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MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 4


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MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 4

  1. 1. MARPOL Annex VI – Chapter 4: “Energy Efficiency Regulations for Ships” Mohammud Hanif Dewan, IEng IMarEng MIMarEST MRINA Maritime Lecturer & Consultant
  2. 2. 350 300 250 200 150 Years Before Present Source: IPCC FAR 2007 0100,000200,000300,000400,000 The world’s challenge: Increasing CO2concentrations in the atmosphere 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 400 ppm exceeded for the first time in April 2015 2
  3. 3. Global Warming 3
  4. 4. Millions are suffering from ever more intensive weather events in Asia and the Americas Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 4
  5. 5. 4 And millions are affected from flooding Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 5
  6. 6. and too much water Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 6
  7. 7. ... or no water at all 7
  8. 8. 7 It is today widely recognized that we must change our behaviour or the change in climate will result in .... our way of life being changed anyway by nature so we need to mitigate and adapt to these risks Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 8
  9. 9. Comparison of Shipping with other modes of transport Source: NTM, Sweden 9
  10. 10. Third IMO GHG Study 2014 Future CO2 emissions:  Significant increase predicted: 50-250% by 2050 in the absence of regulations  Demand is the primary driver  Technical and operational efficiency measures can provide significant improvements but will not be able to provide total net reductions if demand continues  Changes in the fuel mix have a limited impact on GHG emissions 2012 shipping CO2 emissions: 796 million tonnes 10
  11. 11. Content M Overview of IMO activities MARPOL Annex VI Chapters & Regulations Regulations on EEDI Regulation on SEEMP Regulation on Technology Transfer Current and future IMO debates 1 2 3 4 5 6 11
  12. 12. Overview of IMO activities1 12
  13. 13. Background – Environmental Aspects of Shipping – Regulatory Framework UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol and Shipping • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered into force in 1994. • Under the Convention, parties share data, launch national strategies to address emissions and cooperate for the adaptation to climate change. • While the Convention does not provide commitments to stabilize emissions, the Kyoto Protocol sets binding targets for countries. The latter agreed to reduce their overall emissions of six greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels between 2008 and 2012. In doing so, the Kyoto Protocol offers several mechanisms to reduce emissions such as Emissions Trading, etc. • While emissions from maritime transport have been part of the UNFCCC agenda, these emissions were not included in the Kyoto Protocol. • The current debate at IMO is focusing on similar emissions reduction mechanisms called “Market Based Measures (MBMs)” (i.e. “Emissions Trading” and “Bunker Levy”).
  14. 14. Why energy efficiency regulation? “The Parties included in Annex I shall pursue limitation emissions of GHG from marine bunker fuels, working through the International Maritime Organization” [Extracts from Article 2.2 of the Kyoto Protocol] 14
  15. 15. Resolution A.963(23) (December 2003) IMO Policies and Practices Related to the Reduction of GHG Emissions from Ships, adopted by Assembly 23 December 2003 IMO’s GHG Work has three distinct routes: Design&Technical: applicable mainly to new ships – EEDI; Operational: applicable to all ships in operation – SEEMP and EEOI; and Market-based: carbon price for shipping, incentive, may generate funds. Image Credit: Maersk Line 15
  16. 16. IMO energy efficiency regulatory activities MEPC66 MEPC67 MEPC68 IMO Energy EfficiencyRegulatory Developments Resolution MEPC.212(63)EEDI Calculation Resolution MEPC.214(63)EEDI Verification Resolution MEPC.213(63)SEEMP Resolution A.963 (23) “IMO policies and practices related to reduction of GHG emissions from ships” Dec 2003 June 2005 Mar 2008 June 2008 GHG Working Group 2 Feb 2009 MEPC Circ. 681 EEDI Calculation MEPC Circ. 682 EEDI Verification MEPC Circ. 683 SEEMP MEPC Circ. 684 EEOI Jul 2009 Energy Efficiency WG Jun 2010 Sep 1997 Feb 2012 July 2011 EEDI & SEEMP Regs.Adopted GHG Working Group 1 MEPC40 MEPC53 MEPC57 MEPC58 MEPC59 MEPC60 MEPC61 MEPC62 MECP63 MEPC64 MEPC65 Resolution 8 “CO2 emissions From ships” MARPOL VI Amendments Resolution MEPC 203(62) May 2013 MarchOct May 2014 2014 Oct 2012 MEPCCirc.471, EEOI 2015 3rd GHG Study 2014 MARPOL VI Amendments Resolution MEPC.251(66) Resolution MEPC.245(66): EEDI CalculationGuidelines Resolution MEPC.231(65) Reference Lines ResolutionMEPC.232(65) Minimum power ResolutionMEPC.233(65),Reference lines for cruiseships MEPC.1/Circ.815Innovative EE Technologies MEPC.1/Circ.816 Consolidatedon EEDI verification MRV debate Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 16
  17. 17. IMO framework for GHG emissions control from ships EEDI IMO Initiatives MRV MBMs Owners or charterers? EEOI SEEMP Ship owner / operator EEDI and SEEMP: Mandatory from 2013 EEOI: Voluntary MRV (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification): Under discussion MBMs: Discussion currently suspended Shipyard Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 17
  18. 18. EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP links Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 18
  19. 19. EEDI, EEOI and SEEMP processes Source: IMO presentation on Technical measures 19
  20. 20. Relevant IMO Resolutions and Circulars (1)  Resolution MEPC.203(62): Inclusion of regulations on energy efficiency for ships in MARPOL Annex VI, Adopted on 15 July 2011.  MEPC.1/Circ.795.rev1 Unified Interpretations to MARPOL Annex VI (2014)  Resolution MEPC.213(63): 2012 Guidelines for the Development of a SEEMP, Adopted on 2 March 2012.  Resolution MEPC.231(65): 2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines for use with the energy efficiency design index (EEDI), adopted 2013 and revoked Resolution MEPC.215(63). 20
  21. 21. Relevant IMO Resolutions and Circulars  Resolution MEPC.232(65): 2013 Interim Guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability.  Resolution MEPC.233(65): 2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines for use with the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for cruise passenger ships having non- conventional propulsion.  MEPC.1/Circ.815: 2013 Guidance on treatment of innovative energy efficiency technologies for calculation and verification of the attained EEDI for ships in adverse conditions. 21
  22. 22. Relevant IMO Resolutions and Circulars  Resolution MEPC.254(67): 2014 Guidelines on Survey and Certification of EEDI (one amendments made in MEPC 68).  Resolution MEPC.245(66): 2014 Guidelines on the method of calculation of the Attained EEDI for new ships, adopted 4 April 2014  Resolution MEPC.251(66): Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI and the NOX Technical Code 2008 (Changes to Regs. 2, 13, 19, 20 and 21 and …. and certification of dual-fuel engines under the NOX Technical Code 2008), Adopted on 4 April 2014 22
  23. 23. Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI as a result of Energy Efficiency Regulations  Relevant IMO MEPC resolutions  Resolution MEPC.203(62): Inclusion of Chapter 4 regulations, Adopted on 15 July 2011.  Resolution MEPC.251(66): Further amendments for inclusion of more ships, Adopted on 4 April 2014  As a result:  Existing Regulations have been amended, as needed.  New Regulations have been added. 23
  24. 24. MARPOL Annex VI Chapters & Regulations 24
  25. 25. MARPOL Annex VI Chapter I & II - Regulations  Regs with RED has changed as a result of Chapter 4 25
  26. 26. MARPOL Annex VI Chapter III & IV - Regulations 26
  27. 27.  "New ship" means a ship: 1. for which the building contract is placed on or after 1 January 2013; or 2. in the absence of a building contract, the keel of which is laid or which is at a similar stage of construction on or after 1 July 2013; or 3. the delivery of which is on or after 1 July 2015. In the UI (Unified Interpretation), MEPC.1/Circ.795.rev1 , the above is further clarified for other phases of EEDI implementation. New ship (Reg. 2.23) 27
  28. 28. Major conversion (Reg. 2.24)  According to Chapter 4 "Major Conversion" means:  which substantially alters the dimensions, carrying capacity or engine power of the ship; or  which changes the type of the ship; or  the intent of which in the opinion of the Administration is substantially to prolong the life of the ship; or  which otherwise so alters the ship that, if it was a new ship, it would become subject to relevant provisions …Convention not applicable to it as an existing ship; or  which substantially alters the energy efficiency of the ship and includes any modifications that could cause the ship to exceed the applicable Required EEDI as set out in Regulation 21. In the UI (Unified Interpretation), MEPC.1/Circ.795.rev1 , the term “major conversion” is further clarified. 28
  29. 29.  For Chapter 4, ship types are defined under these Regulations:  2.25  2.26  2.27  2.28  2.29  2.30  2.31  2.32  2.33  2.34  2.35  2.38  2.39 Bulk carrier Gas carrier (none LNG carriers) Tanker Container ship General cargo ship Refrigerated cargo ship Combination carrier Passenger ship Ro-Ro cargo ships (vehicle carrier) Ro-Ro cargo ships Ro-Ro Passenger ship LNG carrier Cruise passenger ships  A number of other clarifications are made under Regulations 2 (ice breaking cargo ship, conventional and non-conventional propulsions ..) Ship types definitions (part of Regulation 2) 29
  30. 30. Surveys and certification (Reg. 5.4)  Ships of chapter 4 shall also be subject to the surveys as below:  New Ships An initial survey during sea trial......... before the ship put into operation.  Ships of Major Conversion A general or partial survey to ensure that the attained EEDI is recalculated as necessary. (For major conversions regarded as a newly constructed ship, the Administration shall decide the necessity of an initial survey)  Existing ships the first Intermediate or Renewal survey (Whichever comes 1st) on or after 1 January 2013 for verification of having a SEEMP on board … 30
  31. 31. IEE (International Energy Efficiency) Certificate (Reg. 6)  An IEE Certificate … issued to any ship ≥ 400 GT before that ship may engage in voyages to ports or offshore terminals under the jurisdiction of other Parties.  The certificate shall be issued or endorsed either by the Administration or any organization duly authorized by it (RO) 31
  32. 32. International Energy Efficiency Certificate  NO IAPP Certificate or IEE Certificate shall be issued to a ship which is entitled to fly the flag of a State which is NOT a Party (Reg. 7).  The IEE Certificate shall be drawn up in a form corresponding to the model given in appendix VIII to this Annex (Reg. 8) 32
  33. 33. Duration of validity of IEEC (Reg. 9)  The IEE Certificate shall be valid throughout the life of the ship subject to the provisions of paragraph 11 below.  11 An IEE Certificate issued under this Annex shall cease to be valid in any of the following cases:  If the ship is withdrawn from service or  If a new certificate is issued following major conversion of the ship; or  Upon transfer of the ship to the flag of another State ….. 33
  34. 34. Port State Control on operational requirements (Reg. 10)  In relation to chapter 4 PSC inspection shall be limited to verifying, when appropriate, that there is a valid IEEC on board, in accordance with article 5 of the Convention. Article 5 - Certificates and special rules on inspection of ships 1. Subject to …. a certificate issued under the authority of a Party to the Convention … shall be accepted by the other Parties … 2. . … Any such inspection shall be limited to verifying that there is on board a valid certificate, unless there are clear grounds for believing that … 3. . …….. 4. With respect to the ship of non-Parties to the Convention, Parties shall apply the requirements of the present Convention as may be necessary to ensure that no more favourable treatment is given to such ships. 34
  35. 35. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations  Reg. 19: Application  Reg. 20: Attained EEDI  Reg. 21: Required EEDI  Reg. 22: SEEMP  Reg. 23: Technical cooperation and technology transfer Chapter 4 - Energy Efficiency Regulations 35
  36. 36. Regulation 19 - Application 36
  37. 37. Regulation 19 - Applications  Apply all ships ≥ 400 GT  Not apply  Ships solely engaged in voyages within waters of Flag State.  However, each Party should ensure …that such ships are constructed and act in a manner consistent with chapter 4, so far as is reasonable and practicable. 37
  38. 38.  Regulation 20 and regulation 21, Not apply ships which have: - diesel-electric propulsion, - turbine propulsion or - hybrid propulsion systems. Except cruise passenger ships and LNG carriers having conventional or non-conventional propulsion, delivered on or after 1 September 2019. Regulation 19 - Applications 38
  39. 39. Regulation 19 – Application (Waiver)  …….. the Administration may waive the requirement for a ship … from complying with regulation 20 and regulation 21. BUT the provision of the above shall not apply to ships with:  Contract date 1 January 2017.  Keel laying 1 July 2017  Delivery date of 1 July 2019.  The above implies that waiver is only for 4 years. (01 Jan 2013 onward)  The Administration of a Party … which allows application of waiver … to a ship …. shall communicate this to the Organization for circulation to the Parties ………. 39
  40. 40. Regulation 20 –Attained EEDI 40
  41. 41. Regulation 20 – Attained EEDI  The attained EEDI shall be calculated for:  each new ship;  each new ship which has undergone a major conversion; and  each new or existing ship which has undergone so extensive major conversion, that is regarded by the Administration as a newly constructed ship  The above are applicable to ships defined in Regulations 2.25 to 2.35, 2.38 and 2.39 (for Ships types).  The attained EEDI shall be specific to each ship ……… and be accompanied by the EEDI Technical File ….  The attained EEDI shall be calculated taking into account guidelines developed by the Organization (Resolution MEPC.245(66)- EEDI Formula)  The attained EEDI shall be verified either by the Administration or by any organization duly authorized by it (RO) 41
  42. 42. EEDI (gCO2/tonne.mile) = Attained EEDI: Formula (Clause 2)  Not applicable to a ship having diesel-electric propulsion, turbine propulsion and hybrid propulsion except for:  Cruise passenger ships and  LNG carriers 42
  43. 43. EEDI (gCO2/tonne.mile) = 43
  44. 44. Main Engine(s) Aux Engine(s) Innovative Energy Eff. Power Gen. Technologies Innovative Energy Eff. Propulsion Technologies Boilers are excluded from EEDI EEDI = [gCO2/(tonne.nm)] fc. Attained EEDI: Calculation formula 44
  45. 45. Simplify EEDI Formula: 45
  46. 46. Attained EEDI: Parameters Carbon factor Ship specific design factor Capacity factor Wave factor Capacity: DWT: Bulk carriers, Containers, Tankers, Gas carriers, cargo ships,etc. GTR: Passenger Ship Waste Heat Energy Saving Attained Speed Shaft Motor EEDI = [gCO2/(tonne.nm)] Main power: PME=0.75MCR fc Auxiliary power: PME>=10000KW: PAE=0.025Me+250 PME< 10000KW: PAE=0.05Me 46
  47. 47. Scope of Attained EEDI (dashed red line) 47
  48. 48.  EEDI is calculated for a single operating condition of the ship. This will be referred to as EEDI Condition.  The EEDI Condition is as follows:  Draft: Summer load line draft.  Capacity: Deadweight (or gross tonnage for passenger ships) for the above draft (container ship will be 70% value).  Weather condition: Calm with no wind and no waves.  Propulsion shaft power: 75% of main engine MCR (conventional ships) with some amendments for shaft motor or shaft generator or shaft-limited power cases.  Reference speed (Vref ): is the ship speed under the above conditions. (ship speed at 75% MCR) EEDI condition 48
  49. 49. Technologies for EEDI reduction No. EEDI reduction measure Remark 1 Optimised hull dimensions and form Ship design for efficiency via choice of main dimensions (port and canal restrictions) and hull forms. 2 Light weight construction New lightweight ship construction material. 3 Hull coating Use of advanced hull coatings/paints. 4 Hull air lubrication system Air cavity via injection of air under/around the hull to reduce wet surface and thereby ship resistance. 5 Optimisation of propeller-hull interface and flow devices Propeller-hull-rudder design optimisation plus relevant changes to ship’s aft body. 6 Contra-rotating propeller Two propellers in series; rotating at different direction. 7 Engine efficiency improvement De-rating, long-stroke, electronic injection, variable geometry turbo charging, etc. 8 Waste heat recovery Main and auxiliary engines’ exhaust gas waste heat recovery and conversion to electric power. 9 Gas fuelled (LNG) Natural gas fuel and dual fuel engines. 10 Hybrid electric power and propulsion concepts For some ships, the use of electric or hybrid would be more efficient. 11 Reducing on-board power demand(auxiliary system andhotelloads). Maximum heat recovery and minimizing required electrical loads flexible power solutions and power management. 12 Variable speed drive for pumps, fans etc. Use of variable speed electric motors for control of rotating flow machinery leads to significant reduction in their energy use. 13 Wind power (sail, wind engine, etc.) Sails, fletnner rotor, kites, etc. These are considered as emerging technologies. 14 Solar power Solar photovoltaic cells. 15 Design speed reduction (newbuilds) Reducing design speed via choice of lower power or de-rated engines. 49
  50. 50. Large Ship’s Design • A larger ship will in most cases offer greater transport efficiency due to efficiency of scale•. A larger ship can transport more cargo at the same speed with less power per cargo unit. Limitations may be met in port handling. Source: Mearsk Line • Regression analysis of recently built ships show that a larger ship will give upto 30% higher transport efficiency.
  51. 51. Minimum Ballast Configurations • Minimising the use of ballast results in lighter displacement and thus lower resistance. The resistance is more or less directly proportional to the displacement of the vessel. However there must be enough ballast to immerse the propeller in the water, and provide sufficient stability (safety) and acceptable sea keeping behaviour (slamming). Source: Wärtsilä • Removing 3000 tons of permanent ballast from a PCTC and increasing the beam by 0.25 metres to achieve the same stability will reduce the propulsion power demand by 8.5%.
  52. 52. Lightweight Structures • The use of lightweight structures can reduce the ship weight.  In structures that do not contribute to ship global strength, the use of aluminium or some other lightweight material may be an attractive solution.  The weight of the steel structure can also be reduced. In a conventional ship, the steel weight can be lowered by 5-20%, depending on the amount of high tensile steel already in use.  A 20% reduction in steel weight will give a reduction of ~9% in propulsion power requirements. However, a 5% saving is more realistic, since high tensile steel has already been used to some extent in many cases.
  53. 53. Optimum Block Coefficient • Finding the optimum length and hull fullness ratio (block coefficient, Cb) has a big impact on ship resistance. • A high L/B ratio means that the ship will have smooth lines and low wave making resistance. On the other hand, increasing the length means a larger wetted surface area, which can have a negative effect on total resistance. • A too high block coefficient (Cb) makes the hull lines too blunt and leads to increased resistance. • Adding 10-15% extra length to a typical product tanker can reduce the power demand by more than 10%.
  54. 54. Interceptor Trim Planes • The Interceptor is a metal plate that is fitted vertically to the transom of a ship, covering most of the breadth of the transom. This plate bends the flow over the aft-body of the ship downwards, creating a similar lift effect as a conventional trim wedge due to the high pressure area behind the propellers. The interceptor has proved to be more effective than a conventional trim wedge in some cases, but so far it has been used only in cruise vessels and RoRos. An interceptor is cheaper to retrofit than a trim wedge. • 1-5% lower propulsion power demand. Corresponding improvement of up to 4% in total energy demand for a typical ferry.
  55. 55. Ducktail Waterline extension • A ducktail is basically a lengthening of the aft ship. It is usually 3-6 meter long. The basic idea is to lengthen the effective waterline and make the wetted transom smaller. This has a positive effect on the resistance of the ship. In some cases the best results are achieved when a ducktail is used together with an interceptor. • 4-10% lower propulsion power demand. Corresponding improvement of 3-7% in total energy consumption for a typical ferry
  56. 56. Shaft Line Arrangement • The shaft lines should be streamlined. Brackets should have a streamlined shape. Otherwise this increases the resistance and disturbs the flow to the propeller. • Up to 3% difference in power demand between poor and good design. A corresponding improvement of up to 2% in total energy consumption for a typical ferry.
  57. 57. Improved Skeg Shape/trailling Edge • The skeg should be designed so that it directs the flow evenly to the propeller disk. At lower speeds it is usually beneficial to have more volume on the lower part of the skeg and as little as possible above the propeller shaftline. At the aft end of the skeg the flow should be attached to the skeg, but with as low flow speeds as possible. • 1.5%-2% lower propulsion power demand with good design. A corresponding improvement of up to 2% in total energy consumption for a container vessel.
  58. 58. Minimizing Resistance of Hull Openings • The water flow disturbance from openings to bow thruster tunnels and sea chests can be high. It is therefore beneficial to install a scallop behind each opening. Alternatively a grid that is perpendicular to the local flow direction can be installed. The location of the opening is also important. • Designing all openings properly and locating them correctly can give up to 5% lower power demand than with poor designs. For a container vessel, the corresponding improvement in total energy consumption is almost 5%.
  59. 59. Air Lubrication • Compressed air is pumped into a recess in the bottom of the ship’s hull. The air builds up a carpet that reduces the frictional resistance between the water and the hull surface. This reduces the propulsion power demand. The challenge is to ensure that the air stays below the hull and does not escape. Some pumping power is needed. • Saving in fuel consumption:  Tanker: ~15 %  Container: ~7.5 %  PCTC: ~8.5 %  Ferry: ~3.5%
  60. 60. Wing Thruster • Installing wing thrusters on twin screw vessels can achieve significant power savings, obtained mainly due to lower resistance from the hull appendages. • The propulsion concept compares a centre line propeller and two wing thrusters with a twin shaft line arrangement. • Result: Better ship performance in the range of 8% to 10%. More flexibility in the engine arrangement and more competitive ship performance.
  61. 61. Counter Rotating Propellers (CRP) • Counter rotating propellers consist of a pair of propellers behind each other that rotate in opposite directions. The aft propeller recovers some of the rotational energy in the slipstream from the forward propeller. The propeller couple also gives lower propeller loading than for a single propeller resulting in better efficiency. • CRP propellers can either be mounted on twin coaxial counter rotating shafts or the aft propeller can be located on a steerable propulsor aft of a conventional shaft line. Image Credit: Japan Marine United Corporation (JMU) • CRP has been documented as the propulsor with one of the highest efficiencies. The power reduction for a single screw vessel is 10% to 15%.
  62. 62. Optimization of Propeller & Hull Interaction • The propeller and the ship interact. The acceleration of water due to propeller action can have a negative effect on the resistance of the ship or appendages. This effect can today be predicted and analyzed more accurately using computational techniques. • Redesigning the hull, appendages and propeller together will at low cost improve performance by up to 4%.
  63. 63. Propeller-Rudder Combinations • The rudder has drag in the order of 5% of ship resistance. This can be reduced by 50% by changing the rudder profile and the propeller. Designing these together with a rudder bulb will give additional benefits. • Improved fuel efficiency of 2% to 6%.
  64. 64. Advanced Propeller Blade Sections • Advanced blade sections will improve the cavitation performance and frictional resistance of a propeller blade. As a result the propeller is more efficient. • Improved propeller efficiency of up to 2%.
  65. 65. Propeller Tip Winglets • Winglets are known from the aircraft industry. The design of special tip shapes can now be based on computational fluid dynamic calculations which will improve propeller efficiency. • Improved propeller efficiency of up to 4%.
  66. 66. Propeller Nozzle • Installing nozzles shaped like a wing section around a propeller will save fuel for ship speeds of up to 20 knots. • Up to 5% power savings compared to a vessel with an open propeller.
  67. 67. Variable Speed Operation • For controllable pitch propellers, operation at a constant number of revolutions over a wide ship speed reduces efficiency. Reduction of the number of revolutions at reduced ship speed will give fuel savings. • Saves 5% fuel, depending on actual operating conditions.
  68. 68. Wind Power • Wing-shaped sails installed on the deck or a kite attached to the bow of the ship use wind energy for added forward thrust. Static sails made of composite material and fabric sails are possible. • Fuel consumption savings:  Tanker ~ 21%  PCTC ~20%  Ferry ~8.5%
  69. 69. Flettner Rotors • Spinning vertical (Flettner) rotors installed on the ship convert wind power into thrust in the perpendicular direction of the wind, utilising the Magnus effect. This means that in side wind conditions the ship will benefit from the added thrust. • Fuel consumption savings: ~30%
  70. 70. Steerable thrusters with a pulling propeller • Steerable thrusters with a pulling propeller can give clear power savings. The pulling thrusters can be combined in different setups. They can be favorably combined with a centre shaft on the centre line skeg in either a CRP or a Wing Thruster configuration. Even a combination of both options can give great benefits. The lower power demand arises from less appendage resistance than a twin shaft solution and the high propulsion efficiencies of the propulsors with a clean waterflow inflow. • The propulsion power demand at the propellers can be reduced by up to 15% with pulling thrusters in advanced setups.
  71. 71. Hybrid Aux. Power Generation • Hybrid auxiliary power system consists of a fuel cell, diesel generating set and batteries. An intelligent control system balances the loading of each component for maximum system efficiency. The system can also accept other energy sources such as wind and solar power. • Result:  Reduction of NOX by 78%  Reduction of CO2 by 30%  Reduction of particles by 83%
  72. 72. Combined Diesel-Electric and Diesel-Mechanical (CODED) Machinery • Combined diesel-electric and diesel-mechanical machinery can improve the total efficiency in ships with an operational profile containing modes with varying loads. The electric power plant will bring benefits at part load, were the engine load is optimised by selecting the right number of engines in use. At higher loads, the mechanical part will offer lower transmission losses than a fully electric machinery. • Total energy consumption for a offshore support vessel with CODED machinery is reduced by 4% compared to a diesel-electric machinery.
  73. 73. Low Loss Concept (LLC) • Low Loss Concept (LLC) is a patented power distribution system that reduces the number of rectifier transformers from one for each power drive to one bus-bar transformer for each installation. This reduces the distribution losses, increases the energy availability and saves space and installation costs. • Result: Gets rid of bulky transformers. Transmission losses reduced by 15-20%.
  74. 74. Variable Speed Electric Power Generation • The system uses generating sets operating in a variable rpm mode. The rpm is always adjusted for maximum efficiency regardless of the system load. The electrical system is based on DC distribution and frequency controlled consumers. • Results:  Reduces number of generating sets by 25%  Optimized fuel consumption, saving 5-10%
  75. 75. Common Rail (CR) Fuel System • Common Rail (CR) is a tool for achieving low emissions and low SFOC. CR controls combustion so it can be optimised throughout the operation field, providing at every load the lowest possible fuel consumption. • Result:  Smokeless operation at all loads  Part load impact  Full load impact  Save upto 1% fuel.
  76. 76. Efficient Power management • Power Management: Correct timing for changing the number of generating sets is critical factor in fuel consumption in diesel electric and auxiliary power installations. An efficient power management system is the best way to improve the system performance. • Result: Running extensively at low load can easily increase the SFOC by 5-10%. Low load increases the risk of turbine fouling with a further impact on fuel consumption.
  77. 77. Solar Power • Solar panels installed on a ship’s deck can generate electricity for use in an electric propulsion engine or auxiliary ship systems. Heat for various ship systems can also be generated with the solar panels. • Depending on the available deck space, solar panels can give the following reductions in total fuel consumption:  Tanker: ~ 3.5%  PCTC: ~ 2.5%  Ferry: ~ 1%
  78. 78. LNG Fuel • Switching to LNG fuel reduces energy consumption because of the lower demand for ship electricity and heating. The biggest savings come from not having to separate and heat HFO. LNG cold (-162 °C) can be utilised in cooling the ship’s HVAC to save AC-compressor power. • Saving in total energy < 4 % for a typical ferry. In 22 kn cruise mode, the difference in electrical load is approx. 380 kW. This has a major impact on emissions.
  79. 79. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) • Waste heat recovery (WHR) recovers the thermal energy from the exhaust gas and converts it into electrical energy. Residual heat can further be used for ship onboard services. The system can consist of a boiler, a power turbine and a steam turbine with alternator. Redesigning the ship layout can efficiently accommodate the boilers on the ship. • Exhaust waste heat recovery can provide up to 15% of the engine power. The potential with new designs is up to 20%.
  80. 80. The EEDI for new ships creates a strong incentive for further improvements in ships’ fuel consumption. The purpose of IMO’s EEDI is: 1. to require a minimum energy efficiency level for new ships; 2. to stimulate continued technical development of all the components influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship; 3. to separate the technical and design based measures from the operational and commercial measures (they will/may be addressed in other instruments); and 4. to enable a comparison of the energy efficiency of individual ships to similar ships of the same size which could have undertaken the same transport work (move the same cargo). Purpose of the EEDI 81
  81. 81. Regulation 21 –Required EEDI 82
  82. 82. Regulation 21.1 – Required EEDI  1 For each:  new ship;  new ship which has undergone a major conversion; and  each new or existing ship which has undergone so extensive major conversion, that is regarded by the Administration as a newly constructed ship  For ships defined in Regulation 2.25 to 2.31, 2.33 to 2.35 and 2.39:  Attained EEDI ≤ Required EEDI ; and  Required EEDI = (1-X/100) x reference line value  Where  X is the reduction factor  Reference line value is estimated from EEDI Reference line. 83
  83. 83. Reg. 21 - Implementation phases and reduction factor • EEDI implementation phases are: • Phase 0 2013 – 2014 • Phase 1 2015 – 2019 • Phase 2 2020 – 2024 • Phase 3 2025 – …… • Reduction factor for the above phases are as in diagram. 84
  84. 84. Regulation 21 – Required EEDI details (1) 85
  85. 85. Regulation 21 – Required EEDI details (2)  MEPC 66 additions 86
  86. 86. Reference lines  Reference lines are ship specific.  Dependent on ship type and size.  Calculated ship data from HIS Fairplay database: For details of how reference lines are developed, see Resolution MEPC.231(65): 2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines …… 87
  87. 87. Regulation 21.3 – Reference line Reference line = a*b-c 88
  88. 88. • Reduction factor is the % reduction in Required EEDI relative to Reference Line. • Cut off levels: • Bulk Carriers: • Gas carriers: • Tankers: 10,000 DWT 2,000 DWT 4,000 DWT • Container ship: 10,000 DWT • Gen./ref. Cargo: 3,000 DWT Cut Off Reference Line Linear range Reg. 21 - Reduction factor and cut-off limits 89
  89. 89. At the beginning of Phase 1 and at the midpoint of Phase 2, the Organization shall review the status of technological developments and, if proven necessary, amend the time periods, the EEDI reference line parameters for relevant ship types and reduction rates set out in this regulation. Review of phases and reduction factors, Reg. 21.6 90
  90. 90. Regulation 22- SEEMP 91
  91. 91. Regulation 22 - SEEMP  A SEEMP provides: - A possible approach for improving ship and fleet efficiency performance over time; and - Some options to be considered for optimizing the performance of the ship. 92
  92. 92. SEEMP Requirements The SEEMP seeks to improve a ship’s energy efficiency through four steps:  Planning: is crucial since it determines both the current status of ship energy usage and the expected improvement of energy efficiency;  Implementation: Record-keeping for the implementation of each measure is beneficial for self-evaluation;  Monitoring and measure: through continuous and consistent data collection; and  Self-evaluation and improvement: to evaluate the effectiveness of the planned measures and their implementation, to deepen the understanding on the overall characteristics of ship’s operation such as what types of measures can/cannot function effectively, and how and/or why, to comprehend the trend of the efficiency improvement of the ship and to develop an improved SEEMP for the next spiral. 93
  93. 93. SEEMP Requirements 94
  94. 94. SEEMP Applicability: (according to Resolution MEPC.203(62)) • All vessels of > 400 GT • Each vessel to be provided with a ship-specific SEEMP not later than the first intermediate or renewal survey (whichever is first) on or after 1 January 2013. • The attending Class surveyor will check that the SEEMP is onboard and subsequently issue the International Energy Efficiency Certificate (IEEC). • PSC inspection is limited to verifying that there is a valid IEEC onboard. Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan 95
  95. 95.  For existing ships, a Record of Construction needs to be filled and an IEE Certificate issued when the existence of SEEMP on-board is verified. SEEMP and IEE Certificate 96
  96. 96. Supplement to IEEC – Record of construction 97
  97. 97. Supplement to IEEC – Record of construction  The records of construction contains the following information:  Particular of ship  Propulsion system  Attained EEDI  Required EEDI  SEEMP  EEDI Technical File  Endorsement that provided data are correct. 98
  98. 98. Verification that a SEEMP is on-board  The verification will be done as part of first intermediate or renewal survey, whichever is the first, after 1 January 2013. 99
  99. 99. SEEMP Related Measures No. Energy Efficiency Measure Remark 1 Engine tuning and monitoring Engine operational performance and condition optimisation. 2 Hull condition Hull operational fouling and damage avoidance. 3 Propeller condition Propeller operational fouling and damage avoidance. 4 Reduced auxiliary power Reducing the electrical load via machinery operation and power management. 5 Speed reduction (operation) Operational slow steaming. 6 Trim/draft Trim and draft monitoring and optimisation. 7 Voyage execution Reducing port times, waiting times, etc. and increasing the passage time, just in time arrival. 8 Weather routing Use of weather routing services to avoid rough seas and head currents, to optimize voyage efficiency. 9 Advanced hull coating Re-paint using advanced paints. 10 Propeller upgrade and aft body flow devices Propeller and after-body retrofit for optimisation. Also, addition of flow improving devices (e.g.duct and fins). 100
  100. 100. Engine Tuning • Engine Tuning (Delta tuning on Wartsila 2-stroke RT-flex engines) offers reduced fuel consumption in the load range that is most commonly used. The engine is tuned to give lower consumption at part load while still meeting NOx emission limits by allowing higher consumption at full load that is seldom used. • Result: Lower specific fuel consumption at part loads compared to standard tuning, can save upto 1% fuel.
  101. 101. Just in Time/ Virtual Arrival (JIT): <1% 102 – A known delay at the discharge port; – Whenever an opportunity exists, the operator requests permission from Charterers to reduce speed; – A mutual agreement between the stakeholders. Other parties may be involved in the decision making process, such as terminals, cargo receivers and commercial interests.
  102. 102. Turnaround Time in Port • A faster port turnaround time makes it possible to decrease the vessel speed at sea. This is mainly a benefit for ships with scheduled operations, such as ferries and container vessels. The turnaround time can be reduced for example by improving maneuvering perform ance or enhancing cargo flows with innovative ship designs, ramp arrangements or lifting arrangements. • Results: Saving upto 10% fuel.
  103. 103. Propeller Surface Polishing • Regular in-service polishing is required to reduce surface roughness on propellers caused by organic growth and fouling. This can be done without disrupting service operation by using divers. • Results: Up to 10% improvement in service propeller efficiency compared to a fouled propeller.
  104. 104. Hull Surface Coating • Modern hull coatings have a smoother and harder surface finish, resulting in reduced friction. Since typically some 50-80% of resistance is friction, better coatings can result in lower total resistance. • A modern coating also results in less fouling, so with a hard surface the benefit is even greater when compared to some older paints towards the end of the docking period. • Saving in fuel consumption after 48 months compared to a conventional hull coating:  Tanker: ~ 9%  Container: ~ 9%  PCTC: ~ 5%  Ferry: ~ 3%  OSV: ~ 0.6%
  105. 105. Part Load operation Optimization • Engines are usually optimized at high loads. In real life most of them are used on part loads. New matching that takes into account real operation profiles can significantly improve overall operational efficiency. • New engine matching means different TC tuning, fuel injection advance, cam profiles, etc.
  106. 106. Slow Steaming Reducing the ship speed an effective way to cut energy consumption. Propulsion power vs. ship speed is a third power curve (according to the theory) so significant reductions can be achieved. It should be noted that for lower speeds the amount of transported cargo / time period is also lower. The energy saving calculated here is for an equal distance travelled. • Reduction in ship speed vs. saving in total energy consumption:  0.5 kn –> – 7% energy  1.0 kn –> – 11% energy  2.0 kn –> – 17% energy  3.0 kn –> – 23% energy
  107. 107. Voyage Planning & Weather Routing • The purpose of weather routing is to find the optimum route for long distance voyages, where the shortest route is not always the fastest. The basic idea is to use updated weather forecast data and choose the optimal route through calm areas or areas that have the most downwind tracks. The best systems also take into account the currents, and try to take maximum advantage of these. This track information can be imported to the navigation system. • Shorter passages, less fuel, save upto 10% fuel.
  108. 108. Optimum Trim • The optimum trim can often be as much as 15-20% lower than the worst trim condition at the same draught and speed. As the optimum trim is hull form dependent and for each hull form it depends on the speed and draught, no general conclusions can be made. However by logging the required power in various conditions over a long time period it is possible to find the optimum trim for each draught and speed. Fig: Computational Fluid Dynamics • Or this can be determined fairly quickly using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or model tests. However it should be noted that correcting the trim by taking ballast will result in higher consumption (increased displacement). If possible the optimum trim should be achieved either by repositioning the cargo or rearranging the bunkers. • Optimal vessel trim reduces the required power.
  109. 109. Autopilot Adjustments • Poor directional stability causes yaw motion and thus increases fuel consumption. Autopilot has a big influence on the course keeping ability. The best autopilots today are self tuning, adaptive autopilots. • Finding the correct autopilot parameters suitable for the current route and operation area will significantly reduce the use of the rudder and therefore reduce the drag. • Finding the correct parameters or Preventing unnecessary use of the rudder gives an anticipated benefit of 1-5%. Source: Wärtsilä
  110. 110. Hull Cleaning • Algae growing on the hull increases ship resistance. Frequent cleaning of the hull can reduce the drag and minimise total fuel consumption. • Reduced fuel consumption:  Tanker: ~ 3%  Container: ~ 2%  PCTC: ~ 2%  Ferry: ~ 2%  OSV: ~ 0.6%
  111. 111. 112 Mewis Duct propeller <5% • The Mewis Duct consists of two strong fixed elements mounted on the vessel: a duct positioned ahead of the propeller together with an integrated fin system within. • The duct straightens and accelerates the hull wake into the propeller and also produces a net ahead thrust. • The fin system provides a pre-swirl to the ship wake which reduces losses in propeller slipstream, resulting in an increase in propeller thrust at given propulsive power. Both effects contribute to each other.  Improved propulsion  Proven fuel savings up to 8%  Reduced greenhouse gases (GHG)
  112. 112. Conditioned Based Maintenance (CBM) • In a CBM system all maintenance action is based on the latest, relevant information received through communication with the actual equipment and on evaluation of this information by experts. • The main benefits are: lower fuel consumption, lower emissions, longer interval between overhauls, and higher reliability. • Correctly timed service will ensure optimum engine performance and improve consumption by up to 5%.
  113. 113. Energy Saving Lighting • Using lighting that is more electricity and heat efficient where possible and optimizing the use of lighting reduces the demand for electricity and air conditioning. This results in a lower hotel load and hence reduced auxiliary power demand. • Results: Fuel consumption saving: Ferry and Passenger vessel 1~2%
  114. 114. Advanced power Management • Power management based on intelligent control principles to monitor and control the overall efficiency and availability of the power system onboard. In efficiency mode, the system will automatically run the system with the best energy cost. • Reduces operational fuel costs by 5% and minimizes maintenance.
  115. 115. Energy Saving Operation Awareness • A shipping company, with its human resources department, could create a culture of fuel saving, with an incentive or bonus scheme based on fuel savings. One simple means would be competition between the company’s vessels. Training and a measuring system are required so that the crew can see the results and make an impact. • Historical data as reference. Experience shows that incentives can reduce energy usage by up to 10%.
  116. 116. Cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures 117
  117. 117. Energy Efficiency Measures – Cost effectiveness  Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) 118
  118. 118.  A proposed format is included in the Guideline. SEEMP format 119
  119. 119. Summary on SEEMP Guidelines  SEEMP framework is based on Plan-Do-Check-Act continuous improvement cycle.  When developing SEEMP, all the above elements needs to be defined at the planning phase.  At its core, SEEMP has a number of EEMs together with their:  Implementation methods  Monitoring and checking  Self assessment  Roles and responsibility  Processes and procedures. 120
  120. 120. Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator - EEOI  An efficiency indicator for all ships (new and existing) obtained from fuel consumption, voyage (miles) and cargo data (tonnes)  EEOI is an approach to assess the efficiency of a ship with respect to CO2 emissions.  EEOI = Environmental Cost / Benefit to Society (measured as grams CO2 / tonnes x nautical mile)  In order to establish the EEOI, the following main steps will generally be needed:  define the period for which the EEOI is calculated  define data sources for data collection;  collection of data;  convert data to appropriate format; and  calculate EEOI. 121
  121. 121.  Basic expression of the EEOI  Average EEOI (rolling average)  j = Fuel type  i = Voyage number;  FCij = Mass of consumed fuel j at voyage i  CFj = Fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factor for fuel j  mcargo = Cargo carried (tonnes) or work done (number of TEU or passengers) or gross tonnes for passenger ships  D = Distance in nautical miles corresponding to the cargo carried or work done. Calculation of the EEOI - Formula 122  EEOI = (Emitted CO2)/(Transport Work), i.e. the ratio of mass of CO2 (M) emitted per unit of transport work.
  122. 122.  Data sources  Bridge log-book  Engine log-book  Deck log-book  Other official records  Fuel mass to CO2 mass conversion factors (CF) Calculation of the EEOI – Data sources 123
  123. 123.  EEOI is normally calculated for one voyage.  Average EEOI for a number of voyages can be carried out.  Rolling average, when used, can be calculated in a suitable time period, for example:  One year or  Number of voyages, for example six or ten voyages, which are agreed as statistically relevant to the initial averaging period Calculation of the EEOI – Rolling average 124
  124. 124.  Example (includes a single ballast voyage)  unit: tonnes CO2/(tons x nautical miles) Calculation of the EEOI (example) 125
  125. 125.  Significant variations (voyage to voyage)  Reasons for changes include:  Ship size/type  Cargo level (load)  Ship speed  Length of ballast voyages  Idle and waiting times  Weather and current  Measurement errors  In short, every operation aspect of ship has its own impact on EEOI and causes its variability. EEOI TrendforJClass(TEU-based) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Nov-07 Feb-08 Jun-08 Sep-08 Dec-08 Mar-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 May-10 Aug-10 Date E E OI [g /[ T E U. n m ] EEOI(voyage) EEOI(rollingaverage) EEOI Variability 126
  126. 126.  Voyage definitions  Data collection  Ensuring accuracy of the collected data  Estimation of cargo carried in container ships  Voyage variability (short voyages versus long voyages).  Bunker consumption calculation  Non-availability of established benchmarks for ships  Variability making it difficult to pin point the cause of poor performance. Issues with the EEOI 127
  127. 127. Energy Management System and Plan 128
  128. 128.  A continuous improvement PDCA cycle Ship SEEMP (IMO) Company Energy management system (ISO 50001) Source: ISO 50001:2011 Ship Energy Management System 129
  129. 129.  Need to set clear policies and goals for the fuel saving projects.  Need to set a roadmap for 3-5 years.  Need to approach it in a step-by-step way with proper monitoring. Ship Energy Management: A systematic approach 130
  130. 130. Ship Energy Management: 3-Step Approach  From low-hanging fruits to major capital investments 131
  131. 131. Regulation 23 –Promotion of technical cooperation and technology transfer 132
  132. 132. Regulation 23 - Promotion of technical co-operation and transfer of technology  Administrations shall,in co-operation with the Organization and other international bodies, promote and provide, as appropriate, support directly or through IMO to States, especially developing States, that request technical assistance.  The Administration of a Party shall co-operate actively with other Parties, …, to promote the development and transfer of technology and exchange of information to States which request technical assistance, particularly developing States, for implementation of … the requirements of chapter 4 of this annex, in particular regulations 19.4 to 19.6." 133
  133. 133. Thank you for your attention For more information please see: 134