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  1. 1. IT ELECTRONIC GROUP GRADUATE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT, IIUM INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR MANAGERS (INFO6600)Journal Review: E-Learning Tools and Student PerformanceQ.1) How is this journal linked to MIT?The journal is linked to Management Information System because all form of informationtechnology related to administration and management is MIT. The name of the journal isJournal of information technology education, it reflects that the journal beers informationabout technology education.Actually education /learning is a part of management, the journal beers information abouttechnology education so this journal is linked with MIT.Another important information about this journal is that the most authors’ writing in thisjournal their field is MIT.Q.2 why did your group pick this journal?Our group found the articles of the journal are important for our learning, that’s why ourgroup picked this joWhy do our group choose the article means the importance of the article :-User acceptance of E –learning tools in online and campus based classrooms has been animportant field of study for over two decades now. Although many models have beenproposed to explain and predict the use of a system,the Technology Acceptance Model has been the only one which has captured the mostAttention of the Information Systems community. Thus, it is essential for anyone willing tostudy user acceptance of technology to have an understanding of the TechnologyAcceptanceModel. This article provides a historical overview of the Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) by summarizing the evolution of TAM, its key applications, extensions, limitations,and criticisms from a selective list of published articles on the model. Current observationsindicate that although TAM is a highly cited model, researchers share mixed opinionsregarding its theoretical assumptions, and practical effectiveness. It is concluded thatresearchin TAM lacks sufficient rigor and relevance that would make it a well established theory forthe Information system(IS) community.
  2. 2. IT ELECTRONIC GROUPQ.3) what are the main ideas of the paper?It’s a study investigates the factors influencing student performance as reflected by their finalcourse grade Focusing on e-learning tools and their relationship to student performance in bothonline and campus-based classes. Data for this study were collected from students pursuing aBachelor of Business Administration, who were given the choice of enrolling in either the onlinesection or campus based classroom section of the same course during the Fall Semester of2009. Students’ performance in this study was based on multiple assessment measuresincluding exams, discussion, and individual project-based work, in this study, e-learning toolsare defined as the electronic delivery of learning materials and instruction over the internetsuch as(discussion forums and chat). The investigators determine 4 components used as aframework to measure the effectiveness of using e-learning tools as the following: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use:Perceived usefulness is the extent to which a person believes that using the system willenhance his or her job performance.Perceived ease of use is the extent to which a person believes that using the system will be freeof efforts. Computer Self EfficacySelf efficacy is a person’s perception regarding his or her ability to successfully execute abehavior required in accomplishing a desired outcome Computer AnxietyComputer anxiety is the Inclination of an individual to have a negative reaction whileconsidering computer usage. Ability to work independently( WORK)Work is the self-management of studies by working on one’s own initiative where a studenttakes more responsibility for his or her own learning.
  3. 3. IT ELECTRONIC GROUPTherefore the following hypothesis was formulated to explore the relationship between theperformance and the above mentioned components:H1: Perceived Ease of Use of e-learning tools will have a statistically significant correlation tothe course grade a student will achieve.H2: Perceived Usefulness of e-learning tools will have a statistically significant correlation to thecourse grade a student will achieve.H3: Computer Self-Efficacy will have a statistically significant correlation to the course grade astudent will achieve.H4: Computer Anxiety will have a statistically significant correlation to the course grade astudent will achieve.H5: The Ability to Work Independently will have a statistically significant correlation to thecourse grade a student will achieve.Finally the study demonstrated that PU, PEU and WORK were shown to be indeed related tofinal course grades; therefore H1, H2 and H5 do play an important role in performance in bothonline and campus based courses. This study did not find any statistically significant differencebetween the final grades of the two groups, thereby indicating that students were able toattain the course learning objectives at an equivalent level in both online and campus-basedsections using similar e-learning tools despite of this study was not concerned with finding anydifferences in performance between online and campus-based courses but aimed to explorethe effects of e-learning tools on performance.Q.4) How does the paper relate to any organization that you know?
  4. 4. IT ELECTRONIC GROUPQ.5)What are the main lessons learned from the paper?The proliferation of the personal computer was possible because of the applicationswritten for it. The continuous creation of new applications has created ample ground totest the technology. Acceptance model to determine how a user will decide to adopt suchapplications. The recent escalation of delivering online education via the Internet has againsparked a new dimension of information systems. This has given rise to research using theTechnology Acceptance Model for applications in the Education fields.Today’s modern classroom, whether online or campus based, uses e-learning ManagementSystem that capture student cognition and engages them in the learning process viatechnology, while increasing their need for self-directedness. In view of this, the presentstudy also considers the students, ability to work independently.The results of the statistical analysis used in this study revealed marked differences instudent perceptions of e-learning tools between students who choose to an online courseand students who preferred to take the campus-based section. Additionally, PerceivedUsefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and the students’ ability to work independently were allstatistically significant factors in predicting students/ final grades.E-learning defined as a computer networked technology to provide course material andcontent (Welsh, Wanberg, Brown & Simmering 2003). The Sloan Consortium hasconducted annual reports concerning DE trends in the United States. Sloan – C provides thefollowing definitions that are useful in distinguishing classroom types: - Traditional – Course without online technology used; therefore, 0% of content is delivered online, - Web Facilitated - Courses that used web-based technology to facilitate what is essentially a face-to-face course and may use a Learning Management System or web pages to post syllabus and assignments. Less than 30% of the content is delivered online. - Blended/Hybrid – Substantial proportion of content is delivered online, typically uses online discussions and has a reduced number of face-to-face meetings. 30- 79% of the content is delivered online, - Online –More than 80% of the content is delivered online. Typically there are no face-to-face meetings.Additionally, current trends in education confirm that instructors are shifting away fromauthoritarian and non interactive courses. Students have gained control in their course
  5. 5. IT ELECTRONIC GROUPwith the aid of two way communication, as well as group-oriented activities. Student self-directed courses use audio, videotapes, and other web-based recourseQ.6) What are some limitations of the paper in your view and how can these be addressed?There are several limitations that have been recognized from this paper. For an exampleare the study was limited only to one campus only where the sample are the Hispanicstudent population. Therefore, the result cannot be generalize to more culturally diversepopulation. In practice, the sample size used in a study is determined based on the expenseof data collection and the need to have sufficient statistical power.This limitation can be addressed by increase the volume of sample size, so that it willprovide more insight into various e- learning tools and their relationship to performance.Larger sample sizes generally lead to increased precision. the sample size also must haveconcluded students from various majors and different background such age , skills andexperience.Other than that, this paper also limit the sample to instructors who kept both of thesesections as similar as possible, using the same text and almost identical course content. Forfuture research, we gave to spread it to others instructors.This paper choose to take grades as the performance measure. This only limit the result ofthe study. Researcher can use other method in order to measure the result such as coursesatisfaction, by using questionnaires. A questionnaire is essentially a structured techniquefor collecting primary data. It is generally a series of written question for which therespondent has to provide the answer. Other method is by using interview. Interview areuseful tool which can lead to further research using other methodologies such asobservation and experiment. Interview can have one of two basic structures: they can beeither structured or unstructured. Thus, more than one method will provide a wellrounded, richer study.We also can implementing testing before and after a student participates in a course with e-learning tools to measure the differential gains of student perception of e- learning tools.This paper suggest that for future research, we can try to investigate the effectiveness ofhybrid courses to determined the best combination of campus based versus DistanceEducation interactions.