Years Before Present
Source: IPCC FAR 2007
The world’s challenge:
in the atmosphere
400 ppm exceeded for the
first time in April 2015
It is today widely recognized
that we must change our
behaviour or the change in
climate will result in
.... our way of life being changed
anyway by nature so we need to
mitigate and adapt to these
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures
Comparison of Shipping with other modes of transport
Source: NTM, Sweden
Third IMO GHG Study 2014
Future CO2 emissions:
Significant increase predicted: 50-250% by
2050 in the absence of regulations
Demand is the primary driver
Technical and operational efficiency measures
can provide significant improvements but will not
be able to provide total net reductions if demand
Changes in the fuel mix have a limited
impact on GHG emissions
2012 shipping CO2 emissions: 796 million tonnes
M Overview of IMO activities
MARPOL Annex VI Chapters & Regulations
Regulations on EEDI
Regulation on SEEMP
Regulation on Technology Transfer
Current and future IMO debates
Background – Environmental Aspects of Shipping –
UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and Shipping
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) entered into force in 1994.
• Under the Convention, parties share data, launch national
strategies to address emissions and cooperate for the
adaptation to climate change.
• While the Convention does not provide commitments to stabilize emissions,
the Kyoto Protocol sets binding targets for countries. The latter agreed to
reduce their overall emissions of six greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2%
below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. In doing so, the Kyoto Protocol
offers several mechanisms to reduce emissions such as Emissions Trading,
• While emissions from maritime transport have been part of the UNFCCC
agenda, these emissions were not included in the Kyoto Protocol.
• The current debate at IMO is focusing on similar emissions reduction
mechanisms called “Market Based Measures (MBMs)” (i.e. “Emissions
Trading” and “Bunker Levy”).
Why energy efficiency regulation?
“The Parties included in
Annex I shall pursue
limitation emissions of GHG
from marine bunker fuels,
working through the
[Extracts from Article 2.2 of the
Resolution A.963(23) (December 2003)
IMO Policies and Practices Related to the Reduction of GHG Emissions from
Ships, adopted by Assembly 23 December 2003
IMO’s GHG Work has three distinct routes:
Design&Technical: applicable mainly to new ships – EEDI;
Operational: applicable to all ships in operation – SEEMP and EEOI; and
Market-based: carbon price for shipping, incentive, may generate funds.
Image Credit: Maersk Line
IMO energy efficiency regulatory activities
MEPC66 MEPC67 MEPC68
IMO Energy EfficiencyRegulatory Developments
Resolution MEPC.212(63)EEDI Calculation
Resolution MEPC.214(63)EEDI Verification
Resolution A.963 (23)
“IMO policies and practices
related to reduction of GHG
emissions from ships”
MEPC Circ. 681 EEDI Calculation
MEPC Circ. 682 EEDI Verification
MEPC Circ. 683 SEEMP
MEPC Circ. 684 EEOI
MEPC40 MEPC53 MEPC57 MEPC58 MEPC59 MEPC60 MEPC61 MEPC62 MECP63 MEPC64 MEPC65
Resolution MEPC.231(65) Reference Lines
ResolutionMEPC.232(65) Minimum power
ResolutionMEPC.233(65),Reference lines for cruiseships
MEPC.1/Circ.815Innovative EE Technologies
MEPC.1/Circ.816 Consolidatedon EEDI verification
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 16
IMO framework for GHG emissions control from ships
EEDI and SEEMP: Mandatory from 2013
MRV (Monitoring, Reporting and
Verification): Under discussion
MBMs: Discussion currently suspended
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures
EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP links
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures
EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP processes
Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures
Relevant IMO Resolutions and Circulars (1)
Resolution MEPC.203(62): Inclusion of regulations on energy efficiency
for ships in MARPOL Annex VI, Adopted on 15 July 2011.
MEPC.1/Circ.795.rev1 Unified Interpretations to MARPOL Annex VI
Resolution MEPC.213(63): 2012 Guidelines for the Development of a
SEEMP, Adopted on 2 March 2012.
Resolution MEPC.231(65): 2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference
lines for use with the energy efficiency design index (EEDI), adopted
2013 and revoked Resolution MEPC.215(63).
Relevant IMO Resolutions and Circulars
Resolution MEPC.232(65): 2013 Interim Guidelines for
determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the
Resolution MEPC.233(65): 2013 Guidelines for calculation
of reference lines for use with the Energy Efficiency Design
Index (EEDI) for cruise passenger ships having non-
MEPC.1/Circ.815: 2013 Guidance on treatment of
innovative energy efficiency technologies for calculation
and verification of the attained EEDI for ships in adverse
Relevant IMO Resolutions and Circulars
Resolution MEPC.254(67): 2014 Guidelines on Survey and
Certification of EEDI (one amendments made in MEPC 68).
Resolution MEPC.245(66): 2014 Guidelines on the method
of calculation of the Attained EEDI for new ships, adopted 4
Resolution MEPC.251(66): Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI
and the NOX Technical Code 2008 (Changes to Regs. 2, 13, 19,
20 and 21 and …. and certification of dual-fuel engines under the
NOX Technical Code 2008), Adopted on 4 April 2014
Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI as a result
of Energy Efficiency Regulations
Relevant IMO MEPC resolutions
Resolution MEPC.203(62): Inclusion of Chapter 4 regulations,
Adopted on 15 July 2011.
Resolution MEPC.251(66): Further amendments for inclusion
of more ships, Adopted on 4 April 2014
As a result:
Existing Regulations have been amended, as needed.
New Regulations have been added.
MARPOL Annex VI Chapter I & II - Regulations
Regs with RED has changed as a result of Chapter 4
MARPOL Annex VI Chapter III & IV - Regulations
"New ship" means a ship:
1. for which the building contract is placed on or after 1
January 2013; or
2. in the absence of a building contract, the keel of
which is laid or which is at a similar stage of
construction on or after 1 July 2013; or
3. the delivery of which is on or after 1 July 2015.
In the UI (Unified Interpretation), MEPC.1/Circ.795.rev1 ,
the above is further clarified for other phases of EEDI
New ship (Reg. 2.23)
Major conversion (Reg. 2.24)
According to Chapter 4 "Major Conversion" means:
which substantially alters the dimensions, carrying capacity or engine power
of the ship; or
which changes the type of the ship; or
the intent of which in the opinion of the Administration is substantially to
prolong the life of the ship; or
which otherwise so alters the ship that, if it was a new ship, it would become
subject to relevant provisions …Convention not applicable to it as an existing
which substantially alters the energy efficiency of the ship and includes any
modifications that could cause the ship to exceed the applicable Required
EEDI as set out in Regulation 21.
In the UI (Unified Interpretation), MEPC.1/Circ.795.rev1 , the term
“major conversion” is further clarified.
For Chapter 4, ship types are defined under these Regulations:
Gas carrier (none LNG carriers)
General cargo ship
Refrigerated cargo ship
Ro-Ro cargo ships (vehicle carrier)
Ro-Ro cargo ships
Ro-Ro Passenger ship
Cruise passenger ships
A number of other clarifications are made under Regulations 2 (ice breaking
cargo ship, conventional and non-conventional propulsions ..)
Ship types definitions (part of Regulation 2)
Surveys and certification (Reg. 5.4)
Ships of chapter 4 shall also be subject to the surveys as below:
New Ships An initial survey during sea trial.........
before the ship put into operation.
Ships of Major Conversion A general or partial survey
to ensure that the attained EEDI is
recalculated as necessary.
(For major conversions regarded as a newly constructed ship, the
Administration shall decide the necessity of an initial survey)
Existing ships the first Intermediate or Renewal survey
(Whichever comes 1st) on or after 1 January
2013 for verification of having a SEEMP
on board …
IEE (International Energy Efficiency) Certificate (Reg. 6)
An IEE Certificate … issued to any ship ≥ 400 GT
before that ship may engage in voyages to ports or
offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other
The certificate shall be issued or endorsed
either by the Administration or any organization
duly authorized by it (RO)
International Energy Efficiency Certificate
NO IAPP Certificate or IEE Certificate shall be
issued to a ship which is entitled to fly the flag of a
State which is NOT a Party (Reg. 7).
The IEE Certificate shall be drawn up in a form
corresponding to the model given in appendix VIII to
this Annex (Reg. 8)
Duration of validity of IEEC (Reg. 9)
The IEE Certificate shall be valid throughout the life of the
ship subject to the provisions of paragraph 11 below.
11 An IEE Certificate issued under this Annex shall cease
to be valid in any of the following cases:
If the ship is withdrawn from service or
If a new certificate is issued following major conversion of
the ship; or
Upon transfer of the ship to the flag of another State …..
Port State Control on operational requirements (Reg. 10)
In relation to chapter 4 PSC inspection shall be limited
to verifying, when appropriate, that there is a valid IEEC on
board, in accordance with article 5 of the Convention.
Article 5 - Certificates and special rules on inspection of ships
1. Subject to …. a certificate issued under the authority of a Party to the Convention
… shall be accepted by the other Parties …
2. . … Any such inspection shall be limited to verifying that there is on board a valid
certificate, unless there are clear grounds for believing that …
3. . ……..
4. With respect to the ship of non-Parties to the Convention, Parties shall apply the
requirements of the present Convention as may be necessary to ensure that
no more favourable treatment is given to such ships.
MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations
Reg. 19: Application
Reg. 20: Attained EEDI
Reg. 21: Required EEDI
Reg. 22: SEEMP
Reg. 23: Technical cooperation and technology transfer
Chapter 4 - Energy Efficiency Regulations
Regulation 19 - Applications
Apply all ships ≥ 400 GT
Ships solely engaged in voyages within waters of Flag State.
However, each Party should ensure …that such ships are
constructed and act in a manner consistent with chapter 4, so far
as is reasonable and practicable.
Regulation 20 and regulation 21,
Not apply ships which have:
- diesel-electric propulsion,
- turbine propulsion or
- hybrid propulsion systems.
Except cruise passenger ships and LNG carriers having
conventional or non-conventional propulsion, delivered
on or after 1 September 2019.
Regulation 19 - Applications
Regulation 19 – Application (Waiver)
…….. the Administration may waive the requirement for a ship …
from complying with regulation 20 and regulation 21.
BUT the provision of the above shall not apply to ships with:
Contract date 1 January 2017.
Keel laying 1 July 2017
Delivery date of 1 July 2019.
The above implies that waiver is only for 4 years.
(01 Jan 2013 onward)
The Administration of a Party … which allows application of
waiver … to a ship …. shall communicate this to the Organization
for circulation to the Parties ……….
Regulation 20 – Attained EEDI
The attained EEDI shall be calculated for:
each new ship;
each new ship which has undergone a major conversion; and
each new or existing ship which has undergone so extensive major
conversion, that is regarded by the Administration as a newly
The above are applicable to ships defined in Regulations 2.25 to 2.35, 2.38
and 2.39 (for Ships types).
The attained EEDI shall be specific to each ship ……… and be
accompanied by the EEDI Technical File ….
The attained EEDI shall be calculated taking into account guidelines
developed by the Organization (Resolution MEPC.245(66)- EEDI
The attained EEDI shall be verified either by the Administration or by any
organization duly authorized by it (RO) 41
EEDI (gCO2/tonne.mile) =
Attained EEDI: Formula (Clause 2)
Not applicable to a ship having diesel-electric propulsion, turbine
propulsion and hybrid propulsion except for:
Cruise passenger ships and
LNG carriers 42
Main Engine(s) Aux
Innovative Energy Eff.
Boilers are excluded from EEDI
Attained EEDI: Calculation formula
EEDI is calculated for a single operating condition of the ship. This
will be referred to as EEDI Condition.
The EEDI Condition is as follows:
Draft: Summer load line draft.
Capacity: Deadweight (or gross tonnage for passenger ships)
for the above draft (container ship will be 70% value).
Weather condition: Calm with no wind and no waves.
Propulsion shaft power: 75% of main engine MCR
(conventional ships) with some amendments for shaft motor or
shaft generator or shaft-limited power cases.
Reference speed (Vref ): is the ship speed under the above
conditions. (ship speed at 75% MCR)
Technologies for EEDI reduction
No. EEDI reduction measure Remark
1 Optimised hull dimensions and form
Ship design for efficiency via choice of main dimensions (port
and canal restrictions) and hull forms.
2 Light weight construction New lightweight ship construction material.
3 Hull coating Use of advanced hull coatings/paints.
4 Hull air lubrication system
Air cavity via injection of air under/around the hull to reduce wet
surface and thereby ship resistance.
Optimisation of propeller-hull
interface and flow devices
Propeller-hull-rudder design optimisation plus relevant changes to
ship’s aft body.
6 Contra-rotating propeller Two propellers in series; rotating at different direction.
7 Engine efficiency improvement
De-rating, long-stroke, electronic injection, variable geometry
turbo charging, etc.
8 Waste heat recovery
Main and auxiliary engines’ exhaust gas waste heat recovery
and conversion to electric power.
9 Gas fuelled (LNG) Natural gas fuel and dual fuel engines.
Hybrid electric power and
For some ships, the use of electric or hybrid would be more
Reducing on-board power
Maximum heat recovery and minimizing required electrical loads
flexible power solutions and power management.
Variable speed drive for pumps,
Use of variable speed electric motors for control of rotating flow
machinery leads to significant reduction in their energy use.
13 Wind power (sail, wind engine, etc.)
Sails, fletnner rotor, kites, etc. These are considered as
14 Solar power Solar photovoltaic cells.
Design speed reduction
Reducing design speed via choice of lower power or de-rated
Large Ship’s Design
• A larger ship will in most cases offer greater transport
efficiency due to efficiency of scale•. A larger ship can
transport more cargo at the same speed with less power
per cargo unit. Limitations may be met in port handling.
Source: Mearsk Line
• Regression analysis of recently built ships show that a
larger ship will give upto 30% higher transport efficiency.
Minimum Ballast Configurations
• Minimising the use of ballast results in lighter displacement and thus
lower resistance. The resistance is more or less directly proportional to
the displacement of the vessel. However there must be enough ballast
to immerse the propeller in the water, and provide sufficient stability
(safety) and acceptable sea keeping behaviour (slamming).
• Removing 3000 tons of permanent ballast from a PCTC and increasing
the beam by 0.25 metres to achieve the same stability will reduce the
propulsion power demand by 8.5%.
• The use of lightweight structures can reduce the ship weight.
In structures that do not contribute to ship global strength, the use of
aluminium or some other lightweight material may be an attractive
The weight of the steel structure can also be reduced. In a
conventional ship, the steel weight can be lowered by 5-20%,
depending on the amount of high tensile steel already in use.
A 20% reduction in steel weight will give a reduction of ~9% in propulsion
power requirements. However, a 5% saving is more realistic, since high
tensile steel has already been used to some extent in many cases.
Optimum Block Coefficient
• Finding the optimum length and hull fullness ratio (block coefficient, Cb) has
a big impact on ship resistance.
• A high L/B ratio means that the ship will have smooth lines and low wave
making resistance. On the other hand, increasing the length means a larger
wetted surface area, which can have a negative effect on total resistance.
• A too high block coefficient (Cb) makes the hull lines too blunt and leads to
• Adding 10-15% extra length to a typical product tanker can reduce the
power demand by more than 10%.
Interceptor Trim Planes
• The Interceptor is a metal plate that is fitted vertically to the transom of a
ship, covering most of the breadth of the transom. This plate bends the flow
over the aft-body of the ship downwards, creating a similar lift effect as a
conventional trim wedge due to the high pressure area behind the
propellers. The interceptor has proved to be more effective than a
conventional trim wedge in some cases, but so far it has been used only in
cruise vessels and RoRos. An interceptor is cheaper to retrofit than a trim
• 1-5% lower propulsion power demand. Corresponding improvement of up
to 4% in total energy demand for a typical ferry.
Ducktail Waterline extension
• A ducktail is basically a lengthening of the aft ship. It is usually 3-6 meter
long. The basic idea is to lengthen the effective waterline and make the
wetted transom smaller. This has a positive effect on the resistance of
the ship. In some cases the best results are achieved when a ducktail is
used together with an interceptor.
• 4-10% lower propulsion power demand. Corresponding
improvement of 3-7% in total energy consumption for a typical ferry
Shaft Line Arrangement
• The shaft lines should be streamlined. Brackets should have a
streamlined shape. Otherwise this increases the resistance and
disturbs the flow to the propeller.
• Up to 3% difference in power demand between poor and
good design. A corresponding improvement of up to 2% in
total energy consumption for a typical ferry.
Improved Skeg Shape/trailling Edge
• The skeg should be designed so that it directs the flow evenly
to the propeller disk. At lower speeds it is usually beneficial to
have more volume on the lower part of the skeg and as little
as possible above the propeller shaftline. At the aft end of the
skeg the flow should be attached to the skeg, but with as low
flow speeds as possible.
• 1.5%-2% lower propulsion power demand with good
design. A corresponding improvement of up to 2% in total
energy consumption for a container vessel.
Minimizing Resistance of Hull Openings
• The water flow disturbance from openings to bow thruster
tunnels and sea chests can be high. It is therefore beneficial
to install a scallop behind each opening. Alternatively a grid
that is perpendicular to the local flow direction can be
installed. The location of the opening is also important.
• Designing all openings properly and locating them
correctly can give up to 5% lower power demand than
with poor designs. For a container vessel, the
corresponding improvement in total energy consumption
is almost 5%.
• Compressed air is pumped into a recess in the bottom of the ship’s
hull. The air builds up a carpet that reduces the frictional resistance
between the water and the hull surface. This reduces the propulsion
power demand. The challenge is to ensure that the air stays below
the hull and does not escape. Some pumping power is needed.
• Saving in fuel consumption:
Tanker: ~15 %
Container: ~7.5 %
PCTC: ~8.5 %
• Installing wing thrusters on twin
screw vessels can achieve
significant power savings,
obtained mainly due to lower
resistance from the hull
• The propulsion concept
compares a centre line
propeller and two wing
thrusters with a twin shaft line
• Result: Better ship
performance in the range of
8% to 10%. More flexibility in
the engine arrangement and
more competitive ship
Counter Rotating Propellers (CRP)
• Counter rotating propellers consist of a pair of propellers behind each
other that rotate in opposite directions. The aft propeller recovers some
of the rotational energy in the slipstream from the forward propeller.
The propeller couple also gives lower propeller loading than for a
single propeller resulting in better efficiency.
• CRP propellers can either be mounted on twin coaxial counter rotating
shafts or the aft propeller can be located on a steerable propulsor aft of
a conventional shaft line.
Image Credit: Japan Marine United
• CRP has been documented as the propulsor with one of the
highest efficiencies. The power reduction for a single screw
vessel is 10% to 15%.
Optimization of Propeller & Hull Interaction
• The propeller and the ship
interact. The acceleration of
water due to propeller action
can have a negative effect on
the resistance of the ship or
appendages. This effect can
today be predicted and
analyzed more accurately
• Redesigning the hull,
appendages and propeller
together will at low cost
improve performance by up
• The rudder has drag in
the order of 5% of ship
resistance. This can be
reduced by 50% by
changing the rudder
profile and the propeller.
Designing these together
with a rudder bulb will
give additional benefits.
• Improved fuel
efficiency of 2% to 6%.
Advanced Propeller Blade Sections
• Advanced blade
sections will improve
frictional resistance of
a propeller blade. As
a result the propeller
is more efficient.
• Improved propeller
efficiency of up to
Propeller Tip Winglets
• Winglets are known
from the aircraft
industry. The design
of special tip shapes
can now be based
will improve propeller
• Improved propeller
efficiency of up to
• Installing nozzles
shaped like a wing
section around a
propeller will save
fuel for ship speeds
of up to 20 knots.
• Up to 5% power
to a vessel with an
Variable Speed Operation
• For controllable pitch
propellers, operation at
a constant number of
revolutions over a wide
ship speed reduces
efficiency. Reduction of
the number of
revolutions at reduced
ship speed will give fuel
• Saves 5% fuel,
depending on actual
• Wing-shaped sails
installed on the deck or
a kite attached to the
bow of the ship use
wind energy for added
forward thrust. Static
sails made of composite
material and fabric sails
• Fuel consumption
Tanker ~ 21%
• Spinning vertical
installed on the ship
convert wind power
into thrust in the
direction of the wind,
utilising the Magnus
effect. This means
that in side wind
conditions the ship
will benefit from the
• Fuel consumption
Steerable thrusters with a pulling propeller
• Steerable thrusters with a pulling propeller can give clear power savings.
The pulling thrusters can be combined in different setups. They can be
favorably combined with a centre shaft on the centre line skeg in either a
CRP or a Wing Thruster configuration. Even a combination of both
options can give great benefits. The lower power demand arises from
less appendage resistance than a twin shaft solution and the high
propulsion efficiencies of the propulsors with a clean waterflow inflow.
• The propulsion power demand at the propellers can be reduced by
up to 15% with pulling thrusters in advanced setups.
Hybrid Aux. Power Generation
• Hybrid auxiliary power system consists of a fuel cell, diesel generating set
and batteries. An intelligent control system balances the loading of each
component for maximum system efficiency. The system can also accept
other energy sources such as wind and solar power.
Reduction of NOX by 78%
Reduction of CO2 by 30%
Reduction of particles by 83%
Combined Diesel-Electric and
Diesel-Mechanical (CODED) Machinery
• Combined diesel-electric and
diesel-mechanical machinery can
improve the total efficiency in ships
with an operational profile
containing modes with varying
loads. The electric power plant will
bring benefits at part load, were the
engine load is optimised by
selecting the right number of
engines in use. At higher loads, the
mechanical part will offer lower
transmission losses than a fully
• Total energy consumption for a
offshore support vessel with
CODED machinery is reduced by
4% compared to a diesel-electric
Low Loss Concept (LLC)
• Low Loss Concept (LLC) is a patented power distribution
system that reduces the number of rectifier transformers
from one for each power drive to one bus-bar transformer
for each installation. This reduces the distribution losses,
increases the energy availability and saves space and
• Result: Gets rid of bulky transformers. Transmission losses
reduced by 15-20%.
Variable Speed Electric Power Generation
• The system uses generating
sets operating in a variable
rpm mode. The rpm is always
adjusted for maximum
efficiency regardless of the
system load. The electrical
system is based on DC
distribution and frequency
Reduces number of
generating sets by 25%
consumption, saving 5-10%
Common Rail (CR) Fuel System
• Common Rail (CR) is a tool
for achieving low emissions
and low SFOC. CR controls
combustion so it can be
optimised throughout the
operation field, providing at
every load the lowest possible
Smokeless operation at all
Part load impact
Full load impact
Save upto 1% fuel.
Efficient Power management
• Power Management: Correct timing for changing the number of
generating sets is critical factor in fuel consumption in diesel
electric and auxiliary power installations. An efficient power
management system is the best way to improve the system
• Result: Running extensively at low load can easily increase
the SFOC by 5-10%. Low load increases the risk of turbine
fouling with a further impact on fuel consumption.
• Solar panels installed on a
ship’s deck can generate
electricity for use in an electric
propulsion engine or auxiliary
ship systems. Heat for various
ship systems can also be
generated with the solar
• Depending on the available
deck space, solar panels can
give the following reductions
in total fuel consumption:
Tanker: ~ 3.5%
PCTC: ~ 2.5%
Ferry: ~ 1%
• Switching to LNG fuel reduces
energy consumption because of
the lower demand for ship
electricity and heating. The
biggest savings come from not
having to separate and heat
HFO. LNG cold (-162 °C) can be
utilised in cooling the ship’s
HVAC to save AC-compressor
• Saving in total energy < 4 %
for a typical ferry. In 22 kn
cruise mode, the difference in
electrical load is approx. 380
kW. This has a major impact
Waste Heat Recovery (WHR)
• Waste heat recovery (WHR) recovers the thermal energy from the
exhaust gas and converts it into electrical energy. Residual heat
can further be used for ship onboard services. The system can
consist of a boiler, a power turbine and a steam turbine with
alternator. Redesigning the ship layout can efficiently
accommodate the boilers on the ship.
• Exhaust waste heat recovery can provide up to 15% of the
engine power. The potential with new designs is up to 20%.
The EEDI for new ships creates a strong incentive for further
improvements in ships’ fuel consumption. The purpose of IMO’s EEDI
1. to require a minimum energy efficiency level for new ships;
2. to stimulate continued technical development of all the
components influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship;
3. to separate the technical and design based measures from the
operational and commercial measures (they will/may be addressed in
other instruments); and
4. to enable a comparison of the energy efficiency of individual ships to
similar ships of the same size which could have undertaken the same
transport work (move the same cargo).
Purpose of the EEDI
Regulation 21.1 – Required EEDI
1 For each:
new ship which has undergone a major conversion; and
each new or existing ship which has undergone so extensive
major conversion, that is regarded by the Administration as a
newly constructed ship
For ships defined in Regulation 2.25 to 2.31, 2.33 to 2.35 and
Attained EEDI ≤ Required EEDI ; and
Required EEDI = (1-X/100) x reference line value
X is the reduction factor
Reference line value is estimated from EEDI Reference line.
Reg. 21 - Implementation phases and reduction factor
• EEDI implementation
• Phase 0 2013 – 2014
• Phase 1 2015 – 2019
• Phase 2 2020 – 2024
• Phase 3 2025 – ……
• Reduction factor for the
above phases are as in
are ship specific.
ship type and
data from HIS
For details of how reference lines are developed, see Resolution MEPC.231(65):
2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines …… 87
Regulation 21.3 – Reference line
Reference line = a*b-c
• Reduction factor is the %
reduction in Required EEDI
relative to Reference Line.
• Cut off levels:
• Bulk Carriers:
• Gas carriers:
• Container ship: 10,000 DWT
• Gen./ref. Cargo: 3,000 DWT Cut Off
Reg. 21 - Reduction factor and cut-off limits
At the beginning of Phase 1 and at the midpoint of Phase 2, the
Organization shall review the status of technological developments
and, if proven necessary, amend the time periods, the EEDI
reference line parameters for relevant ship types and reduction rates
set out in this regulation.
Review of phases and reduction factors, Reg. 21.6
Regulation 22 - SEEMP
A SEEMP provides:
- A possible approach for improving ship and fleet
efficiency performance over time; and
- Some options to be considered for optimizing the
performance of the ship.
The SEEMP seeks to improve a ship’s energy efficiency through four
Planning: is crucial since it determines both the current status of ship
energy usage and the expected improvement of energy efficiency;
Implementation: Record-keeping for the implementation of each
measure is beneficial for self-evaluation;
Monitoring and measure: through continuous and consistent data
Self-evaluation and improvement: to evaluate the effectiveness of
the planned measures and their implementation, to deepen the
understanding on the overall characteristics of ship’s operation such as
what types of measures can/cannot function effectively, and how
and/or why, to comprehend the trend of the efficiency improvement of
the ship and to develop an improved SEEMP for the next spiral. 93
(according to Resolution MEPC.203(62))
• All vessels of > 400 GT
• Each vessel to be provided with a ship-specific SEEMP not
later than the first intermediate or renewal survey (whichever is
first) on or after 1 January 2013.
• The attending Class surveyor will check that the SEEMP is
onboard and subsequently issue the International Energy
Efficiency Certificate (IEEC).
• PSC inspection is limited to verifying that there is a valid
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan
For existing ships, a Record of Construction needs to be filled and
an IEE Certificate issued when the existence of SEEMP on-board
SEEMP and IEE Certificate
Supplement to IEEC – Record of construction
Supplement to IEEC – Record of construction
The records of construction contains the following
Particular of ship
EEDI Technical File
Endorsement that provided data are correct.
Verification that a SEEMP is on-board
The verification will be done as part of first intermediate or renewal
survey, whichever is the first, after 1 January 2013.
SEEMP Related Measures
No. Energy Efficiency Measure Remark
1 Engine tuning and monitoring
Engine operational performance and
2 Hull condition Hull operational fouling and damage avoidance.
3 Propeller condition Propeller operational fouling and damage avoidance.
4 Reduced auxiliary power
Reducing the electrical load via machinery operation
and power management.
5 Speed reduction (operation) Operational slow steaming.
6 Trim/draft Trim and draft monitoring and optimisation.
7 Voyage execution
Reducing port times, waiting times, etc. and
increasing the passage time, just in time arrival.
8 Weather routing Use of weather routing services to avoid rough seas
and head currents, to optimize voyage efficiency.
9 Advanced hull coating Re-paint using advanced paints.
10 Propeller upgrade and aft
body flow devices
Propeller and after-body retrofit for optimisation.
Also, addition of flow improving devices (e.g.duct
• Engine Tuning (Delta tuning on Wartsila 2-stroke RT-flex
engines) offers reduced fuel consumption in the load range
that is most commonly used. The engine is tuned to give
lower consumption at part load while still meeting NOx
emission limits by allowing higher consumption at full load
that is seldom used.
• Result: Lower specific fuel consumption at part loads
compared to standard tuning, can save upto 1% fuel.
Just in Time/ Virtual Arrival (JIT): <1%
– A known delay at the
– Whenever an opportunity exists,
the operator requests permission
from Charterers to reduce speed;
– A mutual agreement between
the stakeholders. Other parties
may be involved in the decision
making process, such as
terminals, cargo receivers and
Turnaround Time in Port
• A faster port turnaround time
makes it possible to decrease
the vessel speed at sea. This is
mainly a benefit for ships with
scheduled operations, such as
ferries and container vessels.
The turnaround time can be
reduced for example by
improving maneuvering perform
ance or enhancing cargo flows
with innovative ship designs,
ramp arrangements or lifting
• Results: Saving upto 10%
Propeller Surface Polishing
• Regular in-service
polishing is required to
roughness on propellers
caused by organic
growth and fouling. This
can be done without
operation by using
• Results: Up to 10%
improvement in service
compared to a fouled
Hull Surface Coating
• Modern hull coatings have a smoother and
harder surface finish, resulting in reduced
friction. Since typically some 50-80% of
resistance is friction, better coatings can
result in lower total resistance.
• A modern coating also results in less
fouling, so with a hard surface the benefit is
even greater when compared to some older
paints towards the end of the docking
• Saving in fuel consumption after 48
months compared to a conventional hull
Tanker: ~ 9%
Container: ~ 9%
PCTC: ~ 5%
Ferry: ~ 3%
OSV: ~ 0.6%
Part Load operation Optimization
• Engines are usually
optimized at high loads. In
real life most of them are
used on part loads. New
matching that takes into
account real operation
profiles can significantly
improve overall operational
• New engine matching
means different TC tuning,
fuel injection advance,
cam profiles, etc.
Reducing the ship speed an effective way
to cut energy consumption. Propulsion
power vs. ship speed is a third power curve
(according to the theory) so significant
reductions can be achieved. It should be
noted that for lower speeds the amount of
transported cargo / time period is also
lower. The energy saving calculated here is
for an equal distance travelled.
• Reduction in ship speed vs. saving
in total energy consumption:
0.5 kn –> – 7% energy
1.0 kn –> – 11% energy
2.0 kn –> – 17% energy
3.0 kn –> – 23% energy
Voyage Planning & Weather Routing
• The purpose of weather routing is to find the optimum route for long
distance voyages, where the shortest route is not always the fastest.
The basic idea is to use updated weather forecast data and choose
the optimal route through calm areas or areas that have the most
downwind tracks. The best systems also take into account the
currents, and try to take maximum advantage of these. This track
information can be imported to the navigation system.
• Shorter passages, less fuel, save upto 10% fuel.
• The optimum trim can often be as much as 15-20% lower than the worst
trim condition at the same draught and speed. As the optimum trim is hull
form dependent and for each hull form it depends on the speed and
draught, no general conclusions can be made. However by logging the
required power in various conditions over a long time period it is possible
to find the optimum trim for each draught and speed.
Fig: Computational Fluid Dynamics
• Or this can be determined fairly quickly using Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) or model tests. However it should be noted that
correcting the trim by taking ballast will result in higher consumption
(increased displacement). If possible the optimum trim should be achieved
either by repositioning the cargo or rearranging the bunkers.
• Optimal vessel trim reduces the required power.
• Poor directional stability causes
yaw motion and thus increases
fuel consumption. Autopilot has
a big influence on the course
keeping ability. The best
autopilots today are self tuning,
• Finding the correct autopilot
parameters suitable for the
current route and operation
area will significantly reduce
the use of the rudder and
therefore reduce the drag.
• Finding the correct
Preventing unnecessary use
of the rudder gives an
anticipated benefit of 1-5%.
• Algae growing on the
hull increases ship
cleaning of the hull can
reduce the drag and
minimise total fuel
• Reduced fuel
Tanker: ~ 3%
Container: ~ 2%
PCTC: ~ 2%
Ferry: ~ 2%
OSV: ~ 0.6%
Mewis Duct propeller <5%
• The Mewis Duct consists of two strong fixed elements mounted on the
vessel: a duct positioned ahead of the propeller together with an
integrated fin system within.
• The duct straightens and accelerates the hull wake into the propeller
and also produces a net ahead thrust.
• The fin system provides a pre-swirl to the ship wake which reduces
losses in propeller slipstream, resulting in an increase in propeller thrust
at given propulsive power. Both effects contribute to each other.
Proven fuel savings up
Conditioned Based Maintenance (CBM)
• In a CBM system all
maintenance action is based
on the latest, relevant
information received through
communication with the
actual equipment and on
evaluation of this information
• The main benefits are: lower
fuel consumption, lower
emissions, longer interval
between overhauls, and
• Correctly timed service will
ensure optimum engine
performance and improve
consumption by up to 5%.
Energy Saving Lighting
• Using lighting that is more electricity and heat efficient
where possible and optimizing the use of lighting
reduces the demand for electricity and air
conditioning. This results in a lower hotel load and
hence reduced auxiliary power demand.
• Results: Fuel consumption saving: Ferry and
Passenger vessel 1~2%
Advanced power Management
• Power management based on intelligent control principles to monitor
and control the overall efficiency and availability of the power system
onboard. In efficiency mode, the system will automatically run the
system with the best energy cost.
• Reduces operational fuel costs by 5% and minimizes
Energy Saving Operation Awareness
• A shipping company, with its human resources department, could
create a culture of fuel saving, with an incentive or bonus scheme
based on fuel savings. One simple means would be competition
between the company’s vessels. Training and a measuring
system are required so that the crew can see the results and
make an impact.
• Historical data as reference. Experience shows that
incentives can reduce energy usage by up to 10%.
Cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures
A proposed format is included in the Guideline.
Summary on SEEMP Guidelines
SEEMP framework is based on Plan-Do-Check-Act continuous
When developing SEEMP, all the above elements needs to be
defined at the planning phase.
At its core, SEEMP has a number of EEMs together with their:
Monitoring and checking
Roles and responsibility
Processes and procedures.
Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator - EEOI
An efficiency indicator for all ships (new and existing) obtained from fuel
consumption, voyage (miles) and cargo data (tonnes)
EEOI is an approach to assess the efficiency of a ship with
respect to CO2 emissions.
EEOI = Environmental Cost / Benefit to Society
(measured as grams CO2 / tonnes x nautical mile)
In order to establish the EEOI, the following main steps will
generally be needed:
define the period for which the EEOI is calculated
define data sources for data collection;
collection of data;
convert data to appropriate format; and
calculate EEOI. 121
Basic expression of the EEOI
Average EEOI (rolling average)
j = Fuel type
i = Voyage number;
FCij = Mass of consumed fuel j at voyage i
CFj = Fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factor for fuel j
mcargo = Cargo carried (tonnes) or work done (number of TEU or
passengers) or gross tonnes for passenger ships
D = Distance in nautical miles corresponding to the cargo
carried or work done.
Calculation of the EEOI - Formula
EEOI = (Emitted CO2)/(Transport Work),
i.e. the ratio of mass of CO2 (M) emitted per unit of transport work.
Other official records
Fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factors (CF)
Calculation of the EEOI – Data sources
EEOI is normally calculated for one voyage.
Average EEOI for a number of voyages can be carried out.
Rolling average, when used, can be calculated in a suitable time
period, for example:
One year or
Number of voyages, for example six or ten voyages, which are
agreed as statistically relevant to the initial averaging period
Calculation of the EEOI – Rolling average
Example (includes a single ballast voyage)
unit: tonnes CO2/(tons x nautical miles)
Calculation of the EEOI (example)
Significant variations (voyage to
Reasons for changes include:
Cargo level (load)
Length of ballast voyages
Idle and waiting times
Weather and current
In short, every operation aspect of
ship has its own impact on EEOI
and causes its variability.
Nov-07 Feb-08 Jun-08 Sep-08 Dec-08 Mar-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 May-10 Aug-10
Ensuring accuracy of the collected
Estimation of cargo carried in
Voyage variability (short voyages
versus long voyages).
Bunker consumption calculation
Non-availability of established
benchmarks for ships
Variability making it difficult to pin
point the cause of poor performance.
Issues with the EEOI
A continuous improvement PDCA cycle
Ship SEEMP (IMO)
Company Energy management system
Source: ISO 50001:2011
Ship Energy Management System
Need to set clear policies and goals for the fuel saving projects.
Need to set a roadmap for 3-5 years.
Need to approach it in a step-by-step way with proper monitoring.
Ship Energy Management: A systematic approach
Ship Energy Management: 3-Step Approach
From low-hanging fruits to major capital investments
Regulation 23 –Promotion of technical
cooperation and technology transfer
Regulation 23 - Promotion of technical co-operation and
transfer of technology
Administrations shall,in co-operation with the Organization
and other international bodies, promote and provide, as
appropriate, support directly or through IMO to States,
especially developing States, that request technical
The Administration of a Party shall co-operate actively with
other Parties, …, to promote the development and transfer of
technology and exchange of information to States which
request technical assistance, particularly developing States, for
implementation of … the requirements of chapter 4 of this
annex, in particular regulations 19.4 to 19.6."
Thank you for your attention
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