Part I -Summary of service oriented architecture (soa) concepts, technology, and design Part I -

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my Summary of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): Concepts, Technology, and Design by thomas erl
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Part I -Summary of service oriented architecture (soa) concepts, technology, and design Part I -

  1. 1. 1 Summary of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): Concepts, Technology, and Design P a r t 1 c h - 1 t o 5 B y M o h a m m e d O m a r , P M P , T O G A F , C I S A , I T I L 19-Sep-2013 These notes, extracts and excerpts are from Thomas Erl famous book Architecture (SOA): Concepts, Technology, and Design
  2. 2. 2 Chapters 1-5 Standards" vs. "Specifications" vs. "Extensions" Standard An accepted industry standard. Specification Describes the standard Extension represents a feature provided by the specification. starting with an XML foundation architecture not web-service SOA and web services SOA is an architecture design that could be realized. Through any Suitable technology platform such as web services SOA is the specification. And web services is the realizing technology I Primitive SOA The primitive SOA. It is labeled as such because it represents a baseline technology architecture that is supported by current major vendor platforms 1-How services encapsulate logic To retain their independence, services encapsulate logic within a distinct context. This context can be specific to a business task, a business entity, or some other logical grouping. service logic can encompass the logic provided by other services. In this case, one or more services are composed into a collective
  3. 3. 3 when building an automation solution consisting of services, each service can encapsulate - a task performed by an individual step or - a sub-process comprised of a set of steps. - And even encapsulate the entire process logic. In the latter two cases, the larger scope represented by the services may encompass the logic encapsulated by other services. 2-How services relate based on an understanding that for services to interact, they must be aware of each other. This awareness is achieved through the use of service descriptions. A service description in its most basic format establishes the name of the service and the data expected and returned by the service. The manner in which services use service descriptions results in a relationship classified as loosly coupled or messaging 3-How services communicate After a service sends a message it loses control of what happens to the message That is why we require messages to exist as "independent units of communication." This means that messages, like services, should be autonomous. To that effect, messages can be outfitted with enough intelligence to self-govern their parts of the processing logic ( self governing message) 4-How services are designed
  4. 4. 4 Key design principles are - Loose coupling Services maintain a relationship that minimizes dependenc - Service contract Services adhere to a communications agreement, as defined collectively by one or more service descriptions and related documents. - Autonomy Services have control over the logic they encapsulate. - Abstraction Beyond what is described in the service contract, services hide logic from the outside world. - Reusability Logic is divided into services with the intention of promoting reuse. - Composability Collections of services can be coordinated and assembled to form composite services. - Statelessness Services minimize retaining information specific to an activity. - Discoverability Services are designed to be outwardly descriptive so that they can be found and assessed via available discovery mechanisms Common characteristics of contemporary SOA Contemporary SOA builds upon the primitive SOA model by leveraging industry and technology advancements to further its original ideals. Though the required implementation technology can vary. 1-SOA increases quality of service To bring SOA to a point where it can implement enterprise-level functionality as safely and reliably as the more established distributed architectures already do it must adhere to common quality of service requirements
  5. 5. 5 - The ability for tasks to be carried out in a secure manner,protecting the contents of a message, as well as access to individual services. - Allowing tasks to be carried out reliably so that message delivery or notification of failed delivery can be guaranteed. - Performance requirements to ensure that the overhead imposed by SOAP message and XML content processing does not inhibit the execution of a task. - Transactional capabilities to protect the integrity of specific business tasks. 2-SOA is fundamentally autonomous individual services must be as independent and self-contained as possible with respect to the control they maintain over their underlying logic. This is further realized through message-level autonomy where messages passed between services are sufficiently intelligence-heavy that they can control the manner in which they are processed by recipient services. 3-based on open standards (open, vendor-neutral communications framework) the message itself is standardized, both in format and in how it represents its payload. The use of SOAP, WSDL, XML, and XML Schema After a message is sent from one Web service to another it travels via a set of protocols that is globally standardized and accepted 4-SOA supports vendor diversity The open communications framework allows organizations to choose best-of-breed environments for specific applications as long as it supports the creation of standard Web services, it can be used to create a non-proprietary service interface layer, opening up interoperability opportunities with other, service-capable applications . This, incidentally, has changed the face of integration architectures, which now can encapsulate legacy logic through
  6. 6. 6 service adapters, and leverage middleware advancements based on Web services. 5-promotes discovery SOA supports and encourages the advertisement and discovery of services SOA will likely rely on some form of service registry or directory to manage service descriptions In the early days of services discovery was not adopted by because When utilized within traditional distributed architectures, Web services were more often employed to facilitate point-to-point solution 6- promotes federation the ability to encapsulate legacy and non-legacy application logic and by exposing it via a common, open, and standardized communications framework By extensive adapter technology marketplace 6-SOA promotes architectural composability Composability is a deep-rooted characteristic of SOA that can be realized on different levels As previously mentioned, services exist as independent units of logic. A business process can therefore be broken down into a series of services, each responsible for executing a portion of the process. A broader example of composability is represented by the second- generation Web services framework that is evolving out of the release of the numerous WS-* specifications. The modular nature of these specifications allows an SOA to be composed of only the functional building blocks it requires. Because Web services specifications are being designed specifically to leverage the SOAP messaging model. Individual specifications consist of modular extensions that provide one or more specific features. As the offering of WS-* extensions
  7. 7. 7 supported by a given vendor platform grows, the flexibility to compose allows you to continue building solutions that only implement the features you actually need In other words, the WS-* platform allows for the creation of streamlined and optimized service-oriented architectures, applications, services, and even messages. 7-SOA emphasizes extensibility When expressing encapsulated functionality through a service description, SOA encourages you to think beyond immediate, point-to-point communication requirements. When service logic is properly partitioned via an appropriate level of interface granularity, the scope of functionality offered by a service can sometimes be extended without breaking the established interface 8- SOA adopt intrinsic interoperability Using of open standards, a vendor diverse environment, and the availability of a discovery mechanism, is the concept of intrinsic interoperability. When building an SOA application from the ground up, services with intrinsic interoperability become potential integration endpoints When properly standardized, this leads to service-oriented integration architectures wherein solutions themselves achieve a level of intrinsic interoperability. 9-SOA implements layers of abstraction SOAs can introduce layers of abstraction by positioning services as the sole access .by establishing a layer of endpoints that represent entire solutions and technology platforms, all of the proprietary details associated with these environments disappear The only remaining concern is the functionality offered via the service interfaces 10-SOA promotes loose coupling throughout the enterprise
  8. 8. 8 building a technical architecture with loosely coupled services is the resulting independence of service logic. Services only require an awareness of each other, allowing them to evolve independently By implementing standardized service abstraction layers, a loosely coupled relationship also can be achieved between the business and application technology domains of an enterprise Each end only requires an awareness of the other, therefore allowing each domain to evolve more independently. The result is an environment that can better accommodate business and technology-related changea quality known as organizational agility 11-SOA promotes organizational agility Business agility and flexibility is the aim of most enterprises today and that must be secured by IT Divisions ,organization's ability to accommodate change determines the efficiency with which it can respond to unplanned events. By leveraging service business representation, service abstraction, and the loose coupling between business and application logic provided through the use of service layers, SOA offers the potential to increase organizational agility Defining SOA SOA represents an open, agile, extensible, federated, compostable architecture comprised of autonomous, QoS-capable, vendor diverse, interoperable, discoverable, and reusable services , implemented as Web services “Common tangible benefits of SOA” - “Improved integration (and intrinsic interoperability)” - Inherent reuse - “Streamlined architectures and solutions” - “Realizing this benefit requires adherence to design standards that govern allowable extensions within each application
  9. 9. 9 environment. Benefits of streamlined solutions and architectures include the potential for reduced processing overhead and reduced skill-set requirements (because technical resources require only the knowledge of a given application, service, or service extension). - Leveraging the legacy investment” - Organizational agility - Using ESB you can decouple business from application any change in business rules will only impact business rules engine - “best-of-breed" technology. Because SOA establishes a vendor- neutral communications framework, it frees IT departments from being chained to a single proprietary development and/or middleware platform.” - “Establishing standardized XML data representation” “understanding SOA performance requirements” “SOA's reliance on Web services deepens its dependence on XML data representation, which, in turn, can magnify XML processing- related performance challenges. For example, Web services security measures, such as encryption and digital signing, add new layers of processing to both the senders and recipients of messages. Critical to building a successful service-oriented solution is understanding the performance requirements of your solution and the performance limitations of your infrastructure ahead of time. This means: - Testing the message processing capabilities of your environments prior to investing in Web services. - Stress-testing the vendor supplied processors (for XML, XSLT, SOAP, etc.) you are planning to use. - Exploring alternative processors, accelerators, or other types of supporting technology, if necessary. For example, the XML-binary Optimized Packaging (XOP) and SOAP Message Transmission
  10. 10. 10 Optimization Mechanism (MTOM) specifications developed by the W3C. (For more information, visit www.w3c.org.) Performance is also one of the reasons coarse-grained service interfaces and asynchronous messaging are emphasized when building Web services. . The Evolution of SOA SOA as an architecture modeled around three basic components: the service requestor, the service provider, and the service registry First-generation Web services standards fulfilled this model as follows: - WSDL described the service. - SOAP provided the messaging format used by the service and its requestor. - UDDI provided the standardized service registry and discovery format. Service design We explore both of these design classifications in the following two sections: - service roles (temporary classifications) according to the situation - service models (permanent classifications) A Web service is capable of assuming different roles, depending on the context within which it is used Roles 5 roles
  11. 11. 11 1-Service provider 2-Service requester or consumer 3-Intermediary Traditional point to point communication is less flexible and not scalable anther design is Intermediaries 1- passive eg load balancing service 2- active
  12. 12. 12 3- initial sender ultimate receiver Initial senders are simply service requestors that initiate the transmission of a message. Therefore, the initial sender is always the first Web service in a message path. The counterpart to this role is the ultimate receiver. This label identifies service providers that exist as the last Web service along a message's path 4-Service compositions Any service can enlist one or more additional services to complete a given task. Further, any of the enlisted services can call other services to complete a given sub-task. Therefore, each service that participates in a composition assumes an individual role of service composition member Service models
  13. 13. 13 1-Business service model business service represents the most fundamental building block. It encapsulates a distinct set of business logic within a well-defined functional boundary. It is fully autonomous ,as business services are frequently expected to participate in service compositions. it represents a corporate entity or information 2-Utility service model Any generic Web service or service agent designed for potential reuse can be classified as a utility service. The key to achieving this classification is that the reusable functionality be completely generic and non-application specific in nature ex load balancer service or HijDate service
  14. 14. 14 3-Controller service model acting as the parent service to service composition members Service compositions are comprised of a set of independent services that each contribute to the execution of the overall business task. The assembly and coordination of these services is often a task in itself and one that can be assigned as the primary function of a dedicated service or as the secondary function of a service that is fully capable of executing a business task independently. The controller service fulfills this role. Service descriptions (with WSDL) Service endpoints and service descriptions A WSDL describes the point of contact for a service provider, also known as the service endpoint or just endpoint. It provides a formal definition of the endpoint interface (so that requestors wishing to communicate with the service provider know exactly how to structure request messages) and also establishes the physical location (address) of the service.
  15. 15. 15 A WSDL service description can be separated into two parts: - abstract description - concrete description WSDL definitions stored implementation information separately from the actual interface design. This resulted in an interface definition that existed independently from the transport protocols to which it was eventually bound Abstract description An abstract description establishes the interface characteristics of the Web service without any reference to the technology used to host or enable a Web service to transmit messages. By separating this information, the integrity of the service description can be preserved regardless of what changes might occur to the underlying technology platform. three main parts that comprise an abstract description portType, operation, and message The parent portType section of an abstract description provides a high-level view of the service interface by sorting the messages a service can process into groups of functions known as operations. Each operation represents a specific action performed by the service. A service operation is comparable to a public method used by components in traditional distributed applications. Much like component methods, operations also have input and output parameters. Because Web services rely exclusively on messaging- based communication, parameters are represented as messages. Therefore, an operation consists of a set of input and output messages
  16. 16. 16 The term "portType" is being renamed to "interface" in version 2.0 of the WSDL specification. Concrete description Represents the real, implemented technology. Because the execution of service application logic always involves communication, the abstract Web service interface needs to be connected to a physical transport protocol. This connection is defined in the concrete description portion of the WSDL file, which consists of three related parts: binding, port, and service A WSDL description's binding describes the requirements for a service to establish physical connections or for connections to be established with the service. In other words, a binding represents one possible transport technology the service can use to communicate. SOAP is the most common form of binding, but others also are supported. A binding can apply to an entire interface or just a specific operation. Related to the binding is the port, which represents the physical address at which a service can be accessed with a specific protocol. This piece of physical implementation data exists separately to allow location information to be maintained independently from other aspects of the concrete description. Within the WSDL language, the term service is used to refer to a group of related endpoints. Note The term "port" is being renamed "endpoint" in version 2.0 of the WSDL specification.
  17. 17. 17 Content of HelloService.wsdl file <definitions name="HelloService" targetNamespace="http://www.examples.com/wsdl/HelloService.w sdl" xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/" xmlns:soap="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/soap/" xmlns:tns="http://www.examples.com/wsdl/HelloService.wsdl" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"> <message name="SayHelloRequest"> <part name="firstName" type="xsd:string"/> </message> <message name="SayHelloResponse"> <part name="greeting" type="xsd:string"/> </message> <portType name="Hello_PortType"> <operation name="sayHello"> <input message="tns:SayHelloRequest"/> <output message="tns:SayHelloResponse"/> </operation> </portType> <binding name="Hello_Binding" type="tns:Hello_PortType"> <soap:binding style="rpc" transport="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/http"/> <operation name="sayHello"> <soap:operationsoapAction="sayHello"/> <input> <soap:body encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/" namespace="urn:examples:helloservice"
  18. 18. 18 use="encoded"/> </input> <output> <soap:body encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/" namespace="urn:examples:helloservice" use="encoded"/> </output> </operation> </binding> <service name="Hello_Service"> <documentation>WSDL File for HelloService</documentation> <port binding="tns:Hello_Binding" name="Hello_Port"> <soap:address location="http://www.examples.com/SayHello/"> </port> </service> </definitions> Metadata and service contracts
  19. 19. 19 WSDL definitions frequently rely on XSD schemas to formalize the structure of incoming and outgoing messages. Another common supplemental service description document is a policy. Policies can provide rules, preferences, and processing details above and beyond what is expressed through the WSDL and XSD schema documents. So now we have up to three separate documents that each describe an aspect of a service: - WSDL definition
  20. 20. 20 - XSD schema - policy Each of these three service description documents can be classified as service metadata, as each provides information about the service. Service description documents can be collectively viewed as establishing a service contracta set of conditions that must be met and accepted by a potential service requestor to enable successful communication. Note that a service contract can refer to additional documents or agreements not expressed by service descriptions. For example, a Service Level Agreement (SLA) agreed upon by the respective owners of a service provider and its requestor can be considered part of an overall service contract Semantic description the most challenging part of providing a complete description of a Web service is in communicating its semantic qualities. Most of the time service semantics are assessed by humans, either verbally by discussing the qualities of a service with its owner, or by reading supplementary documentation published alongside service descriptions Examples of service semantics include: - how a service behaves under certain conditions - how a service will respond to a specific condition - what specific tasks the service is most suited for UDDI Service description advertisement and discovery
  21. 21. 21 Public registries accept registrations from any organizations, Private registries can be implemented within organization boundaries to provide a central repository for descriptions of all services the organization develops, leases, or purchases. Following are descriptions of the primary parts that comprise UDDI registry records. Business entities and business services Each public registry record consists of a business entity containing basic profile information about the organization (or service provider entity). Included in this record are one or more business service areas, each of which provides a description of the services offered by the business entity. Binding templates and tModels
  22. 22. 22 Registry records follow the same logic in that they store binding information in a separate area, called the binding template. Each business service can reference one or more binding templates. The information contained in a binding template may or may not relate to an actual service. For example, a binding template may simply point to the address of a Web site. However, if a Web service is being represented, then the binding template references a tModel. The tModel section of a UDDI record provides pointers to actual service description <businessEntitybusinessKey="uuid:C0E6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA- 70E212685A40" operator="http://www.ibm.com" authorizedName="John Doe"> <name>Acme Company</name> <description> We create cool Web services </description> <contacts> <contact useType="general info"> <description>General Information</description> <personName>John Doe</personName> <phone>(123) 123-1234</phone> <email>jdoe@acme.com</email> </contact> </contacts> <businessServices> ... </businessServices> <identifierBag> <keyedReference tModelKey="UUID:8609C81E-EE1F-4D5A-B202- 3EB13AD01823"
  23. 23. 23 name="D-U-N-S" value="123456789" /> </identifierBag> <categoryBag> <keyedReference tModelKey="UUID:C0B9FE13-179F-413D-8A5B- 5004DB8E5BB2" name="NAICS" value="111336" /> </categoryBag> </businessEntity> <businessServiceserviceKey="uuid:D6F1B765-BDB3-4837- 828D-8284301E5A2A" businessKey="uuid:C0E6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA- 70E212685A40"> <name>Hello World Web Service</name> <description>A friendly Web service</description> <bindingTemplates> ... </bindingTemplates> <categoryBag /> </businessService> <bindingTemplateserviceKey="uuid:D6F1B765-BDB3-4837- 828D-8284301E5A2A" bindingKey="uuid:C0E6D5A8-C446-4f01-99DA- 70E212685A40"> <description>Hello World SOAP Binding</description> <accessPointURLType="http"> http://localhost:8080 </accessPoint> <tModelInstanceDetails> <tModelInstanceInfo
  24. 24. 24 tModelKey="uuid:EB1B645F-CF2F-491f-811A- 4868705F5904"> <instanceDetails> <overviewDoc> <description> references the description of the WSDL service definition </description> <overviewURL> http://localhost/helloworld.wsdl </overviewURL> </overviewDoc> </instanceDetails> </tModelInstanceInfo> </tModelInstanceDetails> </bindingTemplate> <tModeltModelKey="uuid:xyz987..." operator="http://www.ibm.com" authorizedName="John Doe"> <name>HelloWorldInterface Port Type</name> <description> An interface for a friendly Web service </description> <overviewDoc> <overviewURL> http://localhost/helloworld.wsdl </overviewURL> </overviewDoc> </tModel> Messaging (with SOAP)
  25. 25. 25 As of version 1.2 of the SOAP specification, the word "SOAP" is no longer an acronym that stands for "Simple Object Access Protocol." It is now considered a standalone term. Envelope, header, and body Every SOAP message is packaged into a container known as an envelope. Much like the metaphor this conjures up, the envelope is responsible for housing all parts of the message Each message can contain a header, an area dedicated to hosting meta information. In most service-oriented solutions, this header section is a vital part of the overall architecture
  26. 26. 26 The actual message contents are hosted by the message body, which typically consists of XML formatted data. The contents of a message body are often referred to as the message payload Header blocks Message independence is implemented through the use of header blocks, packets of supplementary meta information stored in the envelope's header area. Header blocks outfit a message with all of the information required for any services with which the message comes in contact to process and route the message in accordance with its accompanying rules, instructions, and properties. What this means is that through the use of header blocks, SOAP messages are capable of containing a large variety of supplemental information related to the delivery and processing of message contents The use of header blocks has elevated the Web services framework to an extensible and composable enterprise-level computing platform. Practically all WS-* extensions are implemented using header blocks. Examples of the types of features a message can be outfitted with using header blocks include: - processing instructions that may be executed by service intermediaries or the ultimate receiver - routing or workflow information associated with the message - security measures implemented in the messagereliability rules related to the delivery of the message - context and transaction management information - correlation information (typically an identifier used to associate a request message with a response message) Message styles
  27. 27. 27 theWSDL binding element that we need to take a closer look at. A WSDL binding describes how the service is bound to a messaging protocol, either HTTP GET/POST, MIME, or SOAP. In practice, SOAP is the most universally used protocol; it is SOAP that the RPC/document distinction refers to. Usually HTTP(S) is used as transport protocol for the SOAP message – "SOAP over HTTP(S)." The <wsdl:binding> element of the WSDL contains a pair of parameters that influence the form of the resulting SOAP messages: binding style (RPC or document) and use (encoded or literal). See how style and use are defined in the WSDL fragment below: The "Style" Attribute WSDL 1.1 specifies the style of the binding as either RPC or document. This choice corresponds to how the SOAP payload - i.e., how the contents of the <soap:Body> element - can be structured. Here are some details of how each style affects the contents of <soap:Body>: - Document: the content of <soap:Body> is specified by XML Schema defined in the <wsdl:type> section. It does not need to follow specific SOAP conventions. In short, the SOAP message is sent as one "document" in the <soap:Body> element without additional formatting rules having to be considered. Document style is the default choice. - RPC: The structure of an RPC style <soap:Body> element needs to comply with the rules specified in detail in Section 7 of the SOAP 1.1 specification. According to these rules, <soap:Body> may contain only one element that is named after the operation, and all parameters must be represented as sub-elements of this wrapper element.
  28. 28. 28 . SOAP has its roots in synchronous remote procedure calls over HTTP and the appearance of the document accordingly followed these conventions. Later, it was seen as a simplification to use arbitrary XML in the SOAP body without adhering to conventions. This preference is reflected in the document style WSDL documents. So far, both options are represented in the WSDL specification and the choice of one or the other is mainly a question of personal taste since most SOAP clients today accept both versions. The "Use" Attribute The use attribute specifies the encoding rules of the SOAP message. This is also done within the <wsdl:binding> element, as seen in the example above. The value can be encoded or literal. It refers to the serialization rules followed by the SOAP client and the SOAP server to interpret the contents of the <Body> element in the SOAP payload. use="literal" means that the type definitions literally follow an XML schema definition. use="encoded" refers to the representation of application data in XML, usually according to the SOAP encoding rules of the SOAP 1.1 specification. Example base 64 encoding The combination of the style and use attributes leads to four possible style/use pairs: - RPC/encoded - RPC/literal - document/encoded - document/literal
  29. 29. 29 Some of these combinations are rarely used in practice, such as document/encoded. In general, the literal use is gaining importance, and as far as RPC/encoded is concerned, the Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS-I) in its Basic Profile Version 1.0a of August 2003 ruled out the use of SOAP encoding with web services. Document/literal and RPC/literal will be the only allowed style/use combinations in the future. The SOAP specification was originally designed to replace proprietary RPC protocols by allowing calls between distributed components to be serialized into XML documents, transported, and then deserialized into the native component format upon arrival. As a result, much in the original version of this specification centered around the structuring of messages to accommodate RPC data. SOA relies on document-style messages to enable larger payloads, coarser interface operations, and reduced message transmission volumes between services Here is the SOAP request: POST /Quotation HTTP/1.0 Host: www.xyz.org Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8 Content-Length: nnn <?xml version="1.0"?> <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap-envelope" SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap- encoding"> <SOAP-ENV:Bodyxmlns:m="http://www.xyz.org/quotations"> <m:GetQuotation>
  30. 30. 30 <m:QuotationsName>MiscroSoft</m:QuotationsName> </m:GetQuotation> </SOAP-ENV:Body> </SOAP-ENV:Envelope> A corresponding SOAP response will look like : HTTP/1.0 200 OK Content-Type: text/xml; charset=utf-8 Content-Length: nnn <?xml version="1.0"?> <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap-envelope" SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap- encoding"> <SOAP-ENV:Bodyxmlns:m="http://www.xyz.org/quotation"> <m:GetQuotationResponse> <m:Quotation>Here is the quotation</m:Quotation> </m:GetQuotationResponse> </SOAP-ENV:Body> </SOAP-ENV:Envelope> Header <?xml version="1.0"?> <SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap-envelope" SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap- encoding"> <SOAP-ENV:Header> <t:Transaction xmlns:t="http://www.tutorialspoint.com/transaction/" SOAP-ENV:mustUnderstand="true">5</t:Transaction> </SOAP-ENV:Header> ...
  31. 31. 31 ... </SOAP-ENV:Envelope> Messages Envelope, header, and body Every SOAP message is packaged into a container known as an envelope. Much like the metaphor this conjures up, the envelope is responsible for housing all parts of the message Service endpoints and service descriptions Attachments To facilitate requirements for the delivery of data not so easily formatted into an XML document, the use of SOAP attachment technologies exist. Each provides a different encoding mechanism used to bundle data in its native format with a SOAP message. SOAP attachments are commonly employed to transport binary files, such as images Faults Finally, SOAP messages offer the ability to add exception handling logic by providing an optional fault section that can reside within the body area. The typical use for this section is to store a simple message used to deliver error condition information when an exception occurs Node types As with the services that use them, the underlying SOAP nodes are given labels that identify their type, depending on what form of
  32. 32. 32 processing they are involved with in a given message processing scenario. Below is a list of type labels associated with SOAP nodes (in accordance with the standard SOAP Processing Model). You'll notice that these names are very similar to the Web service roles we discussed at the beginning of this chapter. The SOAP specification has a different use for the term "role" and instead refers to these SOAP types or labels as concepts. 1. SOAP sendera SOAP node that transmits a message 2. SOAP receivera SOAP node that receives a message 3. SOAP intermediarya SOAP node that receives and transmits a message, and optionally processes the message prior to transmission 4. initial SOAP senderthe first SOAP node to transmit a message 5. ultimate SOAP receiverthe last SOAP node to receive a message SOAP intermediaries The same way service intermediaries transition through service provider and service requestor roles, SOAP intermediary nodes move through SOAP receiver and SOAP sender types when processing a message SOAP nodes acting as intermediaries can be classified as forwarding or active. When a SOAP node acts as a forwarding intermediary, it is responsible for relaying the contents of a message to a subsequent SOAP node. In doing so, the intermediary will often process and alter header block information relating to the forwarding logic it is executing. For example, it will remove a
  33. 33. 33 header block it has processed, as well as any header blocks that cannot be relayed any further. Active intermediary nodes are distinguished by the type of processing they perform above and beyond forwarding-related functions. An active intermediary is not required to limit its processing logic to the rules and instructions provided in the header blocks of a message it receives. It can alter existing header blocks, insert new ones, and execute a variety of supporting actions. Message paths A message path refers to the route taken by a message from when it is first sent until it arrives at its ultimate destination. Therefore, a message path consists of at least one initial sender, one ultimate receiver, and zero or more intermediaries. Mapping and modeling message paths becomes an increasingly important exercise in SOAs, as the amount of intermediary services tends to grow along with the expansion of a service-oriented solution. Design considerations relating to the path a message is required to travel often center around performance, security, context management, and reliable messaging concerns. Note also that a message path is sometimes not predetermined. The use of header blocks processed by intermediaries can dynamically determine the path of a message. This may be the result of routing logic, workflow logic, or environmental condition

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