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THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF
TRENDY WEAR (PVT) LTD
DISSANAYAKA MUDIYANSELAGE MOHAN CHINTHAKA DI...
2
THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF
TRENDY WEAR (PVT) LTD
A ‘Supervised Independent Study’ Submitted...
I
PERMISSION TO USE
In presenting this Supervised Independent Study in fulfilment of the requirements for
a Bachelor of Sc...
II
Faculty of Management Studies
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka
CERTIFICATION OF SUPERVISED INDEPENDED STUDY
We, the...
III
DECLARATION
I, Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Mohan Chinthaka Dissanayaka declare that this
Supervised Independent Study an...
IV
ABSTRACT
Almost all the employees of Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd Katupotha are target oriented
and work with high job pressur...
V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Plenty of obstacles were there when the researcher was completing this report and
there were many, who ...
VI
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PERMISSION TO USE.......................................................................................
VII
CHAPTER THREE : METHODOLOGY ...................................................................18
3.1 Research Site......
VIII
4.5.1 Effect of stress on job performance.............................................................41
4.5.2 The le...
IX
LIST OF TABLES
3.1 Operationalization…………………………………………………..…...20
3.2 Sampling Composition……………………………………….………….25
4.1 Me...
X
LIST OF FIGURES
3.1 Conceptual Framework…………………………………………..……..20
3.2 Time Frame of the Study……………….………………………….……29
4.1 G...
XI
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ILO - International Labour Organization
USA - United States of America
UK - United Kingdom
1
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Study
Occupational stress has been a great concern to both employees and other
s...
2
Therefore, this research will try to find out the effects of occupational stress on job
performance and interventions th...
3
1.3 Hypothesis
Based on the below model the following hypothesis have been formulated, which
are proposed to test in thi...
4
1.5 Significance of the Study
Stress Management is important to healthy functioning of organizations as it seeks
to incr...
5
have a significant impact on the job stress in order to reduce complexity of the
study.
 It was also assumed that all q...
6
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Theories help us to understand underlying process and on that ba...
7
Also Taylor, S. (1995), describes stress as a negative emotional experience
accompanied by predictable biochemical, phys...
8
sudden movement, heart rates would increase, blood would course through the veins
with sugar released into the blood str...
9
and rated them according to the amount of stress they produce. The most notable
feature of their instrument is that many...
10
mental blocks and difficulty concentrating or thinking clearly. This
may be intensified by substance abuse.
 Physiolog...
11
Desseler (2000) was of the opinion that for organizations job stress consequences
included reductions in the quantity a...
12
demanding or resources as well as the subjective feeling of distress experienced in its
face. An event could be experie...
13
supervisors, peers, and subordinates, and 5) career development stressors, such as lack
of job security, perceived obso...
14
At low level of stress, individual are not activated for high performance similarly.
At high level of stress individual...
15
metabolic rate, blood sugar levels, mental efficiency, sleep patterns, resulting in
hypertension, mild diabetes and pep...
16
2.7 Managing Stress
According to Robbins (2004), stress can be managed in two approaches; the
individual and organizati...
17
flexi – time, job rotation and transfers, provide better working conditions, including
social/fitness clubs etc. and in...
18
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Site
Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd established in 1973. Ramya Weerakoon is the owner of
...
19
Today, the company owned five factories in at kadawatha, Adikarigama, Delgoda,
Katupotha and Wellawa. Direct workforce ...
20
3.2.2 Operationalization
Table 3.1: Operationalization
Construct Dimension Indicator
Question
Number
Mental
Work overlo...
21
Less confidence about my work 39
Anxiety Anxiety 35
Positive thinking Optimism 37
Job
Performanc
e
Productivity
Complet...
21
3.3 Research Approach
According to Rajasekar, Philominathan & Chinnathambi, (2013) quantitative
research use statistica...
22
3.4.1 Procedure of Data Collection
“Most research projects require some combination of secondary and primary data
sourc...
23
3.4.2 Population, Sample And Sample Determination
Cooper (1994) described the population of a research as the study of ...
24
Table 3.2: Sample Composition
Department No of employees
Training unit 15
Cutting Dep. 41
Production Dep. 102
Stores 10...
25
help clarify and gain a deeper understanding of some of the responses of respondents.
The response rate was 100% of the...
26
The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17) was used to analysis the
data. Tables and other statistical infer...
27
Equation of multiple regressions modal can be written as follows,
Y = β0 + β1ϰ1 + β2ϰ2 + ……. + βnϰn
= Dependent variabl...
28
3.5. Time Frame and Access to Research Site
Week
Activities
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Study the
Organizati...
29
CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Presentation
The collected demographic data were presented using pie char...
30
4.1.2 Age Category
Figure 4.2: Age Composition of the Sample
Source: Survey Data 2014
According to Figure 4.2 above, th...
31
Figure 4.3: Education Qualification of the Sample
Source: Survey Data 2014
4.1.4 Marital Status
According to below Figu...
32
4.1.5 Department Category
As Figure 4.2, highest number of respondents (48%) of the sample is from the
Production Depar...
33
Figure 4.6: Position of Employees
Source: Survey Data 2014
4.1.7 Service with the Company
Figure 4.7: Service with the ...
34
Above figure shows the tenure of employees with Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd. 36% of
the employees has served the company 3 ye...
35
4.2.2 Reliability of the Questionnaire
The reliability analysis was carried out to find out the reliability of the curr...
36
Table 4.3: KMO (Validity)
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .691
Bartlett's Test...
37
There is a strongly positive relationship between psychological consequences and job
performance. ( r = 0.891, P = 0.00...
38
4.3.3 Regression Model
Researcher can write regressions equation as follows by using independent and
dependent variable...
39
There is a positive relationship between Social consequences & Employee’s
Performance. That was when Social consequence...
40
4.4 Hypothesis testing
Table 4.7: Hypothesis testing
Variable Pearson
correlation
P value Decision
Mental consequences ...
41
at the 0.01 significant level. It has a strong relationship since the value is more than
0.5. According to that, when t...
42
coefficient value of -.507 this is the lowest affecting factor to job performance and it
shows negative relationship wi...
43
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION
5.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation supported by the data
...
44
Stress
Performan
ce
Good Stress Distress
Figure 5.1 Impact of Occupational stress on performance
Adapted from Nixom P. ...
45
REFERENCE
Arnold, H. J., and Feldman. 1986. Organizational Behavior. New York:
McGraw Hill.
Arnold, J., Cooper, L. & Ro...
46
Lawless, P. 1992. Employee Burnout: Causes and Cures. Minneapolis, MN:
Northwestern National Life Employee Benefits Div...
47
Rajasekar, S., Philominathan, P., Chinnathambi, V. (2013). Research
Methodology http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0601009.pd...
48
BIBLIOGRAPHY
 Opatha, H.H.D.N.P (1995), Sewamandala Kalamanakaranaya, Sri
lanka,Colombo
49
APPENDIXES
Appendix A – Mission and Vision
Mission
Our mission as a World Class manufacturer of Garments, is to produce...
50
Appendix B – Questionnaire
ප ය j [ √ ] ලක=ණ .
ප (A)
1. S% :-
[ ] S% [ ]
2. :-
15-24 [ ] 25- 34 [ ] 35- 44 [ ] 45- 54 [ ...
51
10. d dන ට ට (km)
10 - අ [ ] 11-20 [ ] 21-30 [ ] 31-40 [ ] 41 -50 [ ] 51 ට [ ]
11. d ට ප KS ට න ප% න ධH ක
 න ප ප% න ක ...
52
22. ff ක K ට න ප%ශ ශ xඛHd .
1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ]
23. න ක ශ% ට අක අ ට ක .
1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5-...
53
36. ට කd H ප න .
1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ]
37. ට N S ට ප .
1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ]
38. ට න Y ක ප ...
54
Appendix C – Sample size
55
Appendix D – Correlations Analysis
Correlations
MentalCo
nsequenc
es
SocialCon
sequences
Physiologi
calConseq
uences
Em...
56
Appendix E – Descriptive Analysis
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean
Std.
Deviation
MentalConsequences 211 1...
57
Appendix F – Factor Analysis
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling
Adequacy.
.691
Bartlett's T...
58
Component Matrixa
Component
1
MentalConsequences .917
SocialConsequences .900
PhysiologicalConsequen
ces
.809
Emotional...
59
Coefficientsa
Model
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardiz
ed
Coefficient
s
t Sig.
Collinearity
Statistics
B Std. Error...
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THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND ITS EFFECTS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF TRENDY WEAR

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THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND ITS EFFECTS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF TRENDY WEAR

  1. 1. THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF TRENDY WEAR (PVT) LTD DISSANAYAKA MUDIYANSELAGE MOHAN CHINTHAKA DISSANAYAKA (08/MS/015) B.SC. MARKETING MANAGEMENT FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES SABARAGAMUWA UNIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA 2014
  2. 2. 2 THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF TRENDY WEAR (PVT) LTD A ‘Supervised Independent Study’ Submitted to the Faculty of Management Studies, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Special Degree of Bachelor of Science in Marketing Management DISSANAYAKA MUDIYANSELAGE MOHAN CHINTHAKA DISSANAYAKA (08/MS/015) © 2014 D.M.M.C.DISSANAYAKA
  3. 3. I PERMISSION TO USE In presenting this Supervised Independent Study in fulfilment of the requirements for a Bachelor of Science in Marketing Management degree from Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, I agree that the university library may make it freely available for inspection. Further agree that permission for the copying of this Supervised Independent Study in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisor or, in their absence, by the dean of the Faculty of Management Studies. It is understood that any copying or publication or the use of this Supervised Independent Study or parts thereof for financial gains shall not be allowed without my permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis. Request for permission to copy or to make any other use of materials in this Supervised Independent Study, in whole or in part, should be addressed to: Dean Faculty of Management Studies Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka P.O. Box 02, Belihuloya – 70140 SRI LANKA
  4. 4. II Faculty of Management Studies Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka CERTIFICATION OF SUPERVISED INDEPENDED STUDY We, the undersigned, certify that DISSANAYAKA MUDIYANSELAGE MOHAN CHINTHAKA DISSANAYAKA Candidate for the special degree of Bachelor of Science in Marketing Management Has presented his Supervised Identified Study entitled THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF TRENDY WEAR (PVT) LTD As it appears on the title page and the front cover of the Supervised Identified Study That the said Supervised Identified Study is acceptable in form and content and displays a satisfactory knowledge of the field of study as demonstrated by the candidate through the oral examination held on July 31, 2014 ………………………………………………. …………………… Chairman for Viva Signature ………………………………………………. …………………… Head of Department Signature ………………………………………………. …………………… First Examiner Signature ………………………………………………. …………………… Second Examiner Signature
  5. 5. III DECLARATION I, Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Mohan Chinthaka Dissanayaka declare that this Supervised Independent Study and the work presented in it are my own and it has been generated by me as the result of my own original research. Title of Supervised Independent Study: THE IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AND ITS EFFECTS ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF TRENDY WEAR (PVT) LTD I confirm that: This work was done wholly or mainly while in candidature for a research degree at this university; Where any part of this Supervised Independent Study has previously been submitted for a degree or any other qualification at this university or any other institution, this has been clearly stated; Where I have consulted the published work of others, this is always clearly attributed; Where I have quoted from the work of others, the source is always given. With the exception of such quotations, this Supervised Independent Study is entirely my own work; I have acknowledged all main sources of help; Where the Supervised Independent Study is based on work done by myself jointly with others, I have made clear exactly what was done by others and what I have contributed myself; Either none of this work has been published before submission. ………………………… ………………………… Signature of Student Date Supervisor’s Recommendation: This is to certify that this Supervised Independent Study has been prepared by D.M.M.C.Dissanayaka under my supervision. ………………………… Signature of Supervisor ………………………………………………… ………………………… Name of Supervisor Date
  6. 6. IV ABSTRACT Almost all the employees of Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd Katupotha are target oriented and work with high job pressure. This research attempts to identify whether there is an impact of Occupational Stress and its effects on job performance of Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd. Because theoretically, behavioural scientists have explained that the relationship between Occupational Stress and Job Performance is a negative one. Thus 211 employees were selected using random sample method from Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd Katupotha. Sample is taken from department wise and job categories wise. A questionnaire was circulated to collect primary data about employees’ responses regarding occupational stress. The questionnaire consists of six parts as part A, B, C, D, E and F with Five point Likert scale was used to choose the appropriate level of coping. The scale of measurement was based on scores to response categories to some rules and the said responses were quantified. The collected data such as sources of stress, effect of tress and perceived Job Performance were analysed using descriptive statistic such as mean, median and standard deviation and also SPSS and MS- Excel. Since this study involves formulation and testing of hypotheses with a view to establish the correlation between the independent and dependant variable, it is needed more reliable and original data. Therefore, further correlation analysis was done to demonstrate the relationship between the level of job stress and job performance and to test the significance of differences of each of the dimensions of stress. Conclusions and recommendations are stated based on this analysis. According to the correlation significant value of correlation table, there was no impact of occupational stress on employee performance. That mean performance has been influenced by factors other than occupational strass. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out further research base on other factors that had influenced to employer performance Key word: Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd, Occupational Stress, Effects of Stress, Sources of Stress, Job Performance.
  7. 7. V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Plenty of obstacles were there when the researcher was completing this report and there were many, who supported. First of all I wish to make my special thanks to my Academic Supervisor Mr H.M.C.G. Bandara, Senior Lecture in Department of Marketing Management, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka who directed me toward the goal with correcting my shortfalls. And also I thankfully acknowledge the continuous advice and guidance given by Mrs.L.A.C.Sajeewani, Senior Lecture in Department of Marketing Management and Coordinator of Practical Training Unit, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka I would like to express my thanks to my Training Supervisor Mr. M.M.J.Bandara, Manager of the Human Resource Management Division and Mr. Chandana Liyanage, Factory Manager in Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd-Katupotha. My heartfelt thank should be given to my beloved parents for their dedication and encouragement throughout the study. Finally my sincere thanks to all of my colleagues and the employees of Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd For support extended to me.
  8. 8. VI TABLE OF CONTENTS PERMISSION TO USE................................................................................................. I CERTIFICATION OF SUPERVISED INDEPENDED STUDY ................................II DECLARATION .........................................................................................................III ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................IV ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..........................................................................................V LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................IX LIST OF FIGURES ......................................................................................................X LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS......................................................................................XI CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION...........................................................................1 1.1 Background Study................................................................................................1 1.2 Research Problem.................................................................................................2 1.3 Hypothesis............................................................................................................3 1.4 Objectives of the Study ........................................................................................3 1.5 Significance of the Study .....................................................................................4 1.6 Limitation of the Study ........................................................................................4 1.7 Chapter Organization ...........................................................................................5 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................6 2.1 Theoretical Framework ........................................................................................6 2.1.1 Definition of Stress........................................................................................6 2.2 Nature of Stress....................................................................................................7 2.3. Types of Stress ....................................................................................................8 2.3.1. Short Term Stress .........................................................................................8 2.3.2. Long Term Stress..........................................................................................8 2.4 Effects of Stress....................................................................................................8 2.4.1 Mental Consequences....................................................................................9 2.4.2 Social Consequences ...................................................................................10 2.4.3 Physiological Consequences........................................................................11 2.5 Job Performance.................................................................................................13 2.6 Factors Intrinsic to the Job .................................................................................14 2.7 Managing Stress.................................................................................................16
  9. 9. VII CHAPTER THREE : METHODOLOGY ...................................................................18 3.1 Research Site......................................................................................................18 3.2 Conceptualization and Operationalization .........................................................19 3.2.1 Conceptualization........................................................................................19 3.2.2 Operationalization .......................................................................................20 3.3 Research Approach ............................................................................................21 3.4 Research Design.................................................................................................21 3.4.1 Procedure of Data Collection ......................................................................22 3.4.2 Population, Sample And Sample Determination.........................................23 3.4.3 Research Instruments...................................................................................24 3.4.4 Validity and Reliability ...............................................................................25 3.4.5 Data Presentation & Analyze ......................................................................25 3.5. Time Frame and Access to Research Site.........................................................28 CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION................................................29 4.1 Data Presentation................................................................................................29 4.1.1 Gender Category..........................................................................................29 4.1.2 Age Category...............................................................................................30 4.1.3 Education Category .....................................................................................30 4.1.4 Marital Status...............................................................................................31 4.1.5 Department Category...................................................................................32 4.1.6 Position Category ........................................................................................32 4.1.7 Service with the Company...........................................................................33 4.2 Data Analysis .....................................................................................................34 4.2.1 Mean Value of Descriptive Statistics ..........................................................34 4.2.2 Reliability of the Questionnaire...................................................................35 4.2.3 Validity........................................................................................................35 4.2.4 Correlation of Job Performance Vs Variables.............................................36 4.3 Regressions Analysis..........................................................................................37 4.3.1 Model Summary ..........................................................................................37 4.3.2 ANOVA Test...............................................................................................37 4.3.3 Regression Model........................................................................................38 4.4 Hypothesis testing ..............................................................................................40 4.5 Discussion ..........................................................................................................41
  10. 10. VIII 4.5.1 Effect of stress on job performance.............................................................41 4.5.2 The level of Occupational Stress of Trendy Wear. .....................................42 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION..............................................................................43 5.1 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................43 5.2 CONCLUSIONS................................................................................................43 REFERENCE...............................................................................................................45 BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................48 APPENDIXES.............................................................................................................49 Appendix A – Mission and Vision...........................................................................49 Appendix B – Questionnaire....................................................................................50 Appendix C – Sample size .......................................................................................54 Appendix D – Correlation Analysis.........................................................................55 Appendix E – Descriptive Analysis .......................................................................556 Appendix F – Factor Analysis...............................................................................557 Appendix G – Multiple Regression Analysis.........................................................558
  11. 11. IX LIST OF TABLES 3.1 Operationalization…………………………………………………..…...20 3.2 Sampling Composition……………………………………….………….25 4.1 Mean Value …………………….…………………………………….....42 4.2 Reliability………………………….…………………...………………..35 4.3 KMO (Validity)……………………………………………….…………36 4.4 Correlation. ……………………………………………………………...37 4.5 Model Summery…………………………………………………………38 4.6 ANOVA………………………………………………………………....38 4.7 Hypothesis Testing...……………………………………………….…....41
  12. 12. X LIST OF FIGURES 3.1 Conceptual Framework…………………………………………..……..20 3.2 Time Frame of the Study……………….………………………….……29 4.1 Gender Composition………………………………………………….…30 4.2 Age Composition………………………………………………………...31 4.3 Education Qualification…………………………………………………32 4.4 Marital Status……………………………………………………………32 4.5 Department Composition………………………………………………...33 4.6 Position Composition……………………………………………………34 4.7 Service of Company…………………………………………………….34 5.1 Impact of Occupational Stress on Performance………………………...46
  13. 13. XI LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ILO - International Labour Organization USA - United States of America UK - United Kingdom
  14. 14. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Study Occupational stress has been a great concern to both employees and other stakeholders of organizations. Occupational stress researchers agree that stress is a serious problem in many organizations (Cooper and Cartwright, 1994). The cost of occupational stress is very high in many organizations in recent times. For instance, the International Labour Organization (ILO) reports that inefficiencies arising from occupational stress may cost up to 10% of a country‘s GNP (Midgley, 1996). Occupational stress is defined as the perception of a discrepancy between environmental demands and individual capacities to fill these demands (Topper, 2007; Vermut and Steensma, 2005; Ornels and Kleiner, 2003). Christo and Pienaar (2006) for example, argued that the causes of occupational stress include perceived loss of job, and security, sitting for long periods of time or heavy lifting, lack of safety, complexity of repetitiveness and lack of autonomy in the job. In addition, occupational stress is caused by lack of resources and equipment; work schedules (such as working late or overtime and organizational climate are considered as contributors to employees stress) Occupational stress often shows high dissatisfaction among the employees, job mobility, burnout, poor work performance and less effective interpersonal relations at work (Manshor, Rodrigue, and Chong, 2003). Johnson (2001) similarly argued that interventions like identifying or determining the signs of stress, identifying the possible causes for the signs and developing possible proposed solutions for each signs are required.
  15. 15. 2 Therefore, this research will try to find out the effects of occupational stress on job performance and interventions that can be applied by Management and employees to manage stress effectively at Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd. To acquire a deeper understanding of the variable (occupational stress) we will first consider the broader topic of stress in general and then zero in on the variable within the context of Trendy wear (Pvt) Ltd. 1.2 Research Problem The current turbulent environment in which some workers conduct their work requires that organizations examine their practices. Today every organization continuously are striven to gain a competitive position over other competitor. Because of intensified competition, rapid market changes, technical innovation etc. bring work environment more and more complex and dynamic. It is a problem face by all organization worldwide. For the organization, job stress of its workers means a workforce that is demotivate and uncommitted to high quality performance. The effects of stress are evidenced as low productivity, increased errors in their performance, high medical bills, lateness to work and increased sick leaves. Despite the extremely negative effects of occupational stress on the human body and work performance, sometimes Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd not being an exception has not put in any concrete measures to address these stress-related conditions that negatively affects productivity. Furthermore, there has not been a conscious establishment of a linkage between occupational stress and its negative effect on productivity. Employee satisfaction directly affects to the employees’ performance and work quality. (Ornels and Kleiner, 2003). Even though due to long working hours, meeting tighter deadline, heavy workload, heavy responsibilities, poor rewards on performance etc. majority of employees suffer from job stress. But profitability of the organization is based on customer satisfaction. Employee performance is a critical factor in fulfilling customer needs (Johnson 2001). Therefore, the research study purposely focuses on occupational stress experienced by staff of the Trendy wear (pvt) ltd. The research problem can thus be start as follows: What is the impact of Occupational stress on job performance of employees of Trendy wear (PVT) Ltd?
  16. 16. 3 1.3 Hypothesis Based on the below model the following hypothesis have been formulated, which are proposed to test in this study. H0 - There is no impact between employee’s performances & Mental consequences H1 - There is impact between employee’s performances & Mental consequences H0 - There is no impact between employee’s performances & Social consequences H2 - There is impact between employee’s performances & Social consequences H0 - There is no impact between employee’s performances & Physiological consequences H3 - There is impact between employee’s performances & Physiological consequences H0 - There is no impact between employee’s performances & Emotional consequences H4 - There is impact between employee’s performances & Emotional consequences 1.4 Objectives of the Study The objective of this study is: Main objective 1. To examine the impact of Occupational stress on workers in the performance of their job.
  17. 17. 4 1.5 Significance of the Study Stress Management is important to healthy functioning of organizations as it seeks to increase productivity since one can clearly focus on tasks, better memory, improved immune system and better blood pressure. In Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd, occupational stress is not being given the attention it deserves and so very little has been done as far as assessing the role of stress on job performance within organizations. It is in the light of this that this study is deemed important, as it will:  Create awareness among managers on the need to provide the required platform to help staff deal with their stresses.  It contributes to the development of the country by its overall performance including successful financial performance, job opportunities and the contribution towards corporate social responsibility. Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd as a whole reflects on occupational stress. Therefore it is significant to identify the impact of occupational stress on employees’ performance and what are the dimensions to which stress significantly contributes in Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd. 1.6 Limitation of the Study There can be different constraints for the current study.  Time Confined - In making sure that the research goes well more time will be used. Time is not a luxury and it can at some point cause some hindrance to accurate data.  Confidentially of information -Participant of the study may not be keen to provide information. This may cause the research some waste time.  Unwillingness to participant to the personal - Some of the respondents not are willing to join such study because they believe it is waste of time and energy.  The study was focus on four dimension of stress only. Quantity and quality of the job, Lack of job satisfaction, Social relationship and Domestic factors. However other dimension such as individual stresses, Personnel illness, changing in financial standing, family event, changing living condition etc. Which are complex in nature have been exclude form the study although may
  18. 18. 5 have a significant impact on the job stress in order to reduce complexity of the study.  It was also assumed that all questions were equaled important and hence on weight was given. The questionnaire used for the study was fairly long and some respondents showed sign of reluctance to complete it. Sings the identity of the respondents was not expected it was assumed that they give their actual filings.  The scale used to measure the variable was five point Likert type scales. If seven scales had been used instant, a more accurate measure could have been expected. In order to make the analysis less complex this was avoided. 1.7 Chapter Organization The entire study is divided into five (5) chapters. Chapter one gives a general introduction about the study, while chapter two focuses on some theoretical frameworks and reviews of related literature about the subject. The chapter three presents the methodology, research design, population and sample used in the data collection. Chapter four analyses, summarizes and presents the data for the study. The final chapter provides a summary of findings, conclusion and makes recommendation for the solution of the problem studied.
  19. 19. 6 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Theoretical Framework Theories help us to understand underlying process and on that basis, choose an effective course of action According to Richard and Krieshok, (1989), ―theory is coherent group of assumption put forth to explain the relationship between two or more observable facts. Valid theories enable us to predict what will happen under certain situations. It is a truism that no matter the degree of the grasp of a principle, the history and theories of any field help us to apply them to actual cases. The theories relevant in the study of occupational stress and its effects on job performance include the followings; stimulus-based, interactional, person-environment fit, role overload and role theory. 2.1.1 Definition of Stress According to Robbins (2004), stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. From this definition one can say that stress is not necessarily bad, it also has a positive value when it offers potential gain. Moorhead and Griffen (1998) also defined stress as a person’s adaptive response to a stimulus that places physical and psychological demands on a person. Similarly, Sherman, Bahlander and Snell (1996), also defined stress as any adjustive demand on an individual caused by physical, emotional or mental factors that requires coping behaviour.
  20. 20. 7 Also Taylor, S. (1995), describes stress as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, cognitive and behavioural changes that are directed either toward altering the events or accommodating its effects. From the above definitions and descriptions stress can best be seen as excessive demands that affect a person physically and psychologically. Thus the mental or physical condition that results from perceived threat or danger and the pressure to remove it. 2.2 Nature of Stress One believes that stress is a complex phenomenon because it is not tangible so it cannot be overtly touched. According to Bowing and Harvey (2001), stress occurs with the interaction between an individual and the environment, which produces emotional strain affecting a person’s physical and mental condition. Stress is caused by stressors, which are events that create a state of disequilibrium within an individual. These authors also stated that the cost of too much stress on individuals, organizations, and society is high. Many employees may suffer from anxiety disorders or stress-related illnesses. In terms of days lost on the job, it is estimated that each affected employee loses about 16 working days a year because of stress, anxiety or depression. According to Ritchie and Martin (1999), for years stress was described and defined in terms of external, usually physical, forces acting on an individual. Later it was suggested that the individual’s perception of, and response to, stimuli or events was a very important factor in determining how that individual might react, and whether or not an event will be considered stressful. These authors further contended that most researchers acknowledged that both external and internal factors affect stress. They viewed stress as a response to external or internal processes, which reach levels that strain physical and psychological capacities beyond their limit. According to Blumenthal (2003), for thousands of years, the bodies of cavemen/women were primed to deal with the harsh rigours of their environment. In the face of danger a rush of adrenaline would prepare cave dwellers to either fight or run for their lives. In the face of adversity, muscles and nerves were charged for
  21. 21. 8 sudden movement, heart rates would increase, blood would course through the veins with sugar released into the blood stream. The flight or fight response would ready them for action: powerful hormones epinephrine and nor epinephrine, released by the adrenal glands, endowed humans with enhanced alertness, strength and energy. Thousands of years later humans live in the same bodies and possess the same human brains but in a world with completely different stressors and hassles. While few humans may face danger from wild animals and unsuccessful hunting, urban life is equally demanding. The urban environment is rife with stressors (such as pollution, noise, violence, traffic) that stimulate the nervous system into a flight or fight response but it is only in rare instances that an aggressive or vigorous physical response is appropriate. 2.3. Types of Stress 2.3.1. Short Term Stress Acute (short-term) stress is the body's instant response to any situation that seems demanding or dangerous. Your stress level depends on how intense the stress is, how long it lasts, and how you cope with the situation. 2.3.2. Long Term Stress Chronic (long-term) stress is caused by stressful situations or events that last over a long period of time. The problem of long term stress is more associated with fatigue, moral and health than with short term stress. 2.4 Effects of Stress Arnold and Feldman (1986) define stress as "the reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environment." (p. 459) since our work environments often contain new situations, this definition suggests that stress in inevitable. This definition also highlights the fact that reactions to stressful situations are individualized, and can result in emotional, perceptual, behavioral, and physiological changes. Personal factors are often a source of stress. These include career related concerns, such as job security and advancement, as well as financial and family concerns. Holmes, T. H. and Rahe, R. H. (1967) constructed a scale of forty-three life events,
  22. 22. 9 and rated them according to the amount of stress they produce. The most notable feature of their instrument is that many positive life changes (i.e., marriage, Christmas, vacations, etc.) are substantial sources of stress. Generally, stress appears to be a result of any change in one's daily routine. Some studies have reported that males seem to be more prone to stress-related illness than females. Men report more ulcers and have a higher rate of heart attacks than women (Albrecht, 1979). Other studies have found no differences. Friedman and Rosenman (1974) found that Type A women suffered from cardiovascular diseases and heart attacks as often as their male counterparts. Women in managerial positions suffer heart attacks at the same rate as men in similar positions. (Albrecht, 1979) In a recent study, Lawless (1992) reported that women suffered fifteen percent more stress related illnesses than men. They also thought about quitting their jobs more often, and reported a higher incidence of burnout. Lawless proposed that this is the result of unequal pay scales and a failure of organizations to adopt policies sensitive to family issues. As more women enter the work force, the effects on their health are becoming increasingly apparent. It may be that past differences between males and females are the result of their experience in the work force, and unrelated to gender per se. There are four major effects on stress to employees. Those are categorized as follows, 2.4.1 Mental Consequences Factors include the outcome of the stress in the form of feeling Examples of difficulties in concentrating for any length of time, difficulties in situation making, difficulties in absorbing new information, tend to worry about many things, having negative thought and feel less confident in doing things that used to do. Matthews (2001)  Subjective effects: stress leads to anxiety, depression, frustration, fatigue and low self-esteem.  Behavioral effects: stress leads to accident proneness, substance abuse, impaired speech, restlessness and forgetfulness.  Cognitive effects: stress affects our thought process, leading to a difficulty or fear of making decisions, forgetfulness, hypersensitivity,
  23. 23. 10 mental blocks and difficulty concentrating or thinking clearly. This may be intensified by substance abuse.  Physiological responses: begin in the brain and spread to organs throughout the body. Catecholamine from the adrenaline medulla causes the kidneys to raise blood pressure and the liver to release sugar into the blood pressure and the liver to release sugar into the blood stream. The pituitary gland stimulates the release of corticosteroids, which helps to resist stress but, if in the system for a prolonged period of time, suppresses the immune system. These responses are adaptive for dealing with stress in the form of ‘fight or flight” but this response is rarely useful in urban work, instead the accumulation of stress products in the body is immune-suppressive playing a part in degenerative processes and disease. In conclusion, Frost (2003) believed that when organizational leaders recognize emotional pain when it occurs and act to intervene, potentially lethal situations in the workplace could be reversed. 2.4.2 Social Consequences We can experience multiple stressors arising from the demands of the different social role we occupy, such as parent, spouse, caregiver, and employee. Some examples of social stressors include deadlines, financial problems, job interviews, presentations, disagreements, presentations, disagreements demand for ur time and attention loss of a loved one, divorce and co-parenting. According to Blumenthal (2003) social consequences effect can be shown as follows. Behavioural effects: stress leads to accident proneness, substance abuse, impaired speech, restlessness and forgetfulness. Poor interpersonal relationships are also a common source of stress in organizations. Arnold and Feldman (1986) cite three types of interpersonal relationships that can evoke a stress reaction: 1) too much prolonged contact with other people, 2) too much contact with people from other departments, and 3) an unfriendly or hostile organizational climate.
  24. 24. 11 Desseler (2000) was of the opinion that for organizations job stress consequences included reductions in the quantity and quality of job performance, increased absenteeism and turnover, increased grievances and health care costs. A study of 46,000 employees concluded that stress and depression may cause employees to seek medical care for vague physical and psychological problems and can in fact lead to more serious health conditions. The health care costs of the high-stress workers were 46% higher than those of their less stressed co-workers. According to Levin-Epstein, M (2002) stress on the job took its toll on non-profits: lost time from work, deflated productivity, low staff morale, turnover and higher health care costs. Carroll, M. and Walton, M. (1997) further defined work related stress as the psychological state that represents an imbalance or mismatch between people’s perceptions of the demand on them and their ability to cope with these demands. According to Frost (2003) the frequency with which hardworking, valuable employees have negative experiences in the workplace or hear bad news that leaves their hopes dashed, their goals derailed, or their confidence undermined. The sources of the pain vary, but much of it comes from abusive managers, unreasonable company policies, disruptive co-workers or clients, or from poorly managed change. It is a by- product of organizational life that can have serious negative effects on individuals and their organizations, unless it is identified and handled in healthy and constructive ways. 2.4.3 Physiological Consequences Situation and circumstances affecting our body can be experienced as physiological stressors. Examples of physiological stressors include rapid growth of adolescence, menopause, illness, aging, giving birth, accidents, lack of exercise, poor nutrition, and sleep disturbances. Blumenthal (2003) viewed stress as anything that upsets people’s ability to maintain critical variables (which can be social, psychological, spiritual or biological in nature) within acceptable limits. The experience of stress involves an event that is
  25. 25. 12 demanding or resources as well as the subjective feeling of distress experienced in its face. An event could be experienced as stressful if people appraised (evaluated) it as distressing. Whether an event is experienced as stressful depends on a person’s psychosocial orientation with things like culture, spirituality, values, beliefs and past experiences influencing the appraisal. Events that are appraised as being overwhelming, threatening, unsatisfying or confliction are more likely to be experienced as stressful. Blumenthal (2003) differentiated different physical effects of stress as follows: Effects on health: prolonged exposure to stress has profound and detrimental effects on health. Among possible complications stress may exacerbate or play a role in causing ailments like asthma, amenorrhea, coronary heart disease, chest pains, diarrheic, dyspepsia, headaches, migraines, diabetes mellitus, ulcers and decreased libido. In a world where AIDS is frighteningly prevalent people need to be aware that stress is immune-suppressive. HIV breaks down a person’s immune system, which leaves them vulnerable to potentially fatal infections and diseases. Job stress can have a substantial negative effect on physical and emotional health. Williams and Huber (1986) provide a comprehensive list of the symptoms of stress. These are: "constant fatigue, low energy level, recurring headaches, gastrointestinal disorders, chronically bad breath, sweaty hands or feet, dizziness, high blood pressure, pounding heart, constant inner tension, inability to sleep, temper outbursts, hyperventilation, moodiness, irritability and restlessness, inability to concentrate, increased aggression, compulsive eating, chronic worrying, anxiety or apprehensiveness, inability to relax, growing feelings of inadequacy, increase in defensiveness, dependence on tranquilizers, excessive use of alcohol, and excessive smoking." (p. 246) Furthermore, job stress can make people more susceptible to major illnesses. High stress managers are twice as prone to heart attacks as low stress managers. (Rosenman and Friedman, 1971) Many situations in organizational life can be stressful. These include: 1) problems with the physical environment, such as poor lighting or excessive nose, 2) problems with the quality of work such, as lack of diversity, an excessive pace, or too little work, 3) role ambiguities or conflicts in responsibilities, 4) relationships with
  26. 26. 13 supervisors, peers, and subordinates, and 5) career development stressors, such as lack of job security, perceived obsolescence, and inadequate advancement. 2.4.4 Emotional Consequences Factor include outcome of job stress in the form of emotion Examples of Emotional consequences temper and feel tense and unable to relax, more boodle than usual, feel funky and anxiety. Levin-Epstein (2002) also noted the most common indicators of stress as feeling overwhelming and burn out. Emotional and physical exhaustion often accompany such feelings, he further emphasized that employers as implementers of stress- endangering policies and procedures, should help employees manage their stress especially if it affects job performance. Many situations in organizational life can be stressful. These include: 1) problems with the physical environment, such as poor lighting or excessive nose, 2) problems with the quality of work such, as lack of diversity, an excessive pace, or too little work, 3) role ambiguities or conflicts in responsibilities, 4) relationships with supervisors, peers, and subordinates, and 5) career development stressors, such as lack of job security, perceived obsolescence, and inadequate advancement. Recent studies have found evidence of dangerous physical changes attributed to prolonged stress. One New York study reported a twenty gram increase in heart muscles of those suffering from job stress. There was a significant "thickening of the heart's left ventricle, or chamber, a condition that often precedes coronary heart disease and heart attacks." (Pieper, C., 1990) Omni magazine (March, 1991) wrote about a series of experiments with rats to examine the physiological effects of prolonged stress. The researchers found that there was actually a loss of neurons in the hippocampus section of their brains. The article concluded with a warning that there is some evidence of a similar neuron loss occurs in humans 2.5 Job Performance Performance can be described in general as amount come of an employee and also can be viewed from different perspective such as productivity, output, efficiency, effectiveness and many other variables related to the task.
  27. 27. 14 At low level of stress, individual are not activated for high performance similarly. At high level of stress individual expand their energy coping with stresses rather than directing efforts to word enhancement of performance. Thus performance is high when a moderate amount of stress is present. Under amount moderate stress, individuals are not only activated to performance, but devote substantial energy to words performance, enhancement rather than coping in with stresses. Repetti (1990), McGronogle and Kessler (1990), agree with Arnold, Robertson and Cooper (1993) in talking about the causes or sources of stress. Arnold, Robertson and Cooper (1993), identified five major causes of work stress as: factors intrinsic to the job, role in the organisation, relationships at work, career development and organizational structure and climate. Frost (2003) is also of the opinion that apart from quitting, which carries its own set of costs to the company, acts of revenge, sabotage, theft, vandalism, withdrawal behaviours, spreading gossip or generally acting cynical or mistrustful can all represent direct or indirect costs to the organization. 2.6 Factors Intrinsic to the Job Explain the factors intrinsic to the job, to include:  Poor Working Conditions This talks about the physical surrounding of the job which include high level of noise, high or low lighting, fumes, heat, poor ventilation systems, smells and all the stimuli which bombard a worker’s senses and can affect his moods and overall mental state. Also, the physical design of the workplace comes under poor working condition. If an office is poorly designed, with personnel who require frequent contact spread throughout, it creates poor communication networks and develops in poor working relationships which can cause stress to employees.  Shift Work This is where workers have jobs which require them to work in shifts, some of which involves working staggered hours, which affects a worker’s blood temperature,
  28. 28. 15 metabolic rate, blood sugar levels, mental efficiency, sleep patterns, resulting in hypertension, mild diabetes and peptic ulcers.  Long Hours The long working hours required by many jobs appear to take a toll on employees’ health and also making them suffer a high rate of stress. This means many individual workers and some medics who may have no sleep for thirty-six (36) hours or more may find that both their quality of work and they themselves suffer.  Risk And Danger A job which involves more risk and danger put employees in higher stress level. This is because when an employee is constantly aware of potential danger and he is prepared to react immediately, this results in rush, respiration changes and muscles tension which are all seen as potentially threatening long-term health.  New Technology The introduction of new technology into the work environment has required workers to adapt continually to new equipment, systems, and ways of working. Thus leading to a great source of pressure at work on the worker. For instance, a boss trained in the latest methods may be extra burden for an employee trained in the old ways and this may increase his stress level.  Work Under-Load This describes the problem of employees not being sufficiently challenged by their jobs. Job under-load is associated with repetitive routine, boring and under- stimulating work which causes a lot of stress for employees who find themselves in such situations. This means when employees are not given work which challenges their abilities and capabilities they suffer high level of stress.  Work Overload This is where the employee has too much work to do because of imposition of datelines which often causes stress in employees.
  29. 29. 16 2.7 Managing Stress According to Robbins (2004), stress can be managed in two approaches; the individual and organizational approaches. He said the individual approach include exercise. That is the employees can manage stress by walking, riding bicycles, attending aerobic classes, practicing yoga, jogging, swimming, playing tennis and swatting squash balls. Most runners and fitness addicts admit that, it is very hard to focus on job stress when one is trying to complete vigorous workout. Again, he said individuals can manage stress through relaxation. This is because, when employees relax the response for stress will be reserved in the human mind- body system. Individuals can reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis and biofeedback. The objective is to reach a state of deep relaxation in which the employee feels physically relaxed, somewhat detached from the immediate environment and detached from body sensations. Relaxation exercises reduce employee’s heart rates, blood pressure and other physiological indicators of stress. Another way to reduce stress individually is opening up. A healthy response to this moments or periods of personal crisis is to confide in others. Employees may not find it easy to discuss difficult personal traumas with others, but self-disclosure can reduce the level of stress and give them more positive outlook on life. Also honest entries on a regular basis in a diary may accomplish the same thing. He also went further to explain the organization approach to stress management which include training programmes for employees, ensuring effective upward and downward communication in the organization, improvement in personnel policies such as (good welfare packages, incentives, pension schemes), good job design, improvement in the physical work environment, and also management should provide technical support to employees. In the same view, Lucey, and Brian, M. (1994) said stress can be managed in an organization through increasing employees autonomy in their job, increase or decrease personal responsibility, allow more flexible working hours – by the used of
  30. 30. 17 flexi – time, job rotation and transfers, provide better working conditions, including social/fitness clubs etc. and institute a counselling service. Also Claude and Cole (1992) suggested that in order to manage work stress effectively, management should consider doing the following:  Provide work which allows some personal choice in the way it is carried out and the sequence in which it is carried out.  Encourage employees participation in decisions which affect them  Set clear goals and targets and provide adequate feedback on performance  Induct new recruits thoroughly  Provide training as an on-going updating process  Provide consistent rewards for effective output  Review performance gaps at the time of occurrence  Provide opportunities for employees to try new duties and different tasks.  Design job to have even work pressures  Encourage group working procedures and friendly work relations  Provide secure and fair personnel practices  Ensure work environment is free of hazards This implies that if these approaches and measures outlined above are carefully implemented it could go a long way to minimize the level of stress on employees. From the beginning to the end of this chapter, we found the existence of work stress, it causes and effects. The evidence indicates that stress can be either a positive or a negative influence on employees output. For many people, low to moderate amount of stress enable them to perform their jobs better by increasing the work intensity, alertness and ability to react. However, a high level of stress, or even a moderate amount sustained over a long period, eventually takes its toll on employees and pressure tends to decrease general performance and job satisfaction.
  31. 31. 18 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Site Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd established in 1973. Ramya Weerakoon is the owner of the company. It was commenced as a domestic business venture in Batik with the workshop employing no more than four workers; by 1978 Ramya batiks and handicrafts adventure to the exports with clothing and handicraft traditional and modern designs manufactured a workshop in a fifteen people and launch the business as Ramya Apparels (PVT) Ltd in 1987. The commercial production of garment, which commence with 35 machines and fifty employees manufacture outwear for the export market. Since there was an opportunity to create enterprise which stay generations to come, Ramya Apparel decided to expand the work force and obtain to expertise of a large corporate body. In 2003 restructuring and redeveloping Ramya Apparel (Pvt) Ltd, because of that it changes in to Trendy wear Pvt. Ltd. It specialized in high quality ladies’ and children garment and all factories are certified to meet international manufacturing standards with ISO 9001-2008. Today direct work force of the garment is over 1000 employees, with the market that reaches across the globe (USA, UK, France, Australia and Switzerland). Main buyers of these countries are Connected Apparels, ENC, Jones, Polo, Tiniwear. Trendy wear has grown in to a multinational multiplied enterprise that is dedicated excellence. The latest extension of Ramya holdings implements another two sub sections, Ramya Horticulture and Green bungalow. In 2003, the garment was established under the Company Act No.17 of 1987 and named as Trendy wear (pvt) Ltd, now it has been governed under Company Act No.07 of 2007.
  32. 32. 19 Today, the company owned five factories in at kadawatha, Adikarigama, Delgoda, Katupotha and Wellawa. Direct workforce of over 4000 people employed in those garments. Kadawatha branch is the main branch among those five branches. Trendy wear in Katupotha was established in15th October of 2003. At that, time there was only 150 machines and 200 employees. Today it has expanded the workforce around 1000 with 600 machines. Trendy wear in Katupotha is the second largest garment in Ramya Holdings. 3.2 Conceptualization and Operationalization 3.2.1 Conceptualization The broader concept of stress and the conceptual framework on which from research was based. Presenting the dimensions of derived from the study has strengthened the concept that job stress is multidimensional in nature. Hypothesis was started on the relationship of occupational stress to employee performances. This presents the issued and objectives arising from the research problem and conceptualization framework that based on the literature review. Figure: 3.1 Conceptual framework of the study Adapted from Matthews G. (2001) and developed for the research Job performance Independent variable Dependent variable Mental consequences Social consequences Physiological consequences Emotional consequences
  33. 33. 20 3.2.2 Operationalization Table 3.1: Operationalization Construct Dimension Indicator Question Number Mental Work overload Mantel imbalance 12 Peaceful mind Mantel stability Depression 13 14 Feel less confident less confident about decisions 15 Negative thought Anorexia Disappointment Less Confident 16 18 19 Absorbing new information Absorbing new information 17 Social Job uncertainty Job uncertainty 20 Personal life style Personal life style 21 Tension Tension 22 Sociable Sociable 23 Physiologic al Tiredness Tiredness 24 Leisure disturbances 25 30 Lack of exercise Physical problems 26 27 Illness Continues headache Closeness with management 28 32 Working capacity Working capacity 29 Accidents Accidents 31 Emotional Relax Fear about mistakes Insufficient free time Tiredness of the staff 33 35 36 Fear for work Angry with the staff 34
  34. 34. 21 Less confidence about my work 39 Anxiety Anxiety 35 Positive thinking Optimism 37 Job Performanc e Productivity Completion of daily work Less wastage Ability to complete all work 40 43 50 Efficiency Completion of daily target Punctuality Completion work safety 41 45 48 Effectiveness Accurate working procedure Less conflict with peers Contribution to developed good working environment 42 46, 49 Philosophy Good vision 44 Source: Construct by the researcher 2014
  35. 35. 21 3.3 Research Approach According to Rajasekar, Philominathan & Chinnathambi, (2013) quantitative research use statistical methods with the collection of data based on a theory or hypothesis or experiment followed by the application of descriptive or inferential statistical methods. Also, analytical research often extends the descriptive approach to suggest or explain why or how something is happening (Rajasekar, Philominathan & Chinnathambi, 2013). Therefore researcher used quantitative methods to conduct the research and the research comes under quantitative descriptive nature. Researcher mainly focused on deduction approach rather than induction approach because “Deductive research moves from general ideas/theories to specific particular & situations” Martin Sedgley, (2007). Through the research, researcher attempts to test the developed theory as well as accept or reject the established hypothesis and come to a conclusion with reference to Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd. 3.4 Research Design Research design according to Cooper (1994) is a plan that promotes systematic management of data collection. Design and methodology dictate what is needed to answer your research questions. The study adopts the cross-sectional survey method as its research strategy. As noted by Topper (2007), survey is a systematic method for gathering information from a sample of individuals for the purposes of describing the attributes of the larger population of which the individuals are members. The cross-sectional was chosen because it studied the research problem at a point in time and not within a longer period (longitudinal). This method is considered useful because the problem of study cannot be directly observed. Thus, the effect of occupational stress on job performance among employees of Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd cannot be directly observed.
  36. 36. 22 3.4.1 Procedure of Data Collection “Most research projects require some combination of secondary and primary data sources to answer the research questions and to meet research objectives” (Cooper 1994) 3.4.1.1 Data Type The researcher has used both primary and secondary data sources to collect data.  Primary data The primary data has collected mainly from the units of sample through a questionnaires, direct observations and informal interviews.  Secondary data The secondary data has collected through company Human Resources department and work-study department (performance records, turnover, absenteeism report and other reports). 3.4.1.2 Data Collection The primary data were collected through the questionnaires. The questionnaires have designed especially to achieve the research objective. The questionnaire consists of six part (Refer Appendix II). The register of staff members was obtained from the human resource department. And the questionnaires were distributed as per the table 3.2. Copies of the questionnaire were personally handed over to respondents I the morning. After end of day, researcher went back and collected the answered questionnaires because the respondents may forget to fill the questionnaire or misplace them entirely. The questions were thoroughly explained to the respondents after copies of the questionnaire were distributed to them. The purpose was to help the respondents understand the relevance of the research and provide their independent views on the questionnaire items given them. To have a valid and a reliable data, the researcher ensured that the questionnaires were well prepared which allowed error minimization. The questionnaire had close-ended questions where respondents were asked to tick the appropriate answer.
  37. 37. 23 3.4.2 Population, Sample And Sample Determination Cooper (1994) described the population of a research as the study of a large group of interest for which a research is relevant and applicable. Employees of Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd Katupotha constitute the target population for this research. All the departments of the Trendy wear garment comprising of Executives and non-executives staff took part in the exercise. Therefore, the population of the study is 1000 employees of Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd, Katupotha. The sample population is a subset of the entire population, and inferential statistics is to generalize from the sample to the population (Cooper 1994). Sample sizes of 211 respondents used for the study. The sample size was determined using Creative Research Systems (American Marketing Association / American Association for Public Opinion Research) simplified formula corrected to proportion to determine the sample size for the study. Sample Size = Z 2 * (p) * (1-p) c 2 Z = Z value (e.g. 1.96 for 95% confidence level) p = percentage picking a choice, expressed as decimal (.5 used for sample size needed) c = confidence interval, expressed as decimal 3.4.2.1 Sampling Technique: Random Sampling Method The random sampling method was used to select participants for the study. The random sampling technique is a way of selecting respondents which determines how to select members of a population that will be studied. The below table 3.2 indicates how the sample was selected randomly.
  38. 38. 24 Table 3.2: Sample Composition Department No of employees Training unit 15 Cutting Dep. 41 Production Dep. 102 Stores 10 Quality Dep. 15 HR & administration 6 Maintenance Dep. 10 Cleaning Dep. 8 Merchandising Dep. 4 Total 211 3.4.3 Research Instruments Closed-ended questionnaire was designed for the respondents. The questionnaires were divided into six sections to capture the critical areas spelt out in the objectives for the study as follows,  Part A - Demographic data  Part B - Mental Consequences  Part C – Social Consequences  Part D – Physiological Consequences  Part E – Emotional Consequences  Part F – Job Performance Questionnaire was translated into Sinhala in order to understanding of the respondents. The measurement used in this paper is the Likert Scale Method of summated ratings. It consists of statements where respondents indicate their degree of agreement or disagreement on a five- point scale -Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Agree, and Strongly Agree. The questionnaires were administered personally and the contents explained to some staff who requested to be guided. A total of 211 questionnaires were distributed to Employees of Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd. In addition, interviews were conducted to
  39. 39. 25 help clarify and gain a deeper understanding of some of the responses of respondents. The response rate was 100% of the total questionnaires administered. Structured interview guides were used to gather further information from respondents. 3.4.4 Validity and Reliability 3.4.4.1 Reliability of the Questionnaire Sekaram, U. (2006) The Cronbach’s alpha value method used to check whether the questionnaire developed by the researcher especially for this research purpose, measures the variables reliably. If the corresponding alpha value of a given set of questions is greater than 0.7 or closer to accepted minimum level 0.70, the researcher can conclude that the set of questions used to measure a particular variable is reliable. Mean value calculates to identify whether the factor affects the problem or not. If the mean value scored more than 3.00 on a 5-point Likert scale, it indicates there is no high impact for the problem. If the mean value scored less than 3.00 on a 5-point Likert scale, then there is an impact for the problem. Standard deviation value calculated to identify the variation among answers provided by respondents. If standard deviation value is more than 1.00, then there is a big difference among respondents. If the value is less than 1.00, then respondents gave similar answers. 3.4.4.2 Validity- Sampling Adequacy Test (Kaiser –Meyer- Olkin / KMO) According to Malhotra, N. (2004) KMO sampling adequacy is an index used to examine the appropriateness of the research instrument. High values (between 0.5 – 1.00) indicates validity is ensured. Values below 0.5 imply that validity is not ensured, this value indicates the generalizability of the sample to the population. 3.4.5 Data Presentation & Analyze Analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid references from data to their context. The researcher searches for structures and patterned regularities in the text and makes inferences on the basis of the regularities (Richard and Krieshok, 1989).
  40. 40. 26 The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17) was used to analysis the data. Tables and other statistical inferences were made from the data gathered. Representations like charts, pie charts etc. was used to ensure easy and quick interpretation of data. Responses were also expressed in percentages. Data from the completed questionnaire was checked for consistency. The items in the questionnaire were grouped based on the responses given by the respondents and coded for easy usage of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This method was used because it is the best instrument to identify, compare, describe and reach a conclusion. The data was analysed in consonance with the set objectives of the study as indicated below:  Multiple Regressions Analysis Multiple Regression Analysis is used to analysis the data. In statistics, regression analysis is a collective name for techniques for the modelling and analysis of numerical data consisting of values of a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. The dependent variable in the regression equation is modelled as a function of the independent variables, corresponding parameters (“constants") and an error term. Most commonly regression analysis estimates the conditional expectation of the dependent variable given the independent variables that is the average value of the dependent variable When the independent variables are fixed, commonly the focus is on a quintile, or other location parameter of the conditional distribution of the dependent variable give the independent variables. In all cases, the estimation target is a function of the in variable called the regression function. In regression analysis, the variation of the dependent variable around the regression function can describe by the probability distribution. Regression analysis is also used to understand which among the independent variables are related to the dependent variable, and to explore the forms of these relationships.
  41. 41. 27 Equation of multiple regressions modal can be written as follows, Y = β0 + β1ϰ1 + β2ϰ2 + ……. + βnϰn = Dependent variable = Intercept of the equation = Variable 1 = Variable 2 = Other factors  The Coefficient of Correlation The correlation is one of the most common and most useful statistics. It is the degree of association between two variables. In this analysis we can see how will variables are correlated. The coefficients of correlation (r) lie between -1 and +1. If the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation is close to 1 (> 0.5) with a high significant level (F< 0.05) then, there is a strong positive relationship between the two variables. If the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation is close to -1 (> - 0.5) with a high significant level (F< 0.05) then, there is a strong negative relationship between the two variables. If the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation is close to 0 (<-0.5 or –0.5) with a high significant level (F< 0.05) then, there is a positive or negative relationship between the two variables, but not so strong.
  42. 42. 28 3.5. Time Frame and Access to Research Site Week Activities 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Study the Organization Literature Review Problem Identification Research Proposal Research Methodology Data Collection Data Analysis Conclusion Preparing Appendices Finalizing Expected Actual Time Figure: 3.3 Time frame of the study
  43. 43. 29 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Data Presentation The collected demographic data were presented using pie charts 4.1.1 Gender Category Figure 4.1: Gender Composition of Sample Source: Survey Data 2014 According to Figure 4.1 the sample of the study consist of 61 of male respondents and as a percentage 29% from the total sample. There are 150 female respondents in the sample; it is 71% from the sample. 29% 71% Gender Category MALE FEMALE
  44. 44. 30 4.1.2 Age Category Figure 4.2: Age Composition of the Sample Source: Survey Data 2014 According to Figure 4.2 above, the sample of this study is categorized in to four age categories and the highest number of respondents is within 25-34 age categories (55%). 27% of the respondents of the sample are between 16-24 years. And there are 18% of the respondents are between 35-54 years. The lowest number of respondents to this study is from 45-54 age categories (5%). 4.1.3 Education Category As per the bellow mentioned pie chart there are 1% graduated employees, 9% diploma holding employees and most of the employees educational qualification is up to Advance Level examination, as a percentage 54% from the total sample. 36% of the employees in the sample are educated up to Ordinary Level examination. 27% 55% 13% 5% Age Category 16-24 Years 25-34 Years 35-44 Years 45-54 Years
  45. 45. 31 Figure 4.3: Education Qualification of the Sample Source: Survey Data 2014 4.1.4 Marital Status According to below Figure there are 69% of married employees and 31% employees are single in selected sample of Trendy Wear (Pvt) Ltd. Figure 4.4: Marital Status of the Sample Source: Survey Data 2014 36% 54% 9% 1% Education Qualification O/ LEVEL A/ LEVEL DIPLOMA GRADUATE 31% 69% Marital Status SINGLE MARRIED
  46. 46. 32 4.1.5 Department Category As Figure 4.2, highest number of respondents (48%) of the sample is from the Production Department. In addition to that, 19% of the respondents from the Cutting Department & 7% from the Quality department and Training Unit and rest departments are distributed in 19% of the sample. Figure 4.5: Department Composition of the Sample Source: Survey Data 2014 4.1.6 Position Category According to below Figure researcher can identify that 66% of the sample consist of Machine Operators. The rest of the sample consist with 11% Supervisor, 10% Helpers, 6% in charge and others employees and 1% Managers. 7% 19% 48% 5% 7% 3% 5% 4% 2% Department Composition Training unit Cutting Dep. Production Dep. Stores Quality Dep. HR & administration Maintenance Dep. Cleaning Dep. Merchandising Dep.
  47. 47. 33 Figure 4.6: Position of Employees Source: Survey Data 2014 4.1.7 Service with the Company Figure 4.7: Service with the Company Source: Survey Data 2014 10% 66% 11% 6% 1% 6% Position of Employees Helper Machine Operator Supervisor In charge Managers others 26% 20%36% 11% 7% Job Tenure Below 1 Year Below 2 Year Below 3 Year Below 4 Year Above 5 Year
  48. 48. 34 Above figure shows the tenure of employees with Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd. 36% of the employees has served the company 3 years and 26% of employees have a service period of less than one year. 20% of the employees have served the company 2 years. 11% of employees are 4 years and 7% are more than five years. According to the figure 4.6, 93% employees are less than 5 years, hence researcher conclude that most of employees dose not stay for a longer time period with Trendy Wear (PVT) Ltd. 4.2 Data Analysis This part of the study consists with the factors affecting to the job performance. Multiple regression analysis and correlation analysis was used to achieve the objective of the current study. There is one regression to identify the factors. Number of variables was used for multiple regression analysis. According to this analysis, job performance was the depended variables and independent variables were mental consequences, Social consequences, Physiological consequences, Emotional consequences. 4.2.1 Mean Value of Descriptive Statistics Table 4.1: Mean Value N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation MentalConsequences 211 1.88 3.25 2.6629 .50625 SocialConsequences 211 2.25 4.75 3.5095 .79126 PhysiologicalConsequences 211 1.89 3.67 2.8399 .45902 EmotionalConsequences 211 2.25 3.88 3.0652 .50567 JobPerformance 211 2.09 3.55 2.8470 .40934 Source: Survey data 2014
  49. 49. 35 4.2.2 Reliability of the Questionnaire The reliability analysis was carried out to find out the reliability of the current study. The results of the analysis are presented in the Table 4.1 Table 4.2: Reliability Variables subjected to the reliability test Alpha values Comment No. of Items 1 Mental consequences 0.763 Acceptable 8 2 Social consequences 0.805 Acceptable 4 3 Physiological consequences 0.750 Acceptable 9 4 Emotional consequences 0.773 Acceptable 8 5 job performance 0.697 Acceptable 11 Source: Survey data 2014 According to the findings all this reliability statistics has reached the reliability requirement. Mental consequences received 0.763 alpha values and it is more than 0.65 which denote high reliability. As well as Social consequences also extend the reliability requirement. When we take Physiological consequences in to our consideration its alpha value is exactly 0.750 and it is also more than to 0.65. Emotional consequences received 0.773 alpha values and it is more than 0.65 which denote high reliability. Finally dependent variable job performance received 0.697 it also denote reliability. According to U. Sekaran and R. Bougie (2012) the acceptable level of reliability is Cornbach alpha value of 0.5, consequently in the current study all the variables exceed the acceptable level of reliability. Hence it can be concluded that the reliability of the research instrument, questionnaire is ensured. 4.2.3 Validity Construct validity of the research instrument can be measured using the Kaiser- Meyer- Olkin (KMO) measure of sample adequacy. The value of 0.691 indicates the generalizability of the sample to the population. The result of the KMO sample adequacy test is presented in table 4.3
  50. 50. 36 Table 4.3: KMO (Validity) KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .691 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 951.940 df 10 Sig. .000 4.2.4 Correlation of Job Performance Vs Variables Table 4.4 Correlation Correlation coefficient (r) measures the linear relationship between two variables. The value of r can range from -1 to +1. When the four variables have positive correlation coefficient, an increment of one variable can lead to a likely increase in the value of the second variable. When considering about the pearson’s correlation coefficient, there is a significant positive relationship between Mental Consequences and Job performance (r = 0.615, P = 0.000). Social consequences and job performance of employees of Trendy Ware (Pvt) Ltd has a positive relationship at a 95% significance level. The relationship is a moderately positive relationship (r = 0.571, P = 0.000). Independent variable Dependant variable Mental Consequenc es Social Consequenc es Physiological Consequences Emotional Consequenc es Job Performan ce Pearson Correlation .615** .571** .819** .364** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000
  51. 51. 37 There is a strongly positive relationship between psychological consequences and job performance. ( r = 0.891, P = 0.000). The emotional consequences has a low positive relationship with employee job performance of Trendy Ware (Pvt) Ltd ( r =0.364, P = 0.000) 4.3 Regressions Analysis 4.3.1 Model Summary Table 4.5: Model summery Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .887a .787 .783 .19084 Source: Survey data 2014 The R Square value represent the validity of the model according to the data specially for this study the R Square value is 0.787, indicates that model collectively explain 78.7% of the total variability of the model with 21.3% error terms for example rewards, commitment, personality. 4.3.2 ANOVA Test Table 4.6: ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 27.685 4 6.921 190.045 .000a Residual 7.502 206 .036 Total 35.188 210 Source: Survey data 2014 According to the ANOVA test significant valve of Regression model is 0.000. Therefore, this regression model of the study is significant.
  52. 52. 38 4.3.3 Regression Model Researcher can write regressions equation as follows by using independent and dependent variables. Y= β0+ β1X1+ β2X2+ β3X3+ β4X4+ et Y = Job Performance β0 = Intercept X1 =Mental consequences X2 =Social consequences X3 =Physiological consequences X4 =Emotional consequences According to SPSS output regressions equation can be written as follows. Y = 1.116 + 0.430X1 + 0.143X2 + 0.577X3 – 0.507X4 Y Job Performance = 1.116 + 0.430 Mental + 0.143 Social + 0.577 Physiological – 0.507 Emotional  0.430X1 - Mental consequences According to the Regression analysis output, there is a positive relationship between mental consequences & Employee’s Performance. That was when Mental consequences change by one unit then the Employee’s Performance increase by 0.430 assuming other factors remains constant. Y = β0 + β1X1 Y = 1.116 + 0.430X1  0.143X2 - Social consequences
  53. 53. 39 There is a positive relationship between Social consequences & Employee’s Performance. That was when Social consequences change by one unit then the Employee’s Performance changed by 0.143 assuming other factors remains constant. Y = 1.116 + β2X2 Y = 1.116 + 0.143X2  0.577X3 - Physiological consequences There is a positive relationship between Physiological consequences & Employee’s Performance. That was when Physiological consequences increase by one unit then the Employee’s Performance increase by 0.577 assuming other factors remains constant. Y = 1.116 + β3X3 Y = 1.116+ 0.577X3  – 0.507X4 - Emotional consequences According to the Regression analysis output, there is a negative relationship between Emotional consequences & Employee’s Performance. That was when Emotional consequences change by one unit then the Employee’s Performance changed by - 0.507 assuming other factors remains constant. It implies when Emotional consequences decreased by one unit then the Employee’s Performance increased by - 0.507 Y = 1.116 + β4X4 Y = 1.116– 0.507X4
  54. 54. 40 4.4 Hypothesis testing Table 4.7: Hypothesis testing Variable Pearson correlation P value Decision Mental consequences 0.615 0.000 H0 Rejected Social consequences 0.571 0.000 H0 Rejected Physiological consequences 0.819 0.000 H0 Rejected Emotional consequences 0.364 0.000 H0 Rejected Source: Survey data 2014  Mental consequences According to the correlation table, there is a positive correlation between mental consequences; the correlation coefficient is 0.615 at the 0.01 significant level. Therefore it is highly correlated with the Employee’s Performance. It has a strong relationship since the value is more than 0.5. This result implies when the mental consequences are increased, the Employee’s Performance also will be increased. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of H1 & therefore the researcher has to reject the null hypothesis of H0 & accept H1 in relation to the mental consequences.  Social consequences The correlation matrix demonstrate that the correlation between Social consequences and the Employee’s Performance as 0.571 at the 0.01 significant level. According to that, when the Social consequences are increased, the Employee’s Performance also will be increased. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of H2 & therefore the researcher has to reject the null hypothesis of H0 & accept H2 in relation to the Social consequences.  Physiological consequences Regarding Physiological consequences, it has positive relationship with Employee’s Performance, which having 0.819 of positive correlation at 0.01 significant level. It is a significant relationship, because this relationship is significant
  55. 55. 41 at the 0.01 significant level. It has a strong relationship since the value is more than 0.5. According to that, when the Physiological consequences are increased, the Employee’s Performance also will be increased This result is consistent with the hypothesis of H3 & therefore the researcher has to reject the null hypothesis of H0 1 in relation to the Physiological consequences & accept H3.  Emotional consequences According to the correlation table, there is a positive correlation between Emotional consequences; the correlation coefficient is 0.364 at the 0.01 significant levels. According to that, when the Emotional consequences are increased, the Employee’s Performance also will be increased. This result is consistent with the hypothesis of H4 & therefore the researcher has to reject the null hypothesis of H0 & accept H4 in relation to the mental consequences. 4.5 Discussion The interpretation was provided for the Occupational Stress towards the Job performance. Under this part researcher discuss about all analysis method that use to analyse data of this research. 4.5.1 Effect of stress on job performance As well as according to pearson correlation significant value is 0.615.so there is significant relationship between Mental cconsequences and Job Performance. As the coefficient values of 0.430 this is the 2nd highest affecting factor to job performance. As well as pearson correlation significant value is 0.571.so there is significant relationship between Social cconsequences and Job Performance. Coefficient value of social consequences is 0.143 according to the regression analysis; it shows the 3rd highest affecting factor job performance. As well as pearson correlation significant value is 0.819.so there is significant relationship between Physiological cconsequences and Job Performance. According to regression value 0.577 physiological cconsequences is the most affecting factor to the employee job performance. As well as pearson correlation significant value is 0.364.so there is significant relationship between Emotional cconsequences and Job Performance. As the
  56. 56. 42 coefficient value of -.507 this is the lowest affecting factor to job performance and it shows negative relationship with job performance. 4.5.2 The level of Occupational Stress of Trendy Wear. According to the table 4.1, mean values for Mental Consequences for job performance are 2.66.less than mid-point 3.5 on a 5 point likers and it standard deviation values are less than 1. According to the table 4.1, mean values for Social consequences for job performance are3.50 and it more than mid-point 3.5 on a 5 point likers and it standard deviation values are less than 1. According to the table 4.1, mean values for Physiological Consequences for job performance are 2.83 and it is less than mid-point 3.5 on a 5 point likers and it standard deviation values are less than 1. According to table 4.1, The grand mean value of Emotional consequences are 3.06.that value is below to midpoint 3.5 on a 5-point liker scale and the overall standard deviation value scored and it is less than 1.
  57. 57. 43 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 5.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation supported by the data analysis. 5.2 CONCLUSIONS The construct, stress, has been studied over past years and considered as a critical factor that determine the performance of employees. Thus, understanding and evaluating the concept of stress has become an important concept in the current business world. Theories suggest that stressful condition have a detrimental effect on the behavior of the people which leads to organizational inefficiency and ineffective. These stresses could arise both at work and at home. The intention of this study was to explore the stressors prevalent in the workplace and also to examine the relationship between job stress and performance. Theoretically, behavioral scientists have explained that the relationship between job stress and performance is a negative one. From the study it was evident that stress does have a significant impact on performance. With the literature background this study tried to
  58. 58. 44 Stress Performan ce Good Stress Distress Figure 5.1 Impact of Occupational stress on performance Adapted from Nixom P. (1979) According to Figure 5.1 stress level and performance of employees are average or moderate level. Theoretically when stress is moderate, performance must be high. But according to study performance has shown average. That means there other factors that contribute to performance other than occupational stress. Mean value and Standard Deviation of Mental consequences are 2.662 and 0.506 respectively. The mean value indicates that respondents’ response is average value. That is they neither agree nor disagree that they have stress related to mental consequences. Mean value and Standard Deviation of Social consequences are 3.509 and 0.791 respectively. That mean respondents have average response about Social consequences. Mean value and Standard Deviation of Physiological consequences are 2.839 and 0.459 respectively. That mean respondents have average response about Physiological consequences. The mean value of Emotional consequences is 3.065 and Standard Deviation is 0.505 that also average response value. This value indicates that respondents have average view about above factors. The mean value of employee performance is 2.847 that mean, respondents reflect an average performance level.
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  62. 62. 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Opatha, H.H.D.N.P (1995), Sewamandala Kalamanakaranaya, Sri lanka,Colombo
  63. 63. 49 APPENDIXES Appendix A – Mission and Vision Mission Our mission as a World Class manufacturer of Garments, is to produce garments of utmost quality at competitive prices, while employing the use of our skilled workforce, superior raw materials and adhering to ethical and social standards of the highest level. Vision Trendy Wear Pvt. Ltd. seek to achieve the established objectives by utilizing our resources economical, while lessening the impact on the environment, and making steady contributions to the socio-economic development of the country.
  64. 64. 50 Appendix B – Questionnaire ප ය j [ √ ] ලක=ණ . ප (A) 1. S% :- [ ] S% [ ] 2. :- 15-24 [ ] 25- 34 [ ] 35- 44 [ ] 45- 54 [ ] 55ට [ ] 3. අධHdපන  අ. ප . . ( . ප ) [ ]  අ. ප . . (උ. ප ) [ ]  Od [ ]  උප Od [ ]  න [ ] 4. න  iyhl [ ]  කS% ක [ ]  ප Ël [ ]  අxශ ප%OdKS [ ]  ක ක [ ]  න [ ] 5. ක / අ ක :- අ ක [ ] ක [ ] 6. ප න Kන :- 0- [ ] 1- [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4 ඊට [ ] 7. f.A ක / :- ක [ ] න ක [ ] 8. ක :-  10,000- 20,000 [ ]  20,001 – 30,000 [ ]  30,001 – 40,000 [ ]  40,001 – 50,000 [ ]  50,001 ඊට [ ] 9. ක ප K ක < (අ ) 1 - අ [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4 - [ ] 5 - [ ] 5ට - [ ]
  65. 65. 51 10. d dන ට ට (km) 10 - අ [ ] 11-20 [ ] 21-30 [ ] 31-40 [ ] 41 -50 [ ] 51 ට [ ] 11. d ට ප KS ට න ප% න ධH ක  න ප ප% න ක [ ]  ප! ක ක [ ]  ප ප% න ක [ ] (B) ප ය j [ √ ] ලක=ණ . 1- එ `. 2- එ `. 3- ධH a 4- එ `. 5- එ `. 12. d ක H න ක නH ට ක ප න hd fkyelS. 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 13. ක H K ක ක න ට අප . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 14. ට න ක H ක Ë ට න . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 15. ක H න ට න ට න ක. 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 16. ක . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 17. අ ක ශ අ . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 18. ff ක ක න <s කන ප . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 19. ට ක <s ක ප , න ට . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] (C) ප ය j [ √ ] ලක=ණ . 1- එ `. 2- එ `. 3- ධH a 4- එ `. 5- එ `. 20. ක ප . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 21. fප! ක අ ප න ට න ක. 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ]
  66. 66. 52 22. ff ක K ට න ප%ශ ශ xඛHd . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 23. න ක ශ% ට අක අ ට ක . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] න ක ට (D) ප ය j [ √ ] ලක=ණ . 1- එ `. 2- එ `. 3- ධH a 4- එ `. 5- එ `. 24. ට ප කට ක . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 25. ප ප න ට ප î . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 26. ට ශ ක න 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 27. ශ ක න ක . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 28. d ට . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 29. ට න . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 30. අ D ප න න . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 31. අන ට න . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] ප න ක ට (E) ප ය j [ √ ] ලක=ණ . 1- එ `. 2- එ `. 3- ධH a 4- එ `. 5- එ `. 32. /lshdfõ න ට < ප < ක ක ` ප ට අ :d . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 33. fõ < අ ප ( ) ශ . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 34. ක ක ` ක න ට නa . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 35. ක ක ප% න . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ]
  67. 67. 53 36. ට කd H ප න . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 37. ට N S ට ප . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 38. ට න Y ක ප න න Y ප අ; . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 39. ක න කd H න ප . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] ප න ක ට (E) ප ය j [ √ ] ලක=ණ . 1- එ `. 2- එ `. 3- ධH a 4- එ `. 5- එ `. 40. ff ක ප කd H ක ක. 1- [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 41. ff ක ට න ක න d ට . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 42. න කS% ප පd ක% අ න ක ට කd H ක ක. 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 43. d කd H අ න අප d අ . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 44. ට ශන ( ) . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 45. ට d ට ප fKන w ට ට . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 46. ට ක ` කට ට d la . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 47. ක ක ` ට ක . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 48. ක H උපø Ëd ට . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 49. ප ප න ට , උප ක . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ] 50. නට ක H න කd H ට ප%% Ë අ ට න . 1 - [ ] 2- [ ] 3- [ ] 4- [ ] 5- [ ]
  68. 68. 54 Appendix C – Sample size
  69. 69. 55 Appendix D – Correlations Analysis Correlations MentalCo nsequenc es SocialCon sequences Physiologi calConseq uences Emotion alConse quences JobPerfor mance MentalConsequenc es Pearson Correlation 1 .816** .594** .842** .615** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 N 211 211 211 211 211 SocialConsequence s Pearson Correlation .816** 1 .581** .824** .571** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 N 211 211 211 211 211 PhysiologicalCons equences Pearson Correlation .594** .581** 1 .486** .819** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 N 211 211 211 211 211 EmotionalConsequ ences Pearson Correlation .842** .824** .486** 1 .364** Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 N 211 211 211 211 211 JobPerformance Pearson Correlation .615** .571** .819** .364** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 N 211 211 211 211 211 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
  70. 70. 56 Appendix E – Descriptive Analysis Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation MentalConsequences 211 1.88 3.25 2.6629 .50625 Valid N (listwise) 211 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation SocialConsequences 211 2.25 4.75 3.5095 .79126 Valid N (listwise) 211 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation PhysiologicalConsequen ces 211 1.89 3.67 2.8399 .45902 Valid N (listwise) 211 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation EmotionalConsequences 211 2.25 3.88 3.0652 .50567 Valid N (listwise) 211 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation JobPerformance 211 2.09 3.55 2.8470 .40934 Valid N (listwise) 211 Factor Analysis
  71. 71. 57 Appendix F – Factor Analysis KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .691 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 951.940 Df 10 Sig. .000 Communalities Initial Extraction MentalConsequences 1.000 .841 SocialConsequences 1.000 .809 PhysiologicalConsequen ces 1.000 .654 EmotionalConsequences 1.000 .701 JobPerformance 1.000 .610 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Total Variance Explained Comp onent Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 3.616 72.321 72.321 3.616 72.321 72.321 2 .898 17.967 90.288 3 .223 4.468 94.756 4 .187 3.747 98.503 5 .075 1.497 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
  72. 72. 58 Component Matrixa Component 1 MentalConsequences .917 SocialConsequences .900 PhysiologicalConsequen ces .809 EmotionalConsequences .837 JobPerformance .781 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a. 1 components extracted. Appendix G – Multiple Regression Analysis Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .887a .787 .783 .19084 a. Predictors: (Constant), EmotionalConsequences, PhysiologicalConsequences, SocialConsequences, MentalConsequences ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 27.685 4 6.921 190.045 .000a Residual 7.502 206 .036 Total 35.188 210 a. Predictors: (Constant), EmotionalConsequences, PhysiologicalConsequences, SocialConsequences, MentalConsequences b. Dependent Variable: JobPerformance
  73. 73. 59 Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardiz ed Coefficient s t Sig. Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Toleranc e VIF 1(Constant) 1.116 .100 11.113 .000 MentalConsequences .430 .055 .532 7.831 .000 .224 4.457 SocialConsequences .143 .033 .276 4.327 .000 .254 3.942 PhysiologicalConseq uences .577 .037 .647 15.655 .000 .606 1.649 EmotionalConsequen ces -.507 .054 -.626 -9.341 .000 .230 4.340 a. Dependent Variable: JobPerformance

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