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Ship Energy Efficiency Management-2016

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MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 4: Energy Efficiency Regulations and design & operational measures for shipping industry

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Ship Energy Efficiency Management-2016

  1. 1. Ship Energy Efficiency Management Mohammud Hanif Dewan, IEng IMarEng IMarEST MRINA Lecturer, Malaysian Maritime Academy 1
  2. 2. 350 300 250 200 150 Years Before Present Source: IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Assessment Report 2014 0100,000200,000300,000400,000 The world’s challenge: Increasing CO2concentrations in the atmosphere 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 400 ppm exceeded for the first time in April 2015 2
  3. 3. Global Warming CO2 is a strong Green House Gas (GHG). The high amount of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere would lead to the global warming of between 1.5ºC and 4.5ºC by the end of 21st Century if we just go as BAU…. Source: IPCC Report, 2014 3
  4. 4. GHG Effect 4 Source: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  5. 5.  Millions are suffering from ever more intensive weather events in Asia and the Americas……… Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 5  Storms will become more intense and frequent
  6. 6. 6 Ice caps are melting & glaciers are shrinking in the Arctic.
  7. 7. 7  Sea levels will rise up between 26cm & 82cm by the end of this 21st century
  8. 8. 8 oceans will become more acidic
  9. 9.  Wet regions receiving heavy rainfall causing floods 9
  10. 10. 10  Heatwaves are more frequent & last longer and  Dry regions receiving less rain, causing the drought.
  11. 11. 7 Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures Because of so much CO2 Emissions everyday……….. 11
  12. 12. Third IMO GHG Study 2014 Future CO2 emissions: - Significant increase predicted: 50-250% by 2050 in the absence of regulations - Technical and operational efficiency measures can provide significant improvements but will not be able to provide total net reductions if demand continues………………… Source: 3rd IMO GHS Study 2014 12
  13. 13. Background of Energy Efficiency Regulations  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change (UNFCCC) entered into force in 1994.  Kyoto Protocol (1997), sets binding targets for countries: “to reduce the overall GHG emissions by at least 5% below existing 1990 levels, in the commitment period 2008 to 2012.“  IMO Policies and Practices for Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships, adopted by Assembly on 23 December 2003 13
  14. 14. IMO energy efficiency regulatory activities MEPC68 IMO Energy EfficiencyRegulatory Developments Resolution MEPC.212(63)EEDI Calculation Resolution MEPC.214(63)EEDI Verification Resolution MEPC.213(63)SEEMP Resolution A.963 (23) “IMO policies and practices related to reduction of GHG emissions from ships” Dec 2003 June 2005 Mar 2008 June 2008 GHG Working Group 2 Feb 2009 MEPC Circ. 681 EEDI Calculation MEPC Circ. 682 EEDI Verification MEPC Circ. 683 SEEMP MEPC Circ. 684 EEOI Jul 2009 Energy Efficiency WG Jun 2010 Sep 1997 Feb 2012 July 2011 EEDI & SEEMP Regs.Adopted GHG Working Group 1 MEPC40 MEPC53 MEPC57 MEPC58 MEPC59MEPC60 MEPC61 MEPC62 MECP63 MEPC64 MEPC65 MEPC66 MEPC67 Resolution 8 “CO2 emissions From ships” MARPOLVI Amendments Resolution MEPC 203(62) May 2013 March 2014 Oct 2012 MEPC Circ.471, EEOI Oct May 20152014 3 rd GHG Study 2014 MARPOL VI Amendments Resolution MEPC.251(66) Resolution MEPC.245(66): EEDI CalculationGuidelines Resolution MEPC.231(65) Reference Lines Resolution MEPC.232(65) Minimum power ResolutionMEPC.233(65),Reference lines for cruiseships MEPC.1/Circ.815Innovative EE Technologies MEPC.1/Circ.816 Consolidatedon EEDI verification Debate on Data collection Source: IMO
  15. 15. EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP Process Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 15
  16. 16. Applications of EEDI- Reg. 19  Apply to  all new ships ≥ 400 GT  Building contract placed on/after January 2013;  In the absence of contract, keel laid after 1 July 2013; or  The delivery of which is on / after 1 July 2015; or  In cases of a major conversion of a new or existing ship, on / after 1 January 2013  Not apply to  ships sailing entirely within flag state waters  ships which have: - diesel-electric propulsion, - turbine propulsion or - hybrid propulsion systems. Except cruise passenger ships and LNG carriers having conventional or non- conventional propulsion, delivered on or after 1 September 2019. 16
  17. 17. Attained EEDI- Reg. 20 Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)  EEDI is an index which quantify the amount of CO2 is emitted by a ship while transported 1 ton cargo 1 knot (cargo transport)  The actual EEDI of a vessel is called the “attained EEDI” and is calculated based on guidelines published by IMO (Resolution MEPC.245-66).  Attained EEDI ≤ Required EEDI  Attain EEDI” specific to each new ship ……… and be accompanied by the EEDI Technical File……. 17
  18. 18. Required EEDI- Reg. 21 Required EEDI is the maximum value of attained EEDI, that is allowed by MARPOL Annex 6 Chapter 4 Regulation 21 for the specific ship type & sizes. Required EEDI has been determined by using reference lines. The method of calculation of the required EEDI is as follow: Where, X is the reduction factor  Reference line value is estimated from EEDI Reference line. These are calculated based on the below formula: Reference line = a*b-c 18 Source: IMO MEPC, 63 Required EEDI = (1- X /100) * Reference line value
  19. 19. Review of phases and reduction factors, Reg. 21.6 Source: IMO MEPC, 63 19
  20. 20. Main Engine(s) Aux Engine(s) Innovative Energy Eff. Power Gen. Technologies Innovative Energy Eff. Propulsion Technologies Boilers are excluded from EEDI EEDI = [gCO2/(tonne.nm)] fc. Attained EEDI: Calculation formula Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 20
  21. 21. Simplify EEDI Formula: 21
  22. 22. Technologies for EEDI reduction No. EEDI reduction measure Remark 1 Optimised hull dimensions and form Ship design for efficiency via choice of main dimensions (port and canal restrictions) and hull forms. 2 Light weight construction New lightweight ship construction material. 3 Hull coating Use of advanced hull coatings/paints. 4 Hull air lubrication system Air cavity via injection of air under/around the hull to reduce wet surface and thereby ship resistance. 5 Optimisation of propeller-hull interface and flow devices Propeller-hull-rudder design optimisation plus relevant changes to ship’s aft body. 6 Contra-rotating propeller Two propellers in series; rotating at different direction. 7 Engine efficiency improvement De-rating, long-stroke, electronic injection, variable geometry turbo charging, etc. 8 Waste heat recovery Main and auxiliary engines’ exhaust gas waste heat recovery and conversion to electric power. 9 Gas fuelled (LNG) Natural gas fuel and dual fuel engines. 10 Hybrid electric power and propulsion concepts For some ships, the use of electric or hybrid would be more efficient. 11 Reducing on-board power demand(auxiliary system andhotelloads). Maximum heat recovery and minimizing required electrical loads flexible power solutions and power management. 12 Variable speed drive for pumps, fans etc. Use of variable speed electric motors for control of rotating flow machinery leads to significant reduction in their energy use. 13 Wind power (sail, wind engine, etc.) Sails, fletnner rotor, kites, etc. These are considered as emerging technologies. 14 Solar power Solar photovoltaic cells. 15 Design speed reduction (newbuilds) Reducing design speed via choice of lower power or de-rated engines. Source: Bazari & Longva (2011) and IMO MEPC 63, 2011 22
  23. 23. Large Ship Design <30% Source: Mearsk Line Source: Wartsila The technologies covered so far………………………… 23
  24. 24. Lightweight Structures Optimum Block Coefficient Source: Wartsila Source: Wartsila 24
  25. 25. Hull Air Lubrication: <20% Hull Coating: 5% Source: Mitsubishi 25
  26. 26. • Counter Rotating Propellers (CRP): <10% Source: jmuc.co.jp Source: nextbigfuture.com 26  single propeller there is a stream of lost energy, with the CRP this is received by the contra propeller and converted into thrust. Waste Heat Recovery System <10%
  27. 27. Wind Power: Sails or Kites <20% Beluga SkySail will use wind to sail Source: www.theage.com.au , Source: Wartsila 27
  28. 28. Source: Wartsila 28
  29. 29. Regulation 22- SEEMP 29
  30. 30. SEEMP Applicability: (according to Resolution MEPC.203(62)) • All vessels of ≥ 400 GT • Each vessel to be provided with a ship-specific SEEMP not later than the first intermediate or renewal survey (whichever is first) on or after 1 January 2013. • The administration or RO will check that the SEEMP is onboard and subsequently issue the International Energy Efficiency Certificate (IEEC). • PSC inspection is limited to verifying if there is a valid IEEC on board. Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP)- Reg. 22 30
  31. 31. SEEMP – Reg. 22  A SEEMP provides: - A possible approach for improving ship and fleet energy efficiency over time; and - Some options to be considered for optimizing the performance of the ship.  SEEMP purpose  The purpose of a SEEMP is to establish a mechanism for a company and/or a ship to improve the energy efficiency of a ship's operation.  The SEEMP has to be developed for a specific ship by IMO guidelines Resolution MEPC.213(63): 2012 31
  32. 32. Ship Energy Management (operation) IMO SEEMP Best PracticeContinuous improvement is key for energy efficient shipping Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP 32
  33. 33.  For existing ships, a Record of Construction needs to be filled and an IEE Certificate issued when the existence of SEEMP on-board is verified. SEEMP and IEE Certificate Source: MEPC, 63 33
  34. 34. SEEMP Related Measures No. Energy Efficiency Measure Remark 1 Engine tuning and monitoring Engine operational performance and condition optimisation. 2 Hull condition Hull operational fouling and damage avoidance. 3 Propeller condition Propeller operational fouling and damage avoidance. 4 Reduced auxiliary power Reducing the electrical load via machinery operation and power management. 5 Speed reduction (operation) Operational slow steaming. 6 Trim/draft Trim and draft monitoring and optimisation. 7 Voyage execution Reducing port times, waiting times, etc. and increasing the passage time, just in time arrival. 8 Weather routing Use of weather routing services to avoid rough seas and head currents, to optimize voyage efficiency. 9 Advanced hull coating Re-paint using advanced paints. 10 Propeller upgrade and aft body flow devices Propeller and after-body retrofit for optimisation. Also, addition of flow improving devices (e.g.duct and fins). Measures for Improving Energy Efficiency – Examples Source: Bazari & Longva (2011) and IMO MEPC 63 34
  35. 35. Masters should optimize route planning to avoid high storm or wave frequency and maximize calm sea state taking into consideration: - The effects of ocean current and tides - The effects of weather systems - The crew safety and comfort, based on trade and route, Voyage routes can be charted with the use of Rhumb Lines and / or the Great Circle methodology Optimized Voyage Planning and Weather Routing Source: Wartsila 35
  36. 36. Just in Time/ Virtual Arrival (JIT) – A known delay at the discharge port; – Whenever an opportunity exists, the operator requests permission from Charterers to reduce speed; – A mutual agreement between the stakeholders. Other parties may be involved in the decision making process, such as terminals, cargo receivers and commercial interests. As a whole, JIT can save upto 40% in fuel use as well as CO2 emission on a simple voyage…….. Source: Alpha Marine 36
  37. 37. Ship and voyage performance analysers Ship and voyage performance analyzer:  There are systems that can routinely measure ship speed, shaft propulsion power and environmental conditions. These systems could be used for monitoring various aspects of ship and voyage performance.  They could also help to identify reasons for poor performance, deviations in speed and so on. Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP 37
  38. 38. Slow Steaming  Reducing the ship speed an effective way to cut energy consumption.  The energy saving calculated here is for an equal distance travelled. Reduction in ship speed vs. saving in total energy consumption:  0.5 kn –> – 7% energy  1.0 kn –> – 11% energy  2.0 kn –> – 17% energy  3.0 kn –> – 23% energy  If the ship speed reduce from 20 to 19knots, fuel consumption will be reduced by 10% per ton-knot. 38
  39. 39. Hull & Propeller Maintenance Source: Wartsila 39
  40. 40. Main Engine Performance MonitoringFuel Injection Slide Valves 40 Source: MAN B& W Engine Performance optimization  Maintaining good condition of fuel injection valves, exhaust valves, proper fuel oil temperature and good quality fuel can ensure good combustion and improve energy efficiency of the engine.  Reduced sac volume to almost zero and hence save fuel.  Ensure complete combustion and improve fuel efficiency.
  41. 41.  De-rating is setting of engine performance to max cylinder pressure at lower than normal shaft speed, at a point of lower down of propeller curve.  For existing ship, this can be done by readjustment of fuel injection timing and resizing the propeller blade. Installation of De-rated Main Engines……10%-20%
  42. 42. Source: Lloyd’s Register Trim and Ballast optimisation Source: Wartsila Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP (Train the Trainer Course) 42
  43. 43. Source: Wärtsilä  Finding the correct parameters or preventing unnecessary use of the rudder gives an anticipated benefit of 1-5%. Mewis Duct propeller <5%  Providing a pre-swirl to the ship’s wake by it’s fins which reduces losses in the propeller’s slipstream  Increase the propeller thrust and improve propulsion Source: www.nauticexpo.com 43
  44. 44. Bulbous Bow optimization <5% 44 A bow that is shaped to allow the vessel to adapt better sailing speeds makes a fuel saving of up to 5%. Source: Maersk Line, Sustainable Report 2013.
  45. 45. Energy Saving Lighting • Using lighting that is more electricity and heat efficient where possible and optimizing the use of lighting reduces the demand for electricity and air conditioning. This results in a lower hotel load and hence reduced auxiliary power demand. • Results: Fuel consumption saving: Ferry and Passenger vessel 1~2% 45
  46. 46. Source: Wartsila Source: Wartsila  Maximize D/G load and run minimum number of D/G with safe load.  All non-essential machineries and equipment must be stopped in port & at sea to reduce the load on generators.  Rectify air leakage and minimize compressed air uses.  Rectify steam leakage and minimize steam uses and avoid running the boiler continuously.  Try to start & use the machineries JUST IN TIME. Load Optimization on Generators 46
  47. 47. Energy Saving Operation Awareness  Crew Awareness may be increased through the use of appropriate Energy Savings Checklists, developed based on Best Practices identified after numerous Energy Audits  An incentive or bonus scheme can be introduced on fuel savings. One simple means would be competition between the company’s vessels.  Crew training can increase the crew awareness on Energy efficient operation of ship. 47
  48. 48. Cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures 48
  49. 49.  Basic expression of the EEOI  j = Fuel type  i = Voyage number;  FCij = Mass of consumed fuel j at voyage i  CFj = Fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factor for fuel j  mcargo = Cargo carried (tonnes) or work done (number of TEU or passengers) or gross tonnes for passenger ships  D = Distance in nautical miles corresponding to the cargo carried or work done. Calculation of the EEOI - Formula EEOI = Environmental Cost / Benefit to Society (measured as grams CO2 / tonnes x nautical mile)  EEOI = (Emitted CO2)/(Transport Work), i.e. the ratio of mass of CO2 (M) emitted per unit of transport work. 49
  50. 50.  Example (includes a single ballast voyage)  Unit of EEOI: tonnes CO2/(tons x nautical miles) Calculation of the EEOI (example) 50
  51. 51. For EEOI Calculation Always remember…………  For calculation of EEOI, you need to have some cargo transport (cargo X distance travelled). So, if no cargo transport, EEOI will become infinity (very large). Therefore, for anchorage or for ballast voyage, EEOI cannot be calculated.  The FPSO and offshore vessels are not moving. If the ship does not move or the ship has no cargo, then EEOI cannot be calculated. 51
  52. 52. IEE (International Energy Efficiency) Certificate (Reg. 6) IEEC will be issued when……….. 1. For New ship with a Calculated & Varified Attained EEDI, EEDI Technical File and a verified SEEMP onboard 1. For Existing Ship, with a verified SEEMP and “Record of Construction related to Energy Efficiency” file  An IEE Certificate … issued to any ship ≥ 400 GT  IEE Certificate shall be valid throughout the life of the ship if no major conversion, no transfer of flag or not withdrawn from service. 52
  53. 53. Regulation: 22A (Development on Energy Efficiency in MEPC 69) Regulation 22A: “Collection and reporting of ship fuel consumption data” - Each ship>/=5000mt shall collect the specified data according to methodology included in SEEMP - Data should be verified by the flag state administration, by guidelines of IMO - Provision of issuance of a “Statement of Compliance” by the flag state administration. - PSC role is limited to verifying that there is a valid “Statement of Compliance” onboard. - Expected to entry into force from 1 March 2018 - All party countries can access the database. 53
  54. 54. Regulation: 22A (Development in Energy Efficiency on MEPC 69) Information to be collected According to Regulation: 22A  Identity of the ship  IMO number  Technical characteristics of the ship  Ship type  GT, NT & DWT  Power output (rated power) of main & aux engines (kW)  EEDI (if applicable)  Ice class (if applicable)  Fuel consumption (in mt), by fuel, type and methods used for collecting fuel consumption data  Distance travelled from berth to berth, hours not at berth 54
  55. 55. Legislated EU-MRV 55  MRV is a standardised method to produce an accurate CO2 emissions inventory, through the quantification of CO2 emissions. EU-MRV scheme overview (Source: LR)  31 August2017 – Monitoring plan to be prepared and submitted for approval to verifier  1st January 2018 – Commence per-voyage and annual monitoring  2019 onwards – By 30th April each year, submit a verified emission report to the EC and flag state  30th June 2019 onwards – Ships will need to carry a valid DOC relating to the reporting period.
  56. 56. 56 Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management and Plan
  57. 57. Ship Energy Management: 3-Step Approach  From low-hanging fruits to major capital investments Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP 57
  58. 58.  Need to set clear policies and goals for the fuel saving projects.  Need to set a roadmap for 3-5 years.  Need to approach it in a step-by-step way with proper monitoring. Ship Energy Management: A systematic approach Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP 58
  59. 59. Survey on total 85 participants by DNV GL in 2013 Who has the key responsibility within your organisation for energy management? Companies with 0 - 50% target achievement Companies with 51 - 100% target achievement 12 2%  Establishing energy manager has positive impact on targets achievements 19% 14% 26% 40% 22% 4% 26% 15% 11% A positive effect on target achievements on Energy Efficiency Captain/ Chief Engineer No dedicated person Alternative Select Superintendent all Superintendents Energy Manager % 1 0% Source: DNV GL Energy Management Survey, 2013 59
  60. 60. Measures Can be Planned for SEEMP 60
  61. 61. Energy Efficiency Measures implemented by Maersk Line 1St Step measures implemented on SEEMP:  Optimised voyage planning - Voyage Efficiency System developed by Maersk line  “Just in time” steady running strategy  Weather routing  Minimum safe ballast  Optimal trim  Hull and propeller maintenance  Optimization of Bulbous bow  Ship and voyage performance analyser System developed by Maersk line  Energy Saving operation Awareness by Crew training 61 Source: Maersk Line Sustainability Report, 2013
  62. 62. Benefits of Energy Efficiency in Shipping 62 Source: www.maersktankers.com Just an example…………
  63. 63. The simple Energy Saving Concept…. 100W Traditional Incandescent bulb 23W Energy Saving LED Bulb But…… Hmm……..Energy Efficiency!!! 63
  64. 64. Energy Efficiency, Just a step! Same Work Done!…….. Less Energy Use!!………….. Saving more fuels!!!………… So, more saving money!!!!….. And Saving GREEN Planet!…… So, Energy Efficiency is Just in our next steps………. 64
  65. 65. Thank you for your attention! For more information please see: www.imo.org 65

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