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MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 1-3: “Air Pollution and GHG Emissions from International Shipping”

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MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 1-3: “Air Pollution and GHG Emissions from International Shipping”

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MARPOL Annex VI Chapter 1-3: “Air Pollution and GHG Emissions from International Shipping”

  1. 1. MARPOL Annex VI – Chapter 1-3: “Air Pollution and GHG Emissions from International Shipping” Mohammud Hanif Dewan, IEng IMarEng MIMarEST MRINA Maritime Lecturer & Consultant
  2. 2. Introduction MARPOL Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
  3. 3. Energy use is the major source of man-made air emissions Air emissions from combustion of fuels
  4. 4.  Consequences:  Damage to environment and eco-system  Damage to agriculture and properties.  Damage to human health.  Additional cost to society and individuals (healthcare, accidents, etc.)  Solutions (mitigation aspects):  Either to reduce the air emissions (Technical and operational measures); OR  Pay for the associatedcosts (market based measures); OR  A combination of the above two  Mechanisms:  Regulations (on technical and operational measures)  Market-BasedMeasures(MBM) Overall consequence and solutions
  5. 5. MARPOL Annex VI Overview
  6. 6. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships  MARPOL Annex VI:  1997 Protocol adopted 26 Sept. 1997  Entered into force 19 May 2005  Revisions to Annex VI  Adopted October 2008 and  Entered into force 1 July 2010  Chapter 4 on Energy Efficiency  Adopted in 11 July 2011  Entered into force 1 January 2013 Some changes to text or guidelines took place in almost all MEPC meetings.
  7. 7. • Sulphur Oxides or SOx: come from burning the sulphur present in fuel oils. Corrosive and harmful to life. • Particulate matter (PM) or soot: consists of unburned fuel or incombustible elements in the fuel. Highly carcinogenic. The very small or ultrafine particles are the most harmful ones. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx): are produced when engines heat up the Nitrogen and Oxygen in air. Highly toxic and dangerous form of pollution. Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ): is an inevitable product when we get energy from burning the carbon in fuel. Responsible for global warming and climate change. Directly proportional to the amount of energy released. Marine Exhaust Gas Pollution
  8. 8.  Carbon Monoxide (CO)  Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  Sulphur Oxides (SOx)  Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)  Unburned Hydrocarbons (HxCx).  Particulate Matters (PM) Source: MAN B&W Emission Gases from Engine Exhaust
  9. 9. Regulationsfor the followingemissions Energy Efficiency NEW MARPOL Annex VI
  10. 10. Chapter 1 – General  Reg. 1: Applications  Reg. 2: Definitions  Reg. 3: Exceptions and exemptions  Reg. 4: Equivalents MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations
  11. 11. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations Chapter 2-Survey, Certification and Means of Control  Reg. 5: Survey and inspectionsReg.5  Reg. 6: Issue of endorsement of certificate  Reg. 7: Issue of a certificate by another party  Reg. 8: Form of certificate  Reg. 9: Duration and validity of certificate  Reg. 10: Port state control and operational requirements  Reg. 11: Detection of violation and enforcement
  12. 12. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations Chapter 3 - Requirements for Control of Emissions Reg. 12: Ozone displacing substances (ODS) Reg. 13: Nitrogen oxides (NOx) Reg. 14: Sulphur oxides (SOx)and Particulate Matter (PM) Reg. 15: Volatile organic compounds (VOC) Reg. 16: Shipboard incineration Reg. 17: Reception Facilities Reg. 18: Fuel oil quality and availability
  13. 13. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations  Reg. 19: Application  Reg. 20: Attained EEDI  Reg. 21: Required EEDI  Reg. 22: SEEMP  Reg. 23: Technical cooperation and technology transfer Chapter 4 - Energy Efficiency Regulations
  14. 14. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations • Reg. 24: Application of III Code • Reg. 25: Verification of compliance to III Code Chapter 5 -Verification of compliance (within IMO Member States Audit Scheme) III Code refers to the IMO Instruments Implementation Code adopted by the Organization by resolution A.1070(28).
  15. 15. Survey and certification summary Surveys and Certification • All ships of ≥ 400 gross tonnage Subject to Initial, Periodic (renewal) and Intermediatesurveys International Air Pollution Prevention (IAPP) Certificate • Ships constructedbefore date of entry into force of Annex VI for non- Parties. • Comply by 1st scheduled dry-dock but no later than 3 years after entry into force. •Fixed or floating platforms (drilling rigs) • Floating craft and submersibles
  16. 16. MARPOL Annex VI - Chapter 3 Regs Requirements for Control of Emissions from Ships
  17. 17. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 12 Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) Emissions from ODS from refrigerating plants and fire fighting equipment.
  18. 18. R11 ODP = 1.0 GWP = 4000 R12 ODP = 0.9 GWP = 8500 R115 (R502) ODP = 0.283 GWP = 5591 CFC Chlorofluorocarbon Production Ban 1996 Article 5 countries 2010 R22 ODP = 0.055 GWP = 1700 R141b (Foam blow) ODP = 0.11 GWP = 630 HCFC Hydrochlorofluorocarbon Transitional Substance Banned in new plant R410A ODP = 0 GWP = 1890 (High Pressure) R404A ODP = 0 GWP = 3748 (High GWP) R507 ODP = 0 GWP = 3800 (High GWP) R407C ODP = 0 GWP = 1610 (Flammability?) HFC Hydrofluorocarbon Ozone Friendly Under question Ammonia ODP = 0 GWP = <1 Carbon Dioxide ODP = 0 GWP = 1.0 Propane/ Isobutane ODP = 0 GWP = 3.0 Environmentally Inert Natural Substances Refrigerants - Family Tree, ODP, GWP ODP – Ozone Depleting Potential GWP – Global Warming Potential 19 May 2005 01 Jan 2020
  19. 19. Regulation 12 - ODS  Does not apply to permanently sealed units (Reg.12.1)with no charging connection …  Deliberate emissions prohibited (Reg.12.2)  Other than Hydrochloroflurocarbon (HCFC) & Hydroflurocarbon (HFC), all other ODS (Like CFC) banned in new ships from 19 May 2005 (Reg.12.3.1)  HCFC banned in new ships from 1 Jan 2020 (Reg.12.3.2)  Delivery to reception facilities following removal (Reg.12.4)  Supplement to IAPP - Maintain a list of equipment containing ODS (Reg.12.5)  Required to complete an ODS Record Book approved by Administration (Reg. 12.6) for ships with re-chargeable systems.
  20. 20. Regulation 12 – Entries in ODS Record Book  Regulation 12.7: Entries in the ODS Record Book shall be recorded in terms of mass (kg) of substanceand shall be completed without delay on each occasion:  .1 recharge, full or partial, of equipment containing ODS;  .2 repair or maintenance of equipment containing ODS;  .3 discharge of ODS to the atmosphere including deliberate; and non-deliberate;  .4 discharge of ODS to land-based receptionfacilities; and  .5 supply of ODS to the ship.
  21. 21. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 13 Prevention of Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) emissions
  22. 22.  NOx is a reactive gas, at the presence of sunlight.  Causes health problem; in particular on respiratory system.  NOx together with VOC and other reacting gases could lead to smog (smoky fog) phenomenon.  Additionally, NOx contributesto global warming and acid rain. Photochemical smog is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and VOC in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground- level ozone Impact of NOx
  23. 23.  There are a number of NOx reduction methods for engines. LNG NOx Reduction Options Others EGR SCR  Water in fuel emulsions.  Humid Air Manifold or water injection.  Miller cycle: Valve timing.  Low NOx combustion.  Lean burn, low temperature combustion.  Low combustion temperature due to gas recirculation (mainly CO2)  Use of a reduction agents  Uses a catalyst Converts NOx back to N2 Methods of engine's NOx reduction
  24. 24. Regulation 13 NOx - Application Applies to installed on a ship constructed on or after 1st January 2000 Marine diesel engines with a power output more than 130 kW Applies to which undergo a major conversion on or after 1st January 2000 Marine diesel engines with a power output more than 130 kW Not applicable to • Emergency marine diesel engines • Marine diesel engines installed on lifeboats • Any device or equipment intended to be used solely in case of emergency • Engines on ships only engaged in domestic voyages can be made subject to alternative NOx control measure or exempted if pre-19 May 2005
  25. 25. Regulation 13 -NOx emission limits • NOx emission limits Tier I * - Ships constructed 1 Jan 2000 to 31 Dec 2010 Tier II - Ships constructed 1 Jan 2011 to 31 Dec 2015 Tier III ** - Ships constructed 1 Jan 2016 onwards *NOx limit in original Annex VI ** Within ECA Tier n < 130 rpm 130 ≤ n < 2000 rpm n ≥ 2000 rpm I 17.0 g/kWh 45.0*n(-0.2) g/kWh 9.8 g/kWh II 14.4 g/kWh 44.0*n(-0.2) g/kWh 7.7 g/kWh III 3.4. g/kWh 9.0*n(-0.2) g/kWh 2.0 g/kWh n = rated engine speed – crankshaft rpm
  26. 26. Regulation 13 -NOx emission limits
  27. 27. Regulation 13 (NOX) – Engine certification  Test bed exhaust emission measurement by Engine Maker.  NOx Technical File • Information on components,settings, operating values & adjustments to maintain NOx emissions within allowable limits.  Issue of Engine International Air Pollution Prevention (EIAPP) certificate or statement of compliance • Issued for applicable engines • Valid for the engines life time (unless major conversion)
  28. 28.  The NOx-influencing components and settings (depend on the design of the particular engine) shall be listed in the engine’s Technical File: 1. Injection timing 2. Injection system components (nozzle, injector, fuel pump) 3. Software no, checksums, or other identification of software version 4. Hardware for fuel injection control 5. Camshaft components (fuel cam, inlet- and exhaust cam) 6. Valve timing 7. Combustion chamber (piston, cylinder head, cylinder liner) 8. Compression ratio (connecting rod, piston rod, shim, gaskets) 9. Turbocharger type and build (internal components) 10. Charge air cooler/charge air pre-heater 11. Auxiliary blower The actual Technical File of an engine may include less components and/or parameters other than the list above, depending on the particular engine and the specific engine design. NOx-influencing components
  29. 29.  Tier III – For ships built after January 1, 2016 when operating in North America ECA.  Applicable ships for future ECA-Nox:  “for ships constructedon or after the date of adoption of such an ECA-NOx, or a later date as specified in the adoption decision …”  For meeting stringent Tier III NOx emission limits, NOx reduction devices are expected to be used.  If engines certified only to Tier II, can use NOx reduction device in ECA. (Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is one such device). Regulation 13 - Tier III in ECA
  30. 30. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 14 Sulphur Oxides (SOx) & Particulate Matter (PM)
  31. 31.  SOx is normally SO2 and to some extent SO3.  SOx is produced from oxidation of fuel sulphur  S+O2 SO2 +1/2O2 SO3  SOx causes: (1) Acid rain (2) Sea and soil acidification and (3) Human health issue  PM (Particulate Mater)is produced due to non- complete combustionof fuel.  Level of PM is dependent on fuel sulphur level.  Reduction of fuel sulphur will reduce SOx but also PM. How SOx is produced and what is its impact?
  32. 32. * depending on the outcome of a review, to be concluded in 2018, as to the availability of the required fuel oil, this date could be deferred to 1 January 2025. Exhaust gas cleaners/EmissionAbatement Technologies Permitted World wide and in ECA under Reg.4 – Equivalents (Equivalence option limited to Parties) Outside an ECA established to limit SOx and particulate matter emissions Inside an ECA established to limit SOx and particulate matter emissions 4.50% m/m prior to 1 January 2012 1.50% m/m prior to 1 July 2010 3.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2012 1.00% m/m on and after 1 July 2010 0.50% m/m on and after 1 January 2020* 0.10% m/m on and after 1 January 2015 Regulation 14 Fuel sulphur limits
  33. 33. ECANon-ECA 1.7.2010 1.1.2015 4.50 3.50 1.50 1.00 0.10 0.50 1.1.2012 1.1.2020 1.1.2025 Fuel oil % sulphur Review completion by 2018 Time Regulation 14 Fuel sulphur limits
  34. 34. Emission Control Areas (ECAs)
  35. 35. Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) and Emission Control Areas (ECA): Adoption, entry into force & date of taking effect of Special Areas SpecialAreas Adopted # Date of Entry into Force In EffectFrom Annex VI: Preventionof air pollution by ships (Emission ControlAreas) Baltic Sea (SOx) 26 Sept1997 19 May 2005 19 May 2006 North Sea (SOx) 22 Jul 2005 22 Nov 2006 22 Nov 2007 North AmericanECA (SOx and PM) 26 Mar 2010 1 Aug 2011 1 Aug 2012 (NOx) 26 Mar 2010 1 Aug 2011 *** United States Caribbean Sea ECA (SOx and PM) 26 Jul 2011 1 Jan 2013 1 Jan 2014 (NOx) 26 Jul 2011 1 Jan 2013 *** (01 Jan 2016) (01 Jan 2016)
  36. 36. ECA Operation – Compliance and fuel change over procedures  Dominant option: Use of 2 separate fuels on-board, i.e. LS and HS fuel oils.  For this compliance option (Reg. 14.6):  Ships entering or leaving an ECA shall carry a written procedure (e.g. fuel change-over plan).  The plan should show how the fuel oil change-over is to be done ensuring not any HS fuel is left in the system upon entry into ECA.  The volume of LS fuel oils in each tank as well as the date, time, and position of the ship when entering or leaving shall be recorded in such log-book as prescribedby the Administration.  Other options: LNG as fuel, Sox scrubbers,other alternative fuels,
  37. 37. HSFO to LSFO Fuel Change-over Arrangement
  38. 38. HSFO to LSFO Fuel Change-over Calculator
  39. 39. Scrubber technology: How does it work?  SOx is removed via using wash water.  System includes:  Water supply  Water treatment  Exhaust gas and water monitoring  Supply to ship of treatment agent.  Types  Fresh water  Sea water  Hybrid Source: Force Technology , 2012 See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J8_D7ASh0_g
  40. 40. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 15 Volatile Organic Compounds
  41. 41.  Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are the lighter parts of crude oil or their products that vapourise during the ship loading process.  VOCs are chemicals that are primarily dangerous to human health. They also cause harm to the environment.  VOCs are typically not very toxic, but instead have long-term health effects.  VOCs in shipping:  Mainly from oil tankers.  Normally polluting the port of loading.  VOC could be discharged as part of tank purging process as well. What is VOC and its impact?
  42. 42. Regulation 15 - VOC  Regulation enables ports and terminals to implement VOC controls  Controls on volatile emissions from tanker cargo tanks during loading/ unloading of oil cargoes  Vapour Emissions Control System (VECS) to be compliant with MSC/Circ.585 guidelines  Crude oil tankers to have an approved VOC manual (does not apply to gas carriers - Reg. 15.7 )
  43. 43. Regulation 15 - VOC  For Parties applying Regulation 15 in port(s) and terminal(s):  Shall submit notification to IMO 6 months before effective date (Reg.15.2)  Shall take into account IMO safety standards for VECS (MSC/Circ.585) (Reg.15.5)  IMO shall circulate list of ports and terminals (Reg.15.4)  Tankers need to install a VECS approved by Administration (Reg.15.5)  Ports/terminals with approved VECS can accept tankers without VECS for up to 3 years after effective date (Reg.15.5)  Tankers need to develop and implement a VOC Management Plan approved by the Administration (Reg.15.6)  Procedures for minimizing VOC emissions during loading, sea passage & discharge, responsible person identified, language, additional VOC during washing  Regulation applies to gas carriers for retention of non-methane VOCs (Reg.15.7) but gas carriers not required to develop and implement a VOC management plan.
  44. 44. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 16 Shipboard Incineration
  45. 45. Requirements: - For Annex-VI compliance, the combustion chamber temperature should reach 600ºC within 5 minutes of start-up - All Incinerators should have a combustion flue gas outlettemperature monitoring system Regulation 16 - ship incinerators  All Incinerators installed after 01 Jan 2000 shall be Type Approved, as per IMO Specification for shipboard incinerators.  Incinerators installed before 24 May 2005 on domestic shipping can be excluded by the Administration (Reg. 16.6.2)  Operating manual, training, and temperature control (Reg. 16.7 – 16.9)
  46. 46. Shipboard incineration - Regulation 16  Prohibits incineration of (Reg.16.2):  MARPOL Annex I, II & III cargoes,  Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB),  garbage containing heavy metals,  refined petroleum products containing halogens,  exhaust gas cleaning system residues  Permits incineration of:  PVC –(where type approved to do so) (Reg.16.3)  Sewage sludge and sludge oil permitted in boilers but not when in ports, harbours and estuaries (Reg.16.)  Incineration outside (in drums, etc) prohibited
  47. 47. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 16 Reception Facilities
  48. 48. Regulation 17 – Reception Facilities  Parties obliged to provide facilities without causing delay for:  Reception of ODS in ship repair yards or ports (Reg.17.1.1)  Reception of Exhaust Gas Cleaning System residues in ports (Reg.17.1.2)  Reception of ODS in ship breaking facilities (Reg.17.1.3)  If unable to provide reception facilities then Party shall inform IMO (Reg.17.2 & 17.3)
  49. 49. MARPOL Annex VI – Regulation 16 Fuel oil availability
  50. 50.  Parties to promote availability of compliant fuel oils and inform IMO (Reg.18.1)  Ship found not to be in compliance (Reg.18.2.1) – Record of actions taken to achieve compliance – Need to demonstrate “best efforts” to obtain compliant fuel  Ship should not be required to deviate or delay unduly the voyage in order to achieve compliance (Reg.18.2.2)  Party required to take into account all relevant circumstances to determine action (Reg.18.2.3)  Ship required to notify Administration and port of destination when unable to purchase compliant fuel (Reg.18.2.4)  Party to notify when ship presents evidence of non-availability (Reg.18.2.5) Fuel Oil Availability – Regulation 18
  51. 51.  Required properties of fuel oil identified (Reg.18.3).  Excludes coal, nuclear and gas fuels from some of the provisions (Reg. 18.4).  When bunkering fuel oil …. It is required to receive a Bunker Delivery Note (BDN) containing information in Appendix V (Reg. 18.5).  BDN required to be retained for 3 years and be available for inspection (Reg. 18.6)  BDN accompanied by representative sample, taken in accordance to MEPC.96(47), which is retained under the ship’s control for 12 months (Reg.18.8.1).  Verification of bunker sample to be done in accordance with Appendix VI (Reg.18.8.2)  Inspection and verification by PSC (Reg.18.7.1 & Reg.18.7.2). Fuel oil quality – Regulation 18
  52. 52.  BDN to include the following information:  Name and IMO number of receiving ship  Port and Date of commencement of delivery  Name, address and telephone number of fuel supplier  Product name and Quantity  Density  Sulphur content (actual)  Declaration signed by supplier that the fuel oil conforms with Annex VI Regulations. Bunker Delivery Note - Regulation 18
  53. 53.  Parties are required to:  Maintain a register of local suppliers of fuel oil (Reg.18.9.1)  Require local suppliers of fuel oil to provide a certified BDN and sample (Reg.18.9.2), and retain a copy of the BDN for 3 years (Reg.18.9.3)  Take action against local suppliers of fuel oil (Reg.18.9.4)  Inform the Administration of a ship when the ship is found to be non-compliant (Reg.18.9.5)  Inform the IMO of all cases of non-compliant fuel oil being supplied (Reg.18.9.6) Local suppliers of fuel oil
  54. 54. Thank you for your attention ANY QUESTIONS? For more information please see: www.imo.org

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