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Quality Management


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The seven quality tools for problems solving. A practical guide on implementation and usage within the industrial process.

The presentation content:
1. Brainstorming
2. Case Study: Brainstorming the Causes of a Defective Capacitor
3. Fault-Tree Analysis + Example
4. Cause and Effect Diagram (5Whys)
5. Pareto Analysis & Pareto Diagram
6. Case Study.1: Tackling Defects in the Polyurethane Foam Cushions
7. Case Study.2: Tackling the Reasons of Low Productivity and Eliminate the Root Causes
8. Process Flow Chart & Process Mapping
9. Case Study.1: Improving the Process of Manufacturing a Die-Cut Envelopes
10. Case Study.2: Improving the Planned Maintenance Process
11. Implementation of 5S and Other Improvement Methodologies
12. Continuous Improvement Cycle
13. Cost of Quality
14. Toyota Recalls

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Quality Management

  1. 1. Quality Management 1
  2. 2. 2 The 7 Quality Tools of Problems Solving Presented by:- Eng. Mohammed Hamed Quality Management
  3. 3. 3 Content 1. Brainstorming 2. Case Study: Brainstorming the Causes of a Defective Capacitor 3. Fault-Tree Analysis + Example 4. Cause and Effect Diagram (5Whys) 5. Pareto Analysis & Pareto Diagram 6. Case Study.1: Tackling Defects in the Polyurethane Foam Cushions 7. Case Study.2: Tackling the Reasons of Low Productivity and Eliminate the Root Causes 8. Process Flow Chart & Process Mapping 9. Case Study.1: Improving the Process of Manufacturing a Die-Cut Envelopes 10. Case Study.2: Improving the Planned Maintenance Process 11. Implementation of 5S and Other Improvement Methodologies 12. Continuous Improvement Cycle 13. Cost of Quality Quality Management
  4. 4. 4Quality Management
  5. 5. 5 Brainstorming- A Downpour of Ideas Brainstorming is a well-known technique for generating a large number of ideas in a short time period. It serves as a tool for identifying problems and causes. To encourage ideas, no idea should be critiqued or commented when offered. Each idea should be listed and numbered, exactly as offered on a flip chart. Expect to generate at least 50 to 60 ideas in a 30 minutes brainstorming session. Quality Management
  6. 6. Quality Management 6 Brainstorming helps to collect the data needed for any Total Quality Management Process
  7. 7. 7 Brainstorming rules: 1. Do not comment on, judge or critique ideas as offered. 2. Encourage creative and offbeat ideas. 3. A large number of ideas is the goal. 4. Evaluate ideas later. When the brainstorming session is over, the ideas should be reviewed, similar ideas combined, and ideas that do not seem to fit eliminated. Quality Management Brainstorming is a group problem-solving method. It taps people creative ability to identify and solve problems, and brings out a lot of ideas in a very short time. Because it is a group process, it help builds people as human beings. For example, brainstorming encourages individual members to contribute to the group and to develop trust for the other members.
  8. 8. Quality Management 8 What is needed for brainstorming? 1. A group willing to work together You may feel it is impossible that the group you work with will never be a team. However, brainstorming can be a key to build a team! Furthermore, it is a great tool for the group which is already working together. Who should be included in the group? Everyone who is concerned for the problem for two reasons: the ideas for everyone who concerned with the problem will be available for the brainstorm. Second, those people can take an active part in solving the problem. In that way they can be got to support the solution.
  9. 9. Quality Management 9 2. A leader The main roles of the leader are: • Provide some guidance so that brainstorm will produce ideas • Control over the group to keep them on track. • Encourage people’s ideas and participation. • Put the personal goals aside for the benefit of the group. 3. A meeting place A place where there is no interruption or distraction. In some plants, groups use a foreman office, an area on the production floor, or even a conference room.
  10. 10. Quality Management 10 4. Equipment Flipcharts, markers, and white boards. How does a brainstorm work? • Choose a subject for the brainstorm. • Make sure that everyone understand what the problem or the topic is. • Each person is to take a turn an express one idea. If someone can’t think of anything, he or she says “pass”. If someone thinks of an idea when it is not his turn, he may wright it down on a paper and use it at his next turn. • Write down each idea exactly as expressed. • Make sure to write all ideas and don’t reject any. • Encourage wild ideas, they may trigger someone’s else thinking.
  11. 11. Quality Management 11 • Hold criticism until after the session. • The main goal is quantity and creativity. • A little laughter is fun and healthy but don’t overdo. It is O.K to laugh with someone but not at them. • Allow few hours or days for further thoughts (if needed). The first brainstorm on a subject will stimulate people to start thinking, but an incubation period allow mind to release more creative ideas and thoughts.
  12. 12. Quality Management 12 Example: Conducting a Brainstorming Session
  13. 13. Quality Management 13 Brainstorming the Causes of a Defective Capacitor
  14. 14. Quality Management 14 This group include five people: Samy, the leader; Farouk; Mohammed; Gamal, the recorder, and Ahmed. Since they have been meeting for only a short time and the members have not had much experience with brainstorming, the leader has to do most of the work of keeping them on track. As the group gains experience, other members should begin to share the work of the leadership. Samy: I think it’s time to brainstorm for causes of defective capacitors. Gamal, since you are good at flip chart, could you help us there? Gamal: Yes of course. Samy: Let us put a 15 minutes time limit on the session. And don’t forget the rules: We will go around from person to another, one idea at time. Don’t worry if your idea sound strange. After all, even if your idea is a wild one, it may stimulate somebody else. No evaluations. We will have plenty of time afterward to look at the ideas. Ok are you ready? (Everybody agrees.)
  15. 15. Quality Management 15 Farouk, your turn. Farouk: Vendor (Gamal writes down, VENDOR). Mohammed: I have seen dents in some of them. And I think that a dent on the outside means something breaks or gets squeezed or some how messed up inside….. Samy: Mohammed, you are saying “dents”. Is that right? Mohammed: No, I mean dents show us there is a problem inside. Samy: Can we abbreviate it to read: “Dents show inside problem”? (Mohammed nods “O.K” Samy: Gamal, it’s your turn.
  16. 16. Quality Management 16 Gamal: I think I will pass this time. Ahmed: The leads to the capacitor sometimes don’t get soldered well. So that makes it look like a defective capacitor. Gamal: How do I write that? “Soldering of leads”? Ahmed: Yup that’s O.K. Samy: My turn. I will build on Farouk’s idea of “vendor”. May be its only on of them that is really the problem and not all of them. Gamal write “One Vendor” Farouk: Seems to me the shape of AX12’s is the problem. They remind me of the toilet seats cover. (Much Laughter). Samy: Let’s get back to the subject. Farouk, may have something there. So Samy write “Shape of AX12’s”.
  17. 17. Quality Management 17 Encouraging ideas: priming the pump again If the brainstorming session seems to slow down, the leader may suggest piggybacking. Piggybacking is building on others’ ideas. For example, if one of the team members has suggested the vendor as a cause of the problem, another one might say “one vendor” not all of them could be the reason of the problem. Another technique is to suggest opposites. For example, too much & too little. Prodding Techniques Sooner or later the downpours of ideas in the brainstorm dries up. What do you do to get it going again? Or what do you do with the silent member who doesn't participate?
  18. 18. Quality Management 18 Dealing with the silent member When a member of the group doesn't speak up, the best way to deal with this is to be patient. Sometimes a person will be quite for a meeting after meeting then he will open up. It will be then very exciting, so give this persons a time. May be he/she will be quite, but will serve the group with some other ways. A simple effective method to bring the silent member, is to remind the whole group that when each person’s turn comes in the brainstorm, he or she just says “Pass” if not ready with an idea. That gets people of the hock but it also breaks the sound barrier. They hear their own voices and participate by saying “Pass.”
  19. 19. Quality Management 19 The direct question is another method, but you must use it with care. Something like” Mohammed, you know the process well, do you have a suggestion or input here?” The second session After the initial brainstorm and sometime for further thinking, it’s a good idea to have another session to capture more ideas. These ideas come into mind as the group member think about the problem and consider what was said in the first session.
  20. 20. Quality Management 20 Two ways to handle the second session: 1. Gather all group together and give them a time limit of 10-12 minutes for additional ideas. The same rules applied as in the first session. 2. Post the brainstorming sheets in the area of the workplace so that it will allow people who work in the same area to contribute even if they are not a regular members of the problem-solving group. In that way they feel they are not left out. Completing a brainstorm How do you make sure that brainstorming has covered all possible causes of a problem?
  21. 21. Quality Management 21 Sometimes the solution lies in a search lab, where only a high trained expert has a chance of digging it out. Often, so, the solutions are right on your doorstep. Even if you don’t solve the problem right away, you can make sure that you have covered all the general areas of possible causes. Make a list of the general areas, and make sure that your group or team has examined every one of them. Such a list would include a number of subjects. There are some major factors that go into an operation: machine, method, material, environment, and people. Machine include: the type of the machine, the maintenance, and the setting. Materials are the elements that come to the process, whether they are raw material, sub- assemblies, components, or partially processed materials. Method concerns the process itself.
  22. 22. Quality Management 22 Environment is important too, humidity, dust, and other climate problems that may affect the process. Finally, the Person doing the job. Factors connected with the person could be training, eyesight, and level of skills. Other general areas may also apply to the problem. Such as money, management, and other errors.
  23. 23. Quality Management 23 Difficulties with brainstorming and what do you do with them You are stepping on my turf! It will be hard for one of the group members to be suspected that he is the reasons of this problem. For example, the design engineer is attending the session, and the cause of the problem came out to be in the design process. Train your team, and develop them. It is necessary to explain that we are not here to blame anyone. And we are sometimes blind with our problems so we need others to look on it. We tend to see only a part of the problem that’s why the causes may be hidden. It is a matter of prospective.
  24. 24. Quality Management 24 Criticism Build a positive environment in the group. Criticize problems not people. Make sure that ideas not persons are evaluated. Make sure that mistakes are not publicized and never appear in anyone personal life. The difficult member Some members are difficult to deal with in the group. They talk too much, they get off track, they criticize people not ideas or they shoot down ideas. How do you deal with him? Be firm but friendly. Talk to him privately and explain how his way is distracting the group work. Give the difficult member a special job to do for the group. Don’t fight him. When he gets the group off track, re back the conversation to the normal topic gently. Usually difficult members became the strongest support of the group, or they leave.
  25. 25. Quality Management 25 Fault-Tree Analysis Is a method to increase the reliability of the product and find the potential causes of a problem to prevent the product failure. Building a fault tree analysis FTA 1) Identify a top failure 2) Brainstorm basic contributors to failure 3) Link contributors to the top failure  Determine which combination of contributors is needed to cause the top failure. (Ask: How many of the inputs are needed to cause the top failure? )  Link the contributors to the top failure.  Each contributor (cause) can be given a weight depend on the occurrence so we would know which failure is likelihood to occur.
  26. 26. Quality Management 26 Fault-Tree Analysis Smoke detector does not detect smoke Alarm not sounded Smoke not detected Alarm not sounded No power at alarm Defective alarm Broken wire Defective solder joint Defective ionization chamber No power at ionization chamber No power at control box Defective control box Ionization chamber cracked Defective solder joint Broken wire Ionization chamber blocked Vent blocked Dust blocked
  27. 27. Root Cause Analysis Approach 27Quality Management
  28. 28. 28 5 whys It was originated in Japan. Japanese people believe that by asking 5 whys you can figure out the root cause of the problem and find the solution. However, it doesn’t have to be 5 it can be 7 or 8. Toyota does not have a six sigma program. Six sigma is based on complex statistical quality analysis tools. It is a surprise for people to realize how Toyota has achieved this level of quality without the use of six sigma for quality. Most of problems don’t call for complex statistical analysis, but instead require detailed problem solving. This requires a level of detailed thinking and analysis that is all too absent from most companies in day-to-day activities. Quality Management
  29. 29. 29 Level of Problem Countermeasure There is an oil on the shop floor Clean up the oil Because the machine is leaking Fix the machine Because the gasket has deteriorated Replace the gasket Because we bought gaskets made of inferior material Change gasket specifications Because we got a good deal/price on those gaskets Change purchasing policy Because the purchasing gets evaluated on short-term cost saving Change the evaluation policy for purchasing agent Why? Why? Why? Why? 5 whys is a method to pursue the deeper, systematic causes of a problem to find correspondingly deeper countermeasures Quality Management
  30. 30. 30 Toyota Practical Problem-Solving Process Initial problem perception (large, complicated problem) POC Countermeasure Evaluate Standardize Clarify the problem The real problem Locate area point of cause Direct cause Cause Cause Cause Cause Grasp the situation Cause investigation Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? Quality Management
  31. 31. 31 Q1: Why did the customer not buy the product? A: The salesperson did not persuade him to buy. Q2: Why did the salesperson not persuade the customer to buy? A: The salesperson was not good enough. Q3: Why was the salesperson not good enough? A: The sales person has not been trained in sales. Q4: Why has the salesperson not been trained in sales? A: It was not considered necessary. Q5: Why was training not considered necessary? A: Sales are only a small part of the job. Example: Quality Management
  32. 32. Quality Management 32 1. Why has the computer failed? Answer: The fuse has blown in the chasis 2. Why has the fuse blown? Answer: The hard drive is overheating and taking too much current 3. Why is the hard drive overheating? Answer: It is generating a lot of heat 4. Why it is generating a lot of heat? Answer: It is a high speed drive and generate more heat 5. Why it is not being cooled? Answer: The fan is not cooling it 6. Why is the fan not cooling it? Answer: The computer was upgraded recently and the fan was changed to a more powerful one that was recommended by the supplier. However, the instruction for the airflow direction were overlooked 7. Why is the fan blowing in the wrong direction? Answer: The computer was upgraded recently and the fan was changed 8.Why was the fan changed? Answer: To improve the airflow of the high power hard-drive 9. Why did it not improve the airflow? Answer: It was mounted in reverse 10. Why was it mounted in reverse? Answer: The technician did not follow the instructions 11.Why did he not follow the instruction? We have now found the root cause. The tech did not follow the instructions.
  33. 33. 33 Problem Using a fishbone diagram while brainstorming possible causes helps you to focus on the various possibilities. Some useful categories: Cause & Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram) Quality Management
  34. 34. 34 The main problem is entered in the nose. The bones originally had only “4Ms”. Once all problems were reduced to one of the four: man, machine, material, or method. Eventually, Measurement was added to highlight how critical it is to have an understanding of the reliability and accuracy of the measuring system. Environment was added to make people consider the location of an equipment and the impact of its surroundings on the operation. Design and instruction can also be a good reason to add. Quality Management
  35. 35. Quality Management 35 Steps in constructing a cause and effect diagram 1. Gather the material You will need a big flip chart or large sheet of paper, brainstorm idea list, mistake tape and flipchart markers. 2. Call together everyone envolved with the problem Generally, this group will contain the leader and the members of the brainstom group. Plus anyone envolved such as engineers, representatives, quality assurance peoples and a volunteer to draw the diagram and record the data. 3. Begin to construct the diagram Got to the right hand side, and state the problem clearly or the effect. Make sure it is well defined and clear so everyone will understand what is going to be discussed.
  36. 36. Quality Management 36 4. Draw in the spine of the fish bone Begin with the left hand of the paper and draw an arrow to the box 5. Add the main causes Make sure to cover all possible areas such as 5M (Manpower, Money, Management, Machine, Material). Also add up some other sections like environment such as humidity, high temperature..etc. Variation in Coating Variation in Coating
  37. 37. Quality Management 37 Variation in Coating MaterialMethod Machine Manpower
  38. 38. Quality Management 38 6. Add the brainsrom ideas Variation in Coating Procedures Wrong Defective Method Material Manpower Age or wear Design Machine Lack of training
  39. 39. Quality Management 39 Pareto Analysis
  40. 40. Quality Management 40 A method to help you which from several chronic problems to attack. Pareto can be useful in: 1. Prioritizing issues and tasks 2. Tackle high cost issues 3. Achieve quick improvement in the overall process 4. Help making decisions 5. Help determine whether the solution has worked What is Pareto analysis? Few examples:  20% percent of your customers account for 80% of your business  Few kind of parts in the warehouses make 80% of the inventory problems  Few parts present a large portion of product defect
  41. 41. Quality Management 41 A team collected a data about a defect in motors produced by their department. Among the 145 defects recorded, they found 53 causes of Endplay, 31 casues of Binds, 28 Causes of Tilt, 16 Missing Wheels, 8 Switch problems, 5 Dead motors.
  42. 42. Quality Management 42
  43. 43. Quality Management 43 Practical Steps: How to construct a Pareto analysis process 1. Specify the goal clearly Goals are always improving quality and reducing costs. If your company supplies seats to a major automotive industry firm, the goal should be supplying seats with the highest quality. Your department makes the polyurethane foam cushions that goes into the seats. Your goal is to improve the quality of the seats through improving the quality of the cushions, and reduce the rate of the defective cushions. The Goal is Zero Defect!
  44. 44. Quality Management 44 2. Collecting the data Audit Inspection Report Shift: Auditor Name: Product: Departement: Molding Date: August 2005 Type of Defect 12/8 13/8 14/8 15/8 16/8 Poor mix 2 3 1 Holes 8 4 7 3 5 Dent 1 No enough component 1 1 Deformed 1 Torn through handling 1 1 Oil/grease stains 1 1 1
  45. 45. Quality Management 45 3. Tally the data Tally of Data Poor mix 6 Holes 27 Dent 1 No enough component 2 Deformed 1 Torn through handling 1 Oil/grease stains 2 Poor mix 3 Total Defects = 42
  46. 46. Quality Management 46 4. Ranking the categories of defects by frequency Re arrange in order of frequency Holes 27 Poor mix 6 Oil/grease stains 3 Not enough components 2 Torn through handling 2 Dents 1 Deformed 1 Total Defects = 42
  47. 47. Quality Management 47 5. Prepare the chart for the data
  48. 48. Quality Management 48 Draw horizontal and vertical scales. Then mark the numbers on the left hand vertical scale so that the large category will fit comfortably. The largest category is holes with 27 defects, the scale should be set to 35 or 40. Next, subdivied the hrozintal scale into equal width interval so that you have enough intervals for your categories. You can combine the smallest categories into a single group called “others” but it is recommended that this group should not exceeed 10% of the total numbers.
  49. 49. Quality Management 49 6. Draw in the bars
  50. 50. Quality Management 50 7. Make Calculations Based on Tallies Type of Defect Frequerncy Cumulative Frequency Percentage Holes 27 27 64% Poor mix 6 33 79% Oil/grease stains 3 36 86% Not enough components 2 38 90% Torn through handling 2 40 95% Others 2 42 100%
  51. 51. Quality Management 51 8. Complete the Pareto diagram
  52. 52. Quality Management 52 Interpreting the Pareto diagram • The diagram is a documentation for quality, so it has to be clear and well-drawn. • The diagram is a communication tool, and it brings agreement on which problem to solve first. • The diagram should allow the process to tell its own story without the human feeling. • Pareto diagram serves as a away to compare problems that exist before you work to improve the process with problems that exist after you have worked on the process. • After the “holes” problem is tackeled, a new Pareto chart should show holes as a minor or nonexistent problem.
  53. 53. Problem Identification: Production decreased to low level Plant Capacity: 450ton/day 53Quality Management
  54. 54. 54Quality Management
  55. 55. Problem with plant production performance Transportation of raw material problem Production labor problem Others Breakdowns 55Quality Management
  56. 56. Breakdowns issue Environmental downtime issue Electrical issueOther external factors Equipments downtime (unplanned maintenance) 56Quality Management
  57. 57. Plant downtime report 57Quality Management
  58. 58. Equipments breakdown issue Machine 4 Machine 3 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 5 Machine 6 58Quality Management
  59. 59. Equip code Critical Equip description Total Downtime hrs (average) Downtime frequency MTTR (hrs) Percentage 1 Centrifugal Fan 16 5 3.2 44.80% 2 Pump station 2 Motor 6 2 3 16.80% 3 Granulator Drum 4 2 2 11% 4 Feed Belt Conveyor 3 2 1.5 8.40% 5 Recycle Belt Conveyor 2.5 1 2.5 7.00% 6 Bag Filter 2.5 1 2.5 7% 7 Burner 1 1 1 2% 8 Belt Conveyor 0.5 1 0.5 1.40% 9 Belt Conveyor 0.2 1 0.2 1.40% 10 Bucket Elevator ---- ---- ---- ---- Priority Identification (Top Failures) Equipments downtime monthly report: 59Quality Management
  60. 60. Pareto Analysis A problem solving tool that breaks data down into manageable groups and identifies the greatest opportunity for return on investment. The analysis is based on the Pareto Principle, also known as the 80:20 Rule. Simply stated, the principle says that 20% of a population will cause 80% of the problems associated with the population 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% 40.00% 45.00% 50.00% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 60Quality Management
  61. 61. 61 Pareto diagram uses bar graphs to sort problems according to severity, frequency, cost, nature, or source and displays them in order of size in order of size to show which problem is the most important. Its probably the most often used statistical tool in Toyota. Quality Management
  62. 62. Motor Foundation Bearing FDE Bearing FNDE Casing Man Hole 62Quality Management
  63. 63. Machine 1 failed Motor electric failure Power off Machine unplugged Overloaded 63Quality Management
  64. 64. Overload Process problem Electrical problem Cleaning problem Mechanical Vibration problem 64Quality Management
  65. 65. Mechanical vibration problem Bent Shaft Bad maintenance Bearing failed Unbalance Bad fixation with the base Misalignment 65Quality Management
  66. 66. Unbalance Rotor problem Bad balancing Others Scale accumulative 66Quality Management
  67. 67. 67Quality Management
  68. 68. Dust accumulative Incorrect balancing Cleaning issue Design Problem Problem in sandblasting efficiency Bad operation Process problem 68Quality Management
  69. 69. Scale 69Quality Management
  70. 70. 70 System Illustration Diagram (1) Dryer Drum (3) Fan (4) Bag Filter (2) Cyclone Dust settling Suction Quality Management
  71. 71. Repair the coating for body of the cyclone Repair the pneumatic system for closing and opening the gates Get new discharge valve Real Photo 71Quality Management
  72. 72. 72Quality Management
  73. 73. Electric motor failed Electric cable problemPower off Machine unplugged Motor overheated 73Quality Management
  74. 74. Motor overloaded Motor overheated 121⁰C Cooling fan Motor located in bad environment Bad preventive maintenance 74Quality Management
  75. 75. Motor miss- installed Motor overloaded Shaft damaged Motor Shaft Vibration problem Machine problem 75Quality Management
  76. 76. Shaft damaged Misalignment Incorrect fit Incorrect tolerance Bearing failed 76Quality Management
  77. 77. Bearing failed Insufficient lubrication Excessive clearance Mounting problem Grease contamination Failed motor bearing Incorrect bearing type Incorrect lubricant usage 77Quality Management
  78. 78. Use the proper tools for mounting and train the maintenance crew Preventive Action 78Quality Management
  79. 79. Quality Management 79 Process FlowChart & Process Mapping
  80. 80. Quality Management 80 What is Mapping? Process Mapping is a tools for understanding the process and tackle the process problems Why Mapping? Process mapping is a workflow diagram to bring forth a clearer understanding of a process or series of parallel processes. It helps tackle process issues, identify the source of process variation, minimize wastes, improve process capability, reduce defects and improve costs.
  81. 81. Quality Management 81 Why does it takes so long to get a simple request for machine maintenance approved? Why does it takes so long to answer deal with the customer complains? Why do we have so many steps to follow in assembling this wiring harness? Is there a simpler way? Why it takes so long time to hire people? Why it takes so long to approve the project budget? The process flow chart helps you answer such questions.
  82. 82. •Transportation •Inventory •Motion •Waiting •Over Production •Over Processing •Defects 82Quality Management
  83. 83. For example, if there is a manufacturing process consist of several processes such as cutting, casting, assembly, handling, maintenance, inspection, and changeovers. The added value works which involve making what the customer needs is just a few processes which are cutting, casting, and assembly. The others are those non-value added works that need to be removed or minimized. The seven wastes define those non-value added in terms of transportation, inventory, motion, waiting, over processing, over productivity, and defect. They have been given the abbreviation Timwood. The 8th waste is the underutilization of human capabilities or untapped human potential. 83Quality Management
  84. 84. Cutting process Lathe Process Changeover Maintenance Downtime Machine Setting Re Work Absent Wait for Tools TransportationValue Add Non-Value Add Weld Drill Flow Flow Flow Main goal is to improve the process, minimize defects and reduce wastes Assembly 84
  85. 85. 85 Metric Unit of measure Target Improvement Owner Process Cycle time Days/hours Non-value added % Value added % No of workers Quality ratio % WIP inventory No of pieces/tons Lead time between processes Hours/days Delivery % on time Productivity % Total Costs Example: Evaluate measuring performance Lean Manufacturing
  86. 86. Quality Management 86
  87. 87. Quality Management 87
  88. 88. Quality Management 88
  89. 89. Quality Management 89
  90. 90. Quality Management 90 The importance of mapping: 1. Idnetify the points in the process that need to be controlled 2. Ensure the time and effecinecy of every operation 3. Discover troubles areas 4. Stanadardize the work process 5. Improve quality, productivity and performance 6. Discover the sources of process variations 7. Improve quality, minimize defects and costs
  91. 91. Quality Management 91 Process FlowChart Sympols
  92. 92. Quality Management 92 Process Key Sympols Sympol Name Description Or Define Your Own Sympols!
  93. 93. Quality Management 93 1 Locate Correct Paper in Warehouse 2 3 4 a a 5 6 7 8 b 9 10 11 c Forklift not available Foklift arrives load roll Move roll to cutter b Wait for overhead crane operator Load roll Makr first cut; adjust cutter Cut paper into rectangles Inspect at intervals during cutting Stack on a pallet Move pallets to die-cut presses 4 min 12 min 1 min 11 min, 320 ft 7 min 3 min, 27ft 8 min 0.7 min 0.5 min 1 min, 3ft 3 min, 22ft
  94. 94. Quality Management 94 1412 15 d d 13 16 20 e17 18 21 19 f22 23 Check dimensions of sheets Place 2 of sheets on press bed Locate correct die and load Move die into corner position for first cut e Check position of die Close press Open press Move die to next cutting position Remove cut blanks Inspect blanks Stack blanks on pallets If this is the end of the run, got to 24 1 min 0.3 min, 4ft 3 min 0.5 min 0.2 min 0.2 min 0.2 min 0.3 min 0.2 min, 4ft 0.1 min 0.2 min, 7ft 0.2 min
  95. 95. Quality Management 95 f 24 25 Remove die from press Remove paper trim from press Store pallet 27 Move pallet to envelope folding machine 26 0.2 min 0.3 min 1,320 min, 34 ft 4 min, 22 ft Opportunities for Improvement  Is there a point in the process that restrict the flow of the material, work, or information?  How can we improve the sequence of the operations to make the process more effective?  Would a change in the workplace layout or the flow of componenets increase effectiveness?  Can you improve how you do the operation or activity?  Can you reduce or eliminate the need to correct, change, add, or recycle something in the
  96. 96. Quality Management 96  Why there is so many delays in the process? What could be done to them?  Where are the areas of improvement? Analyzing Process to Find the Improvement Opportunities Process No Analysis of Non-Value Added 2 Delay is due to high rate of absent for the drivers 4 Machines are not arranged in sequence to provide continuous flow 5 Operators are busy doing a lot of non-value added tasks 11 14 The workplace is filled with clutters and not arranged 15 19 27
  97. 97. Quality Management 98 Production Downtime Analysis during the month of August 12 Working Time= 8 hrs/shift Working Condition= 3 shifts/day, 6 days/week Total Working Time= 144 hours /week, 576 hrs/ month Actual Operating Time (manufacturing time)= 293.5 hrs
  98. 98. Quality Management 99 Activities Total number of hours Percentage Quality Inspection 20 7% Break/lunch time 32 11% Absent 30.5 10% Maintenance 142.5 50% Setup/ changeover 25 8% Tools not available 32.5 11.5% Total= 282.5
  99. 99. Quality Management 100 Production Downtime Analysis Planned Maintenance Absent Availability of Tools Lunch time
  100. 100. Quality Management 101 Activities Total number of hours Percentage Cumulative Maintenance 142.5 50% 142.5 50% Tools not available 32.5 11.5% 175 61.9% Break/lunch time 32 11% 207 73.2% Absent 30.5 10% 237.5 84% Setup/ changeover 25 8% 262.5 92.9% Quality Inspection 20 7% 282.5 100% Total= 282.5
  101. 101. Quality Management 102 PM Code Equipment Type Frequencies (no of tasks/machines) Time for each maintenance task PM001 Grinding Machines 3 3.5 hr PM002 Polishing Machines 25 1.2 hr PM003 Washing Machines 20 4.75 hr PM004 Others 50 8.5 min
  102. 102. Quality Management 103 Maintenance Analysis PM Code Equipment Type Frequencies Hours Total hours % Cumulative PM Washing Machines 20 4.75 95 66.5% 95 66.5% PM Polishing Machines 25 1.2 30 21.1% 125 87.7% PM Grinding Machines 3 3.5 10.5 7.4% 135.5 95% PM Others 50 8.5 min 7 5% 142.5 100% 66.5% from the maintenance problems are allocated in the Washing machines. And because we have 20 washing machines, the success can yield to a large improvement in the overall process.
  103. 103. Scheduled WO Initiated Planning and Mobilization Process Planning the total number of resources Allocating regular spare parts and tools Send the crew to machine place- Crew prepare tools Crew reached production facility Crew started the maint job 3 Trips from workshop to production Crew taken off GB Back to workshop Discuss with workshop leader & take decision Prepare spare parts needed for the spare GB Back to production facility Place the spare GB on the machine Test OK Receive request for service no & back to workshop Discussion with workshop leader + wash hands Dismantle gearbox to specify needs Write down needed parts Back to workshop Searching for Oracle no and ask for help Send paper to follow up office Back to workshop & wait for followup office Crew re back to follow up office Searching for Oracle & warehouse data Release of warehouse permission Back to workshop & sign the paper from the head 2 Trips from workshop to follow up office Break time for maintenance crew Break time 12:00pm to 1:00pm Store break time 12:30pm to 1:30pm Crew went to the store warehouse no 124 at 1:35pm Reached store and wait for store man service Receive parts Back to workshop 1 unnecessary trip to warehouse 1.5 min 1.5 min 1.5 min 3.5 min 16.25 min 6.5 min 1.5 min 1.5 min Waiting 9 min Waiting 40 min Waiting 6.5 min Over processing Waiting 7 min Waiting 5.5 min Over processing ERP Over processing Waiting 10 min ERP 27 min 1.5 min 2 min 7 min 20 min Over processing Waiting 3.5 min Over processing Waiting for 14 min ERP Training/ Instructions Map keys: Yellow posts are the process steps. Red posts indicate waste. Blue posts are the ideas for improvement. Process Map (1) Waiting Training Waiting Transportation/ Waiting 3.5 min Untapped Human Potential Process Information: Work type: Maintenance process for a washing machine Location: Factory 2. Equipment Name: Washing machine no.4.
  104. 104. Process Actual/Current Best Possible Machines downtime percent 66.5% Crew Non-Value Added time 123 min= 2hrs Zero Total Non-Value Added 167 min Zero Non-Value added % 59% Zero Value Added time 118 ----- Value Added % 41% 100% Total cycle time for the process 285min 118min Number of crews Cost of resources Data Box (KPIs) •Non Value added %= time utilized actually in maintenance / total cycle time of the process. Key definitions:
  105. 105. Process Map Analysis “Red Post-its Analysis”. Process /issue description Symptom/Problem Exists Total time Getting the spare parts process Waiting 40 3 trips from workshop to production section Waiting/ Over processing 9 Labor Searching for Oracle code Waiting 6.5 Delay in the follow up office in issuing the Waiting 10 Searching for parts & warehouse data in the follow up office Waiting 5.5 Sign permission from the head Waiting/Over processing 5 Crew take break before the break time of the warehouse Waiting 30 Receiving parts from inventory Waiting 7 Long trip to far away warehouse “124” Waiting/ Transporting/Untapped Human Potential 7 Unnecessary trip to the warehouse Waiting/ Over processing 7+7 Maintenance crew getting parts by himself Untapped Human Potential/Waiting Process Sum=41 Total Wasted Crew Activities 123.5 Total machine waste time Waiting 43.5 Total 167 minutes
  106. 106. Processes with wastes Analysis Comments Getting the spare parts process Inspection is done for 3 equipments at once. Waiting for labor time, supervisor time, and machine downtime The repair of the breakdown equipment didn’t start immediately after diagnosis, the supervisor continued to inspect others without calling the crew. Inspection took 40 minutes because the supervisor had to inspect another machines for the robot function, he had to wait for 2 complete cycles of the robot. There were no fault in the machine no.5 after 30 minutes of 2 robot cycles and complete inspection!. Too many trips from workshop to production section Inspection done by supervisor not the crew No forecasting, crew had to back to workshop to get the bearing of the shaft Crew had to talk to the supervisor in the workshop to take the decision of fitting the backup gearbox or wait till fix the faulty one and fit it. Labor/crew searching for Oracle code Its paper based, lots of paper to search in, he had to ask his colleague to search for him. Waiting for labor time & refurbish time Delay in the follow up office Too many permissions are waiting list, 2 data entry persons were absent, so the load was concentrated on two persons. Searching for parts & warehouse no We need to run better system
  107. 107. Process with wastes Comments & Causes Sign permission paper from the head Administrative work Waiting for labor time & refurbish time Crew break No comment! Waiting for labot time A trip to warehouse 124 Parts should be all in the warehouse 111 which is near the workshop Receiving parts delayed in the warehouse Inventory store labor skills Lack of ERP system Unnecessary trip to warehouse Who should bring parts from warehouse? The downtime Frequency of repairing the same fault must be tracked to analyze the repair efficiency. Waiting for machine & labor time Downtime must be eliminated by enhancing maintenance & inspection. It seems backup machine was operating, downtime was in the beginning of the shift, not in the break time.
  108. 108. Total wastes exist 123.5 min, could be reduced to 35.5 min. So the total cycle time is reduced. If each employee is wasting 123.5 minutes from his daily time in s single maintenance process, for 30 employees/maintenance processes the wastes are 3705 minutes daily!! {Calculation=(285)/60=5man/hrs X (20)= 100 man hrs X (15$)= 1500$}. If we can improve the machine maintenance process, we could save resources and costs. Please consider the production loss, production can produce more if the downtime is reduced. Production Losses= 1000$ per hour X (100hrs)= 100,000$ per month due to lack of maintenance procedures! Some Costs & Losses. (Time=Money)
  109. 109. Wastes There is a good opportunity to reduce the 123.5 minutes, as well as eliminating the excess machine downtime, if done, this means saving more than 2.5 hr for this process, remember this is just for one process for one employee we could save many hours per day if all maintenance processes are mapped. Production Availability There is also a productivity loss during the machine downtime, this could be due to the waiting, transportation & over processing wastes (have a look at the previous table). I do always prefer to create more than one map for the same process to recognize repeated issues & evaluate the cost better.
  110. 110. Summarizing Common Issues and Brainstorming Ideas for Improvement
  111. 111. 1.Employee spend 30 minutes to get parts from the warehouse. Quantifying the issue= average 30 times need to get parts/day for this maintenance dept. 30x 30 min= 900 min, this is 15hrs per day to just get the required spare parts (almost equal 2 employees). This is 450hrs per month, 2700hrs for 6 months, 5400 hours per year. Remember this is just in one maintenance dept!, what if the issue is quantified & measured for the engineering sector???? what would be the total time losses then? The Lean goal here is to reduce wasted time for labors to make more time available for other useful works like PM or projects, also the lead time to get spare parts must be minimum if the machine is in downtime Elimination of wastes will reduce the overtime percentage & cost. Overtime hours: 1307hrs for 6 months only. Cost of overtime during 2011 was: 11,247 EGP for 6 months only.
  112. 112. Receive service request no from production Search for Oracle codes Write down request for permission Send the paper to the technical/follow up office Search for parts and warehouse location Print the permission Sign the permission from the head Send the labor to get the spare parts from the store Get parts from 2 stores Wait to receive parts at the store Back to the workshop or production facility Getting spare parts process map “Time Analysis”: Waiting Waiting Over processing Waiting Over processing Untapped Human Potential Transportation /Waiting Waiting Transportation Over processing Over processing Four Main Wastes Allocated: 6th Over processing 1st Transportation 4th Waiting 8th Untapped Human Potential 5 min 1 min 6 mi n 1min 6 min 10 mi n 6 min 3 min
  113. 113. Trouble call received through ERP Forecast WO issued Spare parts request Production approval Maintenance approval Check stock availability OK Parts got prepared by inventory labor Receive spare parts through the delivery from one warehouse Cost & data assigned to WO CMMS with ERP: 1 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 3 min 5 min Total time=15 min as max. Reduction in time achieved=50% *We already have the ERP and it can work by the above process. Interaction Between, WO, Inventory & Production Depts. I tried to figure out how thing may go if we have a CMMS to manage the WO and connected to the ERP ”Oracle”. Time saving could be more than half.
  114. 114. 2.Skills/Training Issues. One problem in this MAP regarding the supervisor skills, he was not trained to do the job with high performance. Achievement possibility. Reduce MTTR . Increase equipments availability. Decrease process cycle time.
  115. 115. First, using the same person for every specific type of machine upon breakdown will maybe create a faster repair. However, it will reduce the skill level of the others through experience loss. Also, what would happen if the “expert” was not available? Task name Fixing the washing machine’s Gearbox Fixing the washing machines Robot Fixing the suction fans for Phoya lines Replace the driving belt/chain in the Phoya lines. Fix fans in the electric painting section Replace crusher bearing Diagnosis robot failures Labor Names across No Knowledge Has knowledge but require practice Intro, but require some training Competent Can train participators Skill MATRIX Some principles: •We should train techs for the most common maintenance tasks. •We should train all techs on the diagnosis of most common symptoms/problems.
  116. 116. How to Measure Actual Time Required for Each Work Element? Use a stop watch and measure the actual time at the workplace  Don’t rely on reports  Don’t rely on previous time studies recorded at the engineering office  Don’t rely on any past time study  Measure each work element separately not the total time required by an operator to perform a sequence of work elements.
  117. 117. Total time always include waste particularly between the work elements which cann’t be counted as work. Now re measure the total time of operator from start to finish. This will be higher than the sum of the time of work elements. Different is the waiting waste between work elements. Total Operator Time – Sum of Work Elements = Waitings/Delays
  118. 118. As you observe the work yourself, you will find operators perform it in a slightly different way. Think about the best way to do the job. Use a pencil and a paper note to write your observations. Shopfloor Courtesy -Intorduce yourself -Explain what you are doing -Don’t take note in foront of the production associates without showing them what you have written -Say thank you before leaving -Explain always that you are observing the process not the people And always remember that the question is not what is people doing? But what is the work?
  119. 119. Notes/Timing Tips -If you are not familiar with the process, measure 10 times each work element to geat meaningful data -Measure the time of a high efficient operator -Select the lowest repeatbale time for each element -Don’t use average time -Don’t forget shop floor Courtsey! -Make clear to everyone that you are timing the work, not the operator and you are not measuring the operator’s skills -Separate the machine time from operator time. For example, if an operator takes 15 minutes to start a job in machine, 1 hrs to maintain it, and the machine was down for 2 hours, then total operator time is 1.25 to 2. hrs. Record this separately, and the machine time separately in the process study form.
  120. 120. Sort ‫الترتيب‬ Set in Order (Stabilize) ‫حسب‬ ‫الترتيب‬ ‫األولويه‬ Standardize ‫التوحيد‬ Sustain ‫من‬ ‫التأكد‬ ‫التنفي‬ ‫جوده‬‫ذ‬ Shine ‫النظافه‬ If JAPAN Can Why Can’t We??
  121. 121. Sustain Standardize Shine Sort Set in Order 122
  122. 122. Quality Management 123
  123. 123. Quality Management 124
  124. 124. Quality Management 125
  125. 125. 126Lean Manufacturing
  126. 126.  Tools should be returned after use  Someone should follow up the board regularly to ensure tools are available, in good condition, and returned after use.  Each tool should be outlined on the board, if one is missed, it will be recognized. 127Quality Management
  127. 127. Quality Management 128 Warehouses
  128. 128. Quality Management 129
  129. 129. Before Problems: 1-Scrape ‫وجود‬ ‫الغيار‬ ‫قطع‬ ‫مع‬ ‫خرده‬ 2-Sorting ‫قطع‬ ‫مرتبه‬ ‫غير‬ ‫الغيار‬ 3-Cleaning ‫النظافه‬
  130. 130. After
  131. 131. Before ‫الجيربوكسات‬ ‫ورشه‬ 2.Different types of spare parts exist in the same place ‫متجانسه‬ ‫غير‬ ‫أنواع‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫نفس‬ ‫فى‬ ‫الغيار‬ ‫قطع‬ ‫من‬ ‫المكان‬ Problems: 1. New bearing in unclean area ‫بلى‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫غير‬ ‫بيئه‬ ‫فى‬ ‫جديد‬ ‫نظيفه‬
  132. 132. After
  133. 133. Before ‫الجيربوكسات‬ ‫ورشه‬ 2. Mix between new & damaged gearboxes ‫اختالط‬ ‫مع‬ ‫التالف‬ ‫بوكس‬ ‫الجير‬ ‫السليم‬ 3. Cleaning ‫نظافه‬ ‫مشكله‬ 1. No label to differentiate between the new & damaged gearboxes ‫ورقه‬ ‫يوجد‬ ‫ال‬ ‫كل‬ ‫تصنيف‬ ‫عليها‬ ‫مكتوب‬ ‫بوكس‬ ‫جير‬ Problems:
  134. 134. After
  135. 135. ‫الجيربوكسات‬ ‫ورشه‬ Before 2. Working place is occupied ‫تزكه‬ ‫مشغوله‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫القيم‬ ‫عديمه‬ ‫بأشياء‬‫ه‬ 1.Spare parts in wrong place ‫قطع‬ ‫أماكنها‬ ‫فى‬ ‫ليست‬ ‫غيار‬ Problems:
  136. 136. After
  137. 137. Before ‫الجيربوكسات‬ ‫ورشه‬ Problems: 1. ‫غيار‬ ‫قطع‬ ‫فى‬ ‫ليست‬ ‫الصحيح‬ ‫مكانها‬ 2. ‫قطع‬ ‫غير‬ ‫الغيار‬ ‫مرتبه‬ 3. ‫غيار‬ ‫قطعه‬ ‫كل‬ ‫بتصنيف‬ ‫ملصوقه‬ ‫ورقه‬ ‫يوجد‬ ‫ال‬
  138. 138. After
  139. 139. Before 1.Sorting problem ‫مشكله‬ ‫وترتيب‬ ‫تنظيم‬ 2.Cleaning problem ‫نظافه‬ ‫مشاكل‬ Problems:
  140. 140. After
  141. 141. Quality Management 142
  142. 142. Plan each step and understand the outcome expected at each point. Do the task as planned. Check that is the outcome is as expected “Audit”. Act –find out what is going wrong . Then repeat the cycle. Plan what you are going to do to put it right. Do make the corrections. Then continue the rest of the cycle, repeat the loop as necessary. Plan-Do-Check-Act. PDCA Cycle. Continuous Improvement Problems Solving Process: 1. Define the problem. (Plan) 2. Breakdown the problem into manageable pieces. (Plan) 3. Identify the root causes. (Plan) 4. Set the targets. (Plan) 5. Provide countermeasures & select proper solution. (Plan) 6. Implement the solution. (Do) 7. Check the outcomes and the impact. (Check) 8. Define what went wrong, repeat the cycle, adjust, and standardize. (Act) 143Quality Management
  143. 143. Quality Management 144 Each step is a PDCA toward the target
  144. 144. Quality Management 145 Cost of Quality
  145. 145. Visible Cost Hidden Cost Warranty Inspection Rejects Scrap Re work Usually high percent of the actual costs are hidden
  146. 146. Quality Management 147 Cost of Poor Quality: Internal Failure Costs Internal failure costs are costs that are caused by products or services not conforming to requirements or customer/user needs and are found before delivery of products and services to external customers. They would have otherwise led to the customer not being satisfied. Deficiencies are caused both by errors in products and inefficiencies in processes. Examples include the costs for: •Rework •Delays •Re-designing •Shortages •Failure analysis •Re-testing •Downgrading •Downtime •Lack of flexibility and adaptability
  147. 147. Quality Management 148 Cost of Poor Quality: External Failure Costs External failure costs are costs that are caused by deficiencies found after delivery of products and services to external customers, which lead to customer dissatisfaction. Examples include the costs for: •Complaints •Repairing goods and redoing services •Warranties •Customers’ bad will •Losses due to sales reductions •Environmental costs It takes 1-3 years to re compensate a depatured customer
  148. 148. Quality Management 149 Cost of Good Quality: Prevention Costs Prevention costs are costs of all activities that are designed to prevent poor quality from arising in products or services. Examples include the costs for: •Quality planning •Supplier evaluation •New product review •Error proofing •Capability evaluations •Quality improvement team meetings •Quality improvement projects •Quality education and training
  149. 149. Quality Management 150 Cost of Good Quality: Appraisal Costs Appraisal costs are costs that occur because of the need to control products and services to ensure a high quality level in all stages, conformance to quality standards and performance requirements. Examples include the costs for: •Checking and testing purchased goods and services •In-process and final inspection/test •Field testing •Product, process or service audits •Calibration of measuring and test equipment
  150. 150. Quality Management 151
  151. 151. Quality Management 152 Recall Issue Myth Reality Cause Pedal entrapped by unsecured or incompatible floor mate Carpet design causes pedal entrapement, leading to accidents and deaths No defects exists with properly installed floor mat. Floor mats that are unsecured, stacked or incompatible have the potential to entrap the accelerator pedal. Also true for other auto makers Improper use of floor mates Sticking accelerator pedal Pedal frequently gets stuck leading to uncontrollable acceleration and causing many accidents In rare cases, pedal can get sticky and return slowly to idle or temporarily stick partially depressed. There were no causes of wide-open throttle. In all cases, brakes will stop car in normal stopping distance As a result of heat, humidity, or condensation, synthetic material in pdeal become sticky. Braking performance is not affected Engineering Errors Leading to Recalls: Myths and Reality
  152. 152. Quality Management 153 Recall Issue Myth Reality Cause Electronic throttle control system failure Electromagnetic interference or software glitches cause runaway cars that will not stop in a way puclair to Toyot’s design has lead to accidents and even deaths. This change has been made against all car companies, and there has never been evidence of a single case. Millions of hours of tests by Toyota in chambers that generate EMI and in real world tests in high EMI- areas have never revealed a single instance No confirmed problem 2010 prius ABS problem On slippery roads, brakes can stop working, severly affecting braking performance . At speeds below 35mph on slippery or bumpy surfaces, switch from re generative to ABS braking system causes the brake pedal to momentarily feel soft. There is no impact on braking performance The software governing the braking system does not provide proper feel in the braking pedal
  153. 153. Quality Management 154
  154. 154. Quality Management 155 Number of Vehicles Recalled in the United States 2005-2010
  155. 155. Quality Management 156 Lessons Learned from Toyota:
  156. 156. 157 Eng. Mohammed Hamed Ahmed Soliman The American University in Cairo Email: Tel: +201001309903 References: Liker, J. K. (2003). Toyota way. New York: MacGraw-hill. Steven, S. (2012). Strategic lean mapping. New York: MacGraw-hill. Robert T. Amsden and Davida M. Amsdenand. (1998). SPC Simpliefied: Practical steps to quality. Productivity Press; 2 edition Quality Management