Ship Energy Efficiency
Mohammud Hanif Dewan, IEng IMarEng IMarEST MRINA
Lecturer, Malaysian Maritime Academy
Years Before Present
Source: IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change) Assessment Report 2014
The world’s challenge:
in the atmosphere
400 ppm exceeded for the
first time in April 2015
CO2 is a strong Green House Gas (GHG).
The high amount of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere
would lead to the global warming of between 1.5ºC and
4.5ºC by the end of 21st Century if we just go as BAU….
Source: IPCC Report, 2014
Wet regions receiving heavy rainfall
Heatwaves are more frequent & last longer and
Dry regions receiving less rain, causing the drought.
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures
Because of so much CO2 Emissions everyday………..
Third IMO GHG Study 2014
Future CO2 emissions:
- Significant increase predicted: 50-250% by
2050 in the absence of regulations
- Technical and operational efficiency
measures can provide significant
improvements but will not be able to
provide total net reductions if demand
Source: 3rd IMO GHS Study 2014
Background of Energy Efficiency Regulations
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change (UNFCCC)
entered into force in 1994.
Kyoto Protocol (1997), sets binding targets for countries: “to reduce the
overall GHG emissions by at least 5% below existing 1990 levels, in the
commitment period 2008 to 2012.“
IMO Policies and Practices for Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships,
adopted by Assembly on 23 December 2003
IMO energy efficiency regulatory activities
IMO Energy EfficiencyRegulatory Developments
Resolution MEPC.212(63)EEDI Calculation
Resolution MEPC.214(63)EEDI Verification
Resolution A.963 (23)
“IMO policies and practices
related to reduction of GHG
emissions from ships”
MEPC Circ. 681 EEDI Calculation
MEPC Circ. 682 EEDI Verification
MEPC Circ. 683 SEEMP
MEPC Circ. 684 EEOI
MEPC40 MEPC53 MEPC57 MEPC58 MEPC59MEPC60 MEPC61 MEPC62 MECP63 MEPC64 MEPC65 MEPC66 MEPC67
MEPC Circ.471, EEOI
Resolution MEPC.231(65) Reference Lines
Resolution MEPC.232(65) Minimum power
ResolutionMEPC.233(65),Reference lines for cruiseships
MEPC.1/Circ.815Innovative EE Technologies
MEPC.1/Circ.816 Consolidatedon EEDI verification
EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP Process
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures
Applications of EEDI- Reg. 19
all new ships ≥ 400 GT
Building contract placed on/after January 2013;
In the absence of contract, keel laid after 1 July 2013; or
The delivery of which is on / after 1 July 2015; or
In cases of a major conversion of a new or existing ship, on / after 1
Not apply to
ships sailing entirely within flag state waters
ships which have:
- diesel-electric propulsion,
- turbine propulsion or
- hybrid propulsion systems.
Except cruise passenger ships and LNG carriers having conventional or non-
conventional propulsion, delivered on or after 1 September 2019. 16
Attained EEDI- Reg. 20
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
EEDI is an index which quantify the amount of CO2 is emitted
by a ship while transported 1 ton cargo 1 knot (cargo transport)
The actual EEDI of a vessel is called the “attained EEDI” and is
calculated based on guidelines published by IMO
Attained EEDI ≤ Required EEDI
Attain EEDI” specific to each new ship ……… and be accompanied
by the EEDI Technical File…….
Required EEDI- Reg. 21
Required EEDI is the maximum value of attained EEDI, that is allowed by
MARPOL Annex 6 Chapter 4 Regulation 21 for the specific ship type & sizes.
Required EEDI has been determined by using reference lines. The
method of calculation of the required EEDI is as follow:
Where, X is the reduction factor
Reference line value is estimated from EEDI Reference line. These are
calculated based on the below formula:
Reference line = a*b-c
Source: IMO MEPC, 63
Required EEDI = (1- X /100) * Reference line value
Review of phases and reduction factors, Reg. 21.6
Source: IMO MEPC, 63
Main Engine(s) Aux
Innovative Energy Eff.
Boilers are excluded from EEDI
Attained EEDI: Calculation formula
Source: IMO presentation on
Technologies for EEDI reduction
No. EEDI reduction measure Remark
1 Optimised hull dimensions and form
Ship design for efficiency via choice of main dimensions (port
and canal restrictions) and hull forms.
2 Light weight construction New lightweight ship construction material.
3 Hull coating Use of advanced hull coatings/paints.
4 Hull air lubrication system
Air cavity via injection of air under/around the hull to reduce wet
surface and thereby ship resistance.
Optimisation of propeller-hull
interface and flow devices
Propeller-hull-rudder design optimisation plus relevant changes to
ship’s aft body.
6 Contra-rotating propeller Two propellers in series; rotating at different direction.
7 Engine efficiency improvement
De-rating, long-stroke, electronic injection, variable geometry
turbo charging, etc.
8 Waste heat recovery
Main and auxiliary engines’ exhaust gas waste heat recovery
and conversion to electric power.
9 Gas fuelled (LNG) Natural gas fuel and dual fuel engines.
Hybrid electric power and
For some ships, the use of electric or hybrid would be more
Reducing on-board power
Maximum heat recovery and minimizing required electrical loads
flexible power solutions and power management.
Variable speed drive for pumps,
Use of variable speed electric motors for control of rotating flow
machinery leads to significant reduction in their energy use.
13 Wind power (sail, wind engine, etc.)
Sails, fletnner rotor, kites, etc. These are considered as
14 Solar power Solar photovoltaic cells.
Design speed reduction
Reducing design speed via choice of lower power or de-rated
Source: Bazari & Longva (2011) and IMO MEPC 63, 2011
Large Ship Design <30%
Source: Mearsk Line
The technologies covered so far…………………………
• Counter Rotating Propellers (CRP): <10%
there is a stream
of lost energy,
with the CRP
this is received
by the contra
Waste Heat Recovery System <10%
Wind Power: Sails or Kites <20%
Beluga SkySail will use wind to sail
Source: www.theage.com.au ,
(according to Resolution MEPC.203(62))
• All vessels of ≥ 400 GT
• Each vessel to be provided with a ship-specific SEEMP not
later than the first intermediate or renewal survey (whichever is
first) on or after 1 January 2013.
• The administration or RO will check that the SEEMP is onboard
and subsequently issue the International Energy Efficiency
• PSC inspection is limited to verifying if there is a valid
IEEC on board.
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
(SEEMP)- Reg. 22
SEEMP – Reg. 22
A SEEMP provides:
- A possible approach for improving ship and fleet
energy efficiency over time; and
- Some options to be considered for optimizing the
performance of the ship.
The purpose of a SEEMP is to establish a mechanism
for a company and/or a ship to improve the energy
efficiency of a ship's operation.
The SEEMP has to be developed for a specific ship by
IMO guidelines Resolution MEPC.213(63): 2012
Ship Energy Management (operation)
Best PracticeContinuous improvement is key for
energy efficient shipping Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP
For existing ships, a Record of Construction needs to be filled and an
IEE Certificate issued when the existence of SEEMP on-board is
SEEMP and IEE Certificate
Source: MEPC, 63
SEEMP Related Measures
No. Energy Efficiency Measure Remark
1 Engine tuning and monitoring
Engine operational performance and
2 Hull condition Hull operational fouling and damage avoidance.
3 Propeller condition Propeller operational fouling and damage avoidance.
4 Reduced auxiliary power
Reducing the electrical load via machinery operation
and power management.
5 Speed reduction (operation) Operational slow steaming.
6 Trim/draft Trim and draft monitoring and optimisation.
7 Voyage execution
Reducing port times, waiting times, etc. and
increasing the passage time, just in time arrival.
8 Weather routing Use of weather routing services to avoid rough seas
and head currents, to optimize voyage efficiency.
9 Advanced hull coating Re-paint using advanced paints.
10 Propeller upgrade and aft
body flow devices
Propeller and after-body retrofit for optimisation.
Also, addition of flow improving devices (e.g.duct
Measures for Improving Energy Efficiency – Examples
Source: Bazari & Longva (2011) and IMO MEPC 63
Masters should optimize route
planning to avoid high storm or wave
frequency and maximize calm sea
state taking into consideration:
- The effects of ocean current and
- The effects of weather systems
- The crew safety and comfort, based
on trade and route,
Voyage routes can be charted with
the use of Rhumb Lines and / or the
Great Circle methodology
Optimized Voyage Planning and Weather Routing
Just in Time/ Virtual Arrival (JIT)
– A known delay at the
– Whenever an opportunity
exists, the operator requests
permission from Charterers to
– A mutual agreement
between the stakeholders.
Other parties may be
involved in the decision
making process, such as
terminals, cargo receivers
and commercial interests.
As a whole, JIT can save upto 40% in
fuel use as well as CO2 emission on a
Source: Alpha Marine
Ship and voyage performance analysers
Ship and voyage performance analyzer:
There are systems that can
routinely measure ship speed,
shaft propulsion power and
environmental conditions. These
systems could be used for
monitoring various aspects of ship
and voyage performance.
They could also help to identify
reasons for poor performance,
deviations in speed and so on.
Source: IMO Technical Presentation
Reducing the ship speed an
effective way to cut energy
The energy saving calculated
here is for an equal distance
Reduction in ship speed vs. saving
in total energy consumption:
0.5 kn –> – 7% energy
1.0 kn –> – 11% energy
2.0 kn –> – 17% energy
3.0 kn –> – 23% energy If the ship speed reduce from 20 to
19knots, fuel consumption will be
reduced by 10% per ton-knot. 38
Main Engine Performance MonitoringFuel Injection Slide Valves
Source: MAN B& W
Engine Performance optimization
Maintaining good condition of fuel
injection valves, exhaust valves, proper
fuel oil temperature and good quality
fuel can ensure good combustion and
improve energy efficiency of the
Reduced sac volume to almost
zero and hence save fuel.
Ensure complete combustion
and improve fuel efficiency.
De-rating is setting of engine performance to max cylinder pressure at lower than
normal shaft speed, at a point of lower down of propeller curve.
For existing ship, this can be done by readjustment of fuel injection timing and
resizing the propeller blade.
Installation of De-rated Main Engines……10%-20%
Source: Lloyd’s Register
Trim and Ballast optimisation
Source: IMO Technical Presentation
on SEEMP (Train the Trainer Course) 42
Finding the correct
preventing unnecessary use
of the rudder gives an
anticipated benefit of 1-5%.
Mewis Duct propeller <5%
Providing a pre-swirl to the ship’s
wake by it’s fins which reduces
losses in the propeller’s slipstream
Increase the propeller thrust and
Bulbous Bow optimization <5%
A bow that is shaped to allow the vessel to adapt better sailing speeds
makes a fuel saving of up to 5%.
Source: Maersk Line, Sustainable Report 2013.
Energy Saving Lighting
• Using lighting that is more electricity and heat efficient
where possible and optimizing the use of lighting reduces
the demand for electricity and air conditioning. This results
in a lower hotel load and hence reduced auxiliary power
• Results: Fuel consumption saving: Ferry and
Passenger vessel 1~2%
Maximize D/G load and run minimum number of D/G with safe load.
All non-essential machineries and equipment must be stopped in port
& at sea to reduce the load on generators.
Rectify air leakage and minimize compressed air uses.
Rectify steam leakage and minimize steam uses and avoid running
the boiler continuously.
Try to start & use the machineries JUST IN TIME.
Load Optimization on Generators
Energy Saving Operation Awareness
Crew Awareness may be increased through the use of appropriate
Energy Savings Checklists, developed based on Best Practices
identified after numerous Energy Audits
An incentive or bonus scheme can be introduced on fuel savings.
One simple means would be competition between the company’s
Crew training can increase the crew awareness on Energy efficient
operation of ship.
Cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures
Basic expression of the EEOI
j = Fuel type
i = Voyage number;
FCij = Mass of consumed fuel j at voyage i
CFj = Fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factor for fuel j
mcargo = Cargo carried (tonnes) or work done (number of TEU or passengers) or
gross tonnes for passenger ships
D = Distance in nautical miles corresponding to the cargo
carried or work done.
Calculation of the EEOI - Formula
EEOI = Environmental Cost / Benefit to Society
(measured as grams CO2 / tonnes x nautical mile)
EEOI = (Emitted CO2)/(Transport Work),
i.e. the ratio of mass of CO2 (M) emitted per unit of transport work.
Example (includes a single ballast voyage)
Unit of EEOI: tonnes CO2/(tons x nautical miles)
Calculation of the EEOI (example)
For EEOI Calculation
For calculation of EEOI, you need to have some cargo transport
(cargo X distance travelled).
So, if no cargo transport, EEOI will become infinity (very large).
Therefore, for anchorage or for ballast voyage, EEOI cannot be
The FPSO and offshore vessels are not moving. If the ship does
not move or the ship has no cargo, then EEOI cannot be
IEE (International Energy Efficiency) Certificate (Reg. 6)
IEEC will be issued when………..
1. For New ship with a Calculated & Varified Attained EEDI, EEDI
Technical File and a verified SEEMP onboard
1. For Existing Ship, with a verified SEEMP and “Record of
Construction related to Energy Efficiency” file
An IEE Certificate … issued to any
ship ≥ 400 GT
IEE Certificate shall be valid
throughout the life of the ship if no
major conversion, no transfer of flag or
not withdrawn from service.
(Development on Energy Efficiency in MEPC 69)
“Collection and reporting of ship fuel consumption data”
- Each ship>/=5000mt shall collect the specified data according
to methodology included in SEEMP
- Data should be verified by the flag state administration, by
guidelines of IMO
- Provision of issuance of a “Statement of Compliance” by the
flag state administration.
- PSC role is limited to verifying that there is a valid “Statement
of Compliance” onboard.
- Expected to entry into force from 1 March 2018
- All party countries can access the database.
(Development in Energy Efficiency on MEPC 69)
Information to be collected According to Regulation: 22A
Identity of the ship
Technical characteristics of the ship
GT, NT & DWT
Power output (rated power) of main & aux engines (kW)
EEDI (if applicable)
Ice class (if applicable)
Fuel consumption (in mt), by fuel, type and methods used for
collecting fuel consumption data
Distance travelled from berth to berth, hours not at berth
MRV is a standardised method to produce an accurate CO2 emissions
inventory, through the quantification of CO2 emissions.
EU-MRV scheme overview (Source: LR)
31 August2017 – Monitoring
plan to be prepared and
submitted for approval to
1st January 2018 –
Commence per-voyage and
2019 onwards – By 30th
April each year, submit a
verified emission report to
the EC and flag state
30th June 2019 onwards –
Ships will need to carry a
valid DOC relating to the
Ship’s Energy Efficiency Management and Plan
Ship Energy Management: 3-Step Approach
From low-hanging fruits to major capital investments
Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP
Need to set clear policies and goals for the fuel saving projects.
Need to set a roadmap for 3-5 years.
Need to approach it in a step-by-step way with proper monitoring.
Ship Energy Management: A systematic approach
Source: IMO Technical Presentation on SEEMP 58
Survey on total 85 participants by DNV GL in 2013
Who has the key responsibility within your organisation for energy management?
Companies with 0 - 50%
Companies with 51 - 100%
Establishing energy manager has positive impact on targets achievements
A positive effect on target achievements on Energy Efficiency
Captain/ Chief Engineer
No dedicated person
Source: DNV GL Energy Management Survey, 2013
Energy Efficiency Measures implemented by Maersk Line
1St Step measures implemented on SEEMP:
Optimised voyage planning - Voyage Efficiency System
developed by Maersk line
“Just in time” steady running strategy
Minimum safe ballast
Hull and propeller maintenance
Optimization of Bulbous bow
Ship and voyage performance analyser System developed by
Energy Saving operation Awareness by Crew training
Source: Maersk Line Sustainability Report, 2013
Benefits of Energy Efficiency in Shipping
Just an example…………
The simple Energy Saving Concept….
Saving LED Bulb
Hmm……..Energy Efficiency!!! 63
Energy Efficiency, Just a step!
Same Work Done!……..
Less Energy Use!!…………..
Saving more fuels!!!…………
So, more saving money!!!!…..
And Saving GREEN Planet!……
So, Energy Efficiency is Just in our next steps………. 64
Thank you for your
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