whereas it gets confused with giving to the local communities in which you operate.Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising theability of future generations to meet their own needs.Sustainable development in India  Sustainable development in India encompasses a variety of development schemes in social, cleantech (clean energy, clean water and sustainable agriculture) and human resources segments.  India is expected to begin the greening of its national income accounting, making depletion in natural resources wealth a key component in its measurement of gross domestic product (GDP).
  22. 22. Major Achievements  The number of carbon credits issued for emission reduction projects in India is set to triple to 246 million by December 2012 from 72 million in November 2009.  This will cement Indias second position in the global carbon credits market (technically called Certified Emission Reduction units or CERs).  Indias renewable energy capacity to increase to 20,000 megawatt (MW) by December 2012, from the current 15,542 MW.  The contribution of renewable energy to the power business in India has now reached 70 per cent, compared to 10 per cent in 2000.  Growth in use of green technologies has put India on the green-building leader board with countries such as the US. About 2-3 per cent of all construction in India is green, as good as (in) the US. In the next two or three years, we want to bring it up to 10 per cent, which will put us on top  The US$ 1.79 billion Indian lighting market is estimated to be growing at 18 per cent annually and switching rapidly to energy-efficient systems.  On the back of the incentive package for electric vehicles average monthly sales of electric two- wheelers has risen 20 per cent.  National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO), the Navratna PSU, under the Union Ministry of Mines, Govt. of India, has become the first PSU in the country by implementing a pilot-cum- demonstration project on Carbon Sequestration in its captive power plant at Angul.Corporate Investments  State-owned Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited (GACL) has entered into an agreement with a Germany-based specialty chemicals maker, Evonik Industries for setting up a multi-million Hydrogen Peroxide and Propylene Oxide (HPPO) project at Dahej in Gujarat. This project would be based on an innovative, environment friendly HPPO technology.  Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), an agency of the US Government, has signed an agreement with Azure Power to fund its 15 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) project in Gujarat. The investment in the US$ 40 million project will be led by OPIC.  The world’s first facility to manufacture carbon foam batteries will be set up at Bavla near Ahmedabad. Firefly Energy India is planning to build a plant to produce carbon foam batteries at an investment of US$ 28 million.
  23. 23.  State Bank of India (SBI), the country’s largest lender, has become a signatory investor in the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), a collaboration of over 550 global institutional investors with assets under management of US$ 71 trillion.CDP is an independent not-for-profit organisation, holding the largest database of primary corporateclimate change information in the world. Over 3,000 organsations across the world’s largest economiesmeasure and disclose their greenhouse gas emissions and climate change strategies through CDP. Thesedisclosures aid them in setting reduction targets and make performance improvements.National Solar Mission  The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has informed that the progress in implementing the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission is satisfactory and according to schedule.  The Ministry has sanctioned 802 MW capacities of grid-connected solar projects and 36 MW of off-grid solar projects.  In addition, six major research projects include setting up of National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education at IIT-Bombay were also approved.Government Initiatives  Planned launch of National Mission in hybrid and electric vehicles.  Allocations of US$ 89.41 million from National Clean Energy fund for speeding up The National Mission for a Green India.  The budget of the Environment Ministry increased by around US$ 67.1 million.  Extension of Tax holiday for the power sector by one year.  A budgetary provision (2011-12) of US$ 56.6 million has been made for research and development in new and renewable energy for the first four years of the 11th Five Year Plan of the MNRE.  The government would dole out US$ 335 million over the next two years to banks and finance companies to lend money to solar energy projects at a generous 5 per cent interest rate, top government official said. The money would be lent to small solar projects adding up to 200 MW by companies like Sidbi, Nabard and National Housing Bank. These lenders would be provided interest-free loans by IREDA.  IFC will provide up to US$ 15 million in corporate equity financing to Simran Wind Project Private Limited (Simran), a privately-owned entity which is into wind-based power production. The company will use the money to finance its pipeline projects worth US$ 40 million in Tamil Nadu.
  24. 24. IFC – International Finance Corporation is a member of the World Bank Group. It finances and providesadvice for private sector ventures and projects in developing countries.  Punjab government has initiated an ambitious clean energy project to generate 1,500 MW power from the ‘run of the canal turbines’. The Punjab Energy Development Agency (Peda) has already developed an indigenous prototype of the turbines.  To facilitate fast track exploration of shale gas, the Ministry for Petroleum and Natural Gas expects the process of carving out suitable blocks to be completed by April 2011, which would allow floating of the first round of auctions of shale gas blocks in August 2011.  Solairedirect Energy India is in talks with the Gujarat government to set up a 20 MW plant at the Solar Energy Park in Kutch at an estimated cost of US$ 67.1 million.Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grainedsedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas.Reference TextKrishnamoorthy: Environmental Management (Prentice - Hall India)Vijay S Chitris : Changing face of the planet and Environmental Law (Snow White)Tietenberg. Environmental & Natural Resources Economics (Pearson)G.N. Pandey: Environment Management (Vikas)Y.K. Saxena & N.K. Oberol: Environment Emplaned (Excel)N.K. Oberol: Environmental Management (Excel Books)