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Eng. Mohammed Hamed
The core idea is to maximize CUSTOMER VALUE while minimizing waste. Simply, lean means
creating more value for customers with fewer resources.
A lean organization understands customer value and focuses its key processes to continuously
increase it. The ultimate goal is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect
value creation process that has zero waste.
1.Lean
“Is the production control technique for eliminating the waste from your manufacturing”.
1.2.Lean Maintenance
“Lean maintenance is a proactive maintenance operation employing planned and scheduled
maintenance activities through total productive maintenance (TPM) practices using
maintenance strategies developed through application of reliability centered maintenance
(RCM) decision logic and practiced by empowered (self-directed) action teams using the 5S
process, weekly Kaizen, and autonomous maintenance together with multi-skilled, maintenance
technician-performed maintenance through the committed use of their work order system and
their computer managed maintenance system (CMMS) or enterprise asset management (EAM)
system. They are supported by a distributed, lean maintenance/MRO storeroom that provides
parts and materials on a just-in-time (JIT) basis and backed by a maintenance and reliability
engineering group that performs root cause failure analysis (RCFA), failed part analysis,
maintenance procedure effectiveness analysis, predictive maintenance (PdM) analysis, and
trending and analysis of condition monitoring results”.
Lean simply means minimization of Wastes to increase company’s profitability
and increase product value.
Lean Five Principles.
•Basic Process Mapping
•The Big Picture Map
•Capacity Maps
•Value Stream Mapping ”VSM”
•Value and Capacity Stream Map
•Swim Lanes Mapping.
•SIPOC Maps.
Commonly used for:
-As a tool for problems finding and process improvement.
-Pointing out inefficient process steps “non-value added”.
-Allocate wastes and remove them.
Mapping Tools:
2.1.Introduction
Process mapping is a workflow diagram to bring forth a clearer understanding of a process or
series of parallel processes.
The Most common used map is the PROCESS MAP.
Company profitability
Profit= turnover- (cost to make the product and sell it).
To be more accurate and according to lean concept, the equation should be changed to:
Profit= turnover- (cost to make the product and sell it + wastes).
Elimination of wastes increase the company’s profitability.
SO by lean concept: what makes a
company profitable than another is
reduction of these wastes.
Company with too many WASTES will be diminished dramatically!.
Eliminating the process wastes will allow the company to compete more in the market by
increasing its profitability or reducing the sell price.
Size isn’t everything!
•A common problem in huge number of countries where employee easily will spend 30 minutes
a day looking for the tools or spare parts they need to do their work, if employee wastes 30
minutes each day; the company is losing 3 hours a week, this is about 6 hours in 2 weeks & 12
hours in one month ! what a big waste!. Remember this is just for 1 employee! per 1 month!.
•Another Ex. series issues usually cost a company a lot of money and have an immediate impact.
However not all the expensive issues are big ones. Small recurring problems virtually always
tends to be overlooked. This in itself is a fundamental mistake made by many manufacturers!, In
TPM, issues that frequently repeated are called as minor stops.
Minor Stops:
-Consume resources.
-Waste time.
-Accumulative cost is huge if calculated per year.
-Reduce process efficiency.
Process Line that fails 2-3 times daily
What do you think if you have 600 lines with the same minor stops?
5 min20 min
Imagine we have 600 grinding lines, and each line fails triples per day, so we have 1800 minor stops?
Each minor took 5-20min to repair (MTTR), if we took it as average of 10min, so we have 18,000min equal
300hrs/day loss in productivity?!
If the productivity rate is 200,000 stones average per shift per line, its 28,000 stone per hour.
Then we loose 28,000 x 300hrs=8,400,000 stones per day!!.
Company loose 134,400EGP daily productivity. This could be 3.5 millions per month! if our
production are continuous & no brake time during shifts (maintenance have to appreciate
that). According to the maintenance data, only 0.5% of these failures are emergency or
production effective, so actual production losses=210,000EGP per year.
We don’t lose much value of production because we use the system of 3hrs break time per day, 1hr per shift
and the ability to force the labors to take break at any time!, but this is an administrative thing that has been
made to avoid loosing productivity, it could be made because the process is manual, it may has been saved
us but effected the company from another way.
We have high labor turnover ratio, one of the reasons could be the system of forcing labors to take break at
any time rather than the original specified break time.
What of there were no minors? we could produce then during the break time or utilize the break time for
doing preventive maintenance instead of fixing failures.
3.1.Ex No.1. Losses due to minor stops.
3.Quick overview on some hidden losses.
3.1.1.Counting the productivity losses “lean prefer money language”.
Gross=144 stones(approximately its vary depend on SS size).
Gross price (for S3)=0.4$
One stone price=0.0027$=0.016EGP
3.1.2.What about resources cost of minor stops? (hidden losses!)
Costs should be for SPARE PARTS used & LABORS utilized during the minors fix.
If we consider 1800 minors, each minor takes 10 min to repair, this is 300hrs per day for 600
production lines.
This means company lose 300man/hrs daily just to fix those minors.
This is equal 43 employee per day just to fix those minors!!.
If the employee average daily rate is 50EGP, then the company pay more than half million
pounds annually just to fix minors .
1 day 1 week 1 month 3 months 6 months 9 months 1 yr
#REF! 1
Employee Losses EGP 2,150 12,900 51,600 154,800 309,600 464,400 619,200
Total cost 2150 12900 51600 154800 309600 464400 619200
0
100000
200000
300000
400000
500000
600000
700000
TotalCost
Annual Losses Due To Minors
Figure illustrate the total losses per year for employee utilized to fix minors, but remember they aren’t
actually 43 employee, they are excessively more due to wastes!.
Recording of data:
1800 minors per day, each failure require 1 minute to be recorded in the data base, so you need
30man/hrs per day to just record the failures, this is 5 employee, this is another lost.
Generally, utilizing or using more labor than what is actually needed is because of wastes,
lean should solve this efficiently.
I have found that 50% of those minors are without spare parts replacement, its all about
adjustment, tightening, and cleaning.
The cost of consuming the maintenance resources in fixing the minors can be reduced by getting
the operators/LINE MECHANIC involved in doing adjustments, cleaning, tightening, and other
non-intensive technical works which is called Autonomous or Routine maintenance.
This technique which has some special procedures and training requirements “won’t be
discussed here”.
In a study made in 2011, I have found that there are some specific lines with minimum
maintenance involvement in fixing breakdowns although their productivity weren’t the
maximum, but the operators/LINE MECHANIC were involved in fixing the minor issues without
calling the maintenance for every trouble. So the above technique is 100% applicable and makes
sense.
Autonomous is when responsibilities for
routine care and inspection are transferred
to equipment operators instead of trained
maintenance professionals
The 8th Waste “Untapped Human Potential “
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Line 83
Line 87
Line 72
Line 94
Line 79
Hours
ProductionLines
Average downtime hrs repaired by maintenance
In a study I made during FEB, March, April 2011, it showed that some
lines are being cared from the mechanical line, some others are being
done by maintenance, the productivity was the same but this is good
for Autonomous concept.
Min utilization of
maintenance
crews
Max
utilization of
maintenance
crews
3.2.Ex No.2 Losses due to turnover (hidden losses!):
•Loss of knowledge & experience, the need to re train new employee.
•Cost of internal training.
•Cost of filling new jobs “advertisements, third party....etc).
•Losses in productivity during the hiring & leaving.
•Defects in the product quality during the training process.
•Benefits applied to new candidates such as salaries, medical insurance, social insurance,
profit,..etc.
•Upon completion of whatever training is provided, the employee is contributing at a 40%
productivity level for the first 2 - 4 weeks. The cost therefore is 60% of the new employees full
salary during that time period.
•And much more!
The previous points can be easy transferred to cost & money meaning, but due to
lake of date I have so I will point out some costs & losses quickly.
Asfour turnover ratio during the past 4 months (JAN to APRIL 2012)
Period
Week no
Month
Turnover ratio “No of FTE departures/ no of FTE
employed”
Comments
Week.1 JAN 0.07%
Week.2 JAN 0.05%
Week.3 JAN 0.05%
Week.4 JAN 0.03%
Week.1 FEB 0.07%
Week.2 FEB 0.05%
Week.3 FEB 0.05%
Week.4 FEB 0.081%
Week.1 MARCH 0.088%
No new candidates
and the same
departures level
Week.2 MARCH 0.044%
Week.3 MARCH 0.061%
Week.4 MARCH 0.874%
Week1 APRIL 0.084%
No new candidates
but the departures
level reduce to
almost half
Week2 APRIL 0.043%
Week.3 APRIL 0.03%
Week4 APRIL 0.02%
Period Total no of recruited candidates Losses
JAN 2011 593 148,250
FEB 2011 154 38,500
MARCH-2011 0 0
APRIL-2011 0 0
MAY-2011 0 0
JUNE-2011 0 0
JULY 2011 8 2000
SEPT-2011 0 500
AUG 2011 2 0
OCT 2011 197 49250
NOV 2011 474 118,500
DEC 2011 291 145,500
JAN 2012 105 26250
FEB 2012 54 13500
MARCH 2012 Zero 0
APRIL 2012 Zero 0
Total 1719 429,750EGP
1st Losses calculation due to employee turnover (JAN 11 to APRIL 12.
Losses are based on paying 60% salary in the first month against getting out 30-40% productivity.
Total no of employee recruited=1719 employees.
Productivity needed in the first month 40%
Salary paid during the first month is 60% (750 from 1250EGP).
60%-40%=20%
20% x 1250=250EGP losses per labor.
The looses are only for production quantity, what about the defects? and the defects during
the first 3 months of training? in the first month I assume it very high specially for grade C
which mostly go for recycle.
Total Losses=250x 1719=429,750EGP during 1 year
“2011”.
1st Losses
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
Jan-11
Feb-11
Mar-11
Apr-11
May-11
Jun-11
Jul-11
Aug-11
Sep-11
Oct-11
Nov-11
Dec-11
Jan-12
Feb-12
Total
CostinEGP
Months
No of candidates
Losses EGP
Figure to illustrate monthly losses due to labors turnover
Total losses= 429,750EGP
2nd Loss, old/experienced employee leaving.
Employee that have been stayed in the company for 5 yrs or more, they are taking
what equals 500EGP for each 1 yr “fellowship box”
Fellow ship deserve=300.
500-300=200 additional for employee with 5 yrs or more in the company.
Losses due to departure of old/experienced employee
Total No of departures in 2011 No of old recruited (5 yrs and more with
contract)
Total Losses (no of labor x
basic salary x no yrs)
6991
Hired since 2006=228 228 x 5 x 200=228,000
Hired since 2005=202 202 x 6 x 200=242,400
Hired since 2004=62 62 x 7 x 200=86,800
Hired since 2003=53 53 x 8 x 200=84,800
Hired since 2002=29 29 x 9 x 200=52,200
Hired since 2001=13 13 x 10 x 200=26,000
Hired since 2000=10 10 x 11 x 200=22,000
Hired since 1999=3 3 x 12 x 200=7,200
Hired since 1998=1 1 x 13 x 200=2,600
Hired since 1997=19 19 x 14 x 200=53,200
Hired since 1996=6 6 x 15 x 200=48,000
Hired since 1995=9 9 x 16 x 200=28,800
Hired since 1994=9 9 x 17 x 200=30,600
Total Losses due to company failed to keep old
employees= 1,071,400EGP plus the cost of losing
experienced employee + the cost of productivity loss
Did I mention that I found all of the previous losses by just
mapping the hiring process?!
2nd Losses
Total No of departures in 2011 No of old recruited (5 yrs and more with
contract)
Total Losses
6991
Hired since 1993=2 2 x 18 x 200=7,200
Hired since 1992=6 6 x 19 x 200=22,800
Hired since 1991=1 1 x 21 x 200=4,200
Hired since 1990=1 1 x 22 x 200=4,400
Hired since 1989=1 1 x 23 x 200=4,600
Hired since 1987=1 1 x 25 x 200=5,000
Hired since 1984=1 1 x 28 x 200=5,600
Hired since 1983=2 2 x 29 x 200=11,600
Hired since 1982=1 1 x30x 200=6,000
Hired since 1980=3 13x 32 x 200=72,800
Total 663 1,071,400 EGP
3rd Loss, (Production Performance Losses)
There is a production losses during the recruitment of labors because you have to specify lines
for training. If you specify a line for each 5 recruited labors and during the first week of training
they do produce 10% of the productivity target, this mean the line is losing 90% of its
productivity, for 1719 labors in 2011, there are 344 lines have been assigned to produce 10% of
their productivity in the first week, if this line is working just 7hrs per shift for training purpose,
so it should produce 200,000 stones per shift, and 1,400,000 stone per week, if its only
producing 10% during this week then it only get 140,000 stones. Losses is 1,260,000
stones per line per week, for 344 lines, sum of losses would be 433,440,000 stones.
7200 stones=90EGP (roughly).
433,440,000 stones= 5,418,000EGP during 1 yr “2011”.
3rd Losses
The losses is that you are getting productivity out of the machine less
than its designed capacity, OEE should be calculated too.
Production Efficiency= Actual Capacity/ Designed Capacity
= 11%
Total Losses=89% of production capacity
344 lines produce the productivity of 10 day in 1 day
during the training and this is a waste.
Total losses due to turnover in
2011=6,919,150 EGP!
Total losses (1+2+3)
If employee are only leaving, we may not look for the losses, because company don’t need them
and want to reduce the load, but employee are being hired and fired, so the losses here is for
the turnover as well as the company
Problem Solving.
Applying the problem solving techniques could solve many problems with lean, RCFA
& Why-Why are the most common techniques involved. For example if we ask why
the turn over ratio is high we could find the solution by asking the following questions:
Why-Why Technique
Q:Why we have high turnover?
A: Labors in the grinding dept are leaving. 2nd why?
A:They aren’t satisfied, they are claiming. 3rd why?
No motivation system, no good working environment, no support, bad treatment may
be, heavy load.4th why?
Q:Unsatisfation/ Financial benefits against effort. 5th why?
A:There is no attention made to the losses due to turnover/ There is no serious study
for this phenomena
Some ideas for solution:
•Environment need treatment.
•Benefits need to have a look against work load.
•Study should be made for the cost of leaving & hiring versus the cost of offering a new motivation
system.
•There are many ways to build trust and make labors feel secure.
•Improve training so they could recognize they are valued to the company.
Brainstorming
ideas require
a team work
Value is something that adds to the process or to the customer. Value added is good, non-value
added is bad. Value actually is what customer want to pay for.
Value stream. This present every step from the start to the end of the process. Every step of the
process should bring the product closer to the completion.
•Transportation
•Inventory
•Motion
•Waiting
•Over Production
•Over Processing
•Defects
Lean & Value.
7 Wastes:
Commonly known in lean language as Muda “which is a Japanese term”.
It has been given a shortcut as “TIMWOOD”
T=Transportation, I=Inventory, M=Motion, W=Waiting, O=Over processing, O=Over
productivity, D=Defects.
Asfour Training Session 27
1st Waste
Asfour Training Session 28
2nd Waste
Asfour Training Session 29
3rd Waste
Asfour Training Session 30
4th Waste
Asfour Training Session 31
5th Waste
Asfour Training Session 32
6th Waste
Asfour Training Session 33
7th Waste
Asfour Training Session 34
8th Waste
Untapped Human Potential
•Underutilized person
•Loss of skills & knowledge.
•Loss of creativity.
Asfour Training Session 35
WASTES
Elimination
Asfour Training Session 36
37
Seven-Wastes in Maintenance
Generally the same as in the manufacturing process with some considerations &
notes:
Transportation
Any handling of materials or spare parts from the inventory warehouses
to the refurbishment workshops as well as any handling process from
the maintenance workshops to the production facilities.
Inventory
Inventory is the same in all, but we might have extra refurbishment
parts the have been done by maintenance workshops.
Motion
All ergonomics in the workplace while the technician doing his job.
Asfour Training Session
38
Waiting
All maintenance activities are a waiting waste with relative to
production & downtime.
Over productivity
Any workshop that do refurbishment more than needed, they are
consuming more resources and increasing the inventory level.
Over processing
Doing unnecessary steps during the repair process. This is a result from
lack of standardization of work procedures & lack of training.
Asfour Training Session
39
• Why do we do this step? Is this step needed?
• Why do we do it now?
• Why do we do it this way? Is there an easier way to do it?
• Do we need this step?
• Can we eliminate this step? Or reduce its time?
• Can we do two steps together at the same time? Can the step be
grouped with others and preassembled?
• Could two tasks be done at the same time?
• Would two peoples doing the job make it faster?
Over processing analysis:
Asfour Training Session
40
Defect
Any re-work for the maintenance job within a short time, immediately,
or within a time less than the planned is a defect in the repair process.
It will double the time of the repair, and consume resources (time,
labor, spare parts…etc). So if a technician has carried a repair and the
repair has returned back quickly, so this is a defect in the
maintenance/repair process that will duplicate the losses.
Asfour Training Session
41
Untapped human potential waste
Also called loss of creativity, or unused employee creativity.
Examples:
An operator that is not trained to do the routine maintenance tasks.
A professional or expert doing a simple maintenance job rather than doing the root
cause analysis and problem solving process.
Supervisors that are not utilized to do the RCFA root cause failure analysis.
A manager that do not teach his stuff how to manage & lead.
Asfour Training Session
Process improvement & elimination of wastes to reduce cost and improve productivity thus
increase value to the customer.
 Improvement isn’t about blaming anyone, people don’t like to be blamed, the improvement
process is based on continuous improvement and team work to build a better working
environment and culture.
Improvement works by getting the managers and the team involved to find solutions, by this
way we can avoid making them feel that they are being blamed.
When managers are contributed in the team of maps creation & process improvement, they
will feel that they are an add value to the process, they are a part of it, and they are a part of
the improvement process, by this way we can get a competitive advantage of process
improvement.
SWOT Analysis
Strengths
-Our product is globally competitive in the market, our
reputation is good too.
-Our product quality is good the & the price is moderate
so we can compete the Asian prices.
-Company is building a structure of good management &
innovation by creating new determents such HR, R&D,
Industrial Engineering and hiring professionals.
-Backup machines are exist to avoid production
interruption.
Weakness
-Lake of technology being used with production.
-Building a good IT management system is amust with a
good support of a full functional ERP system.
-High turnover ratio for labors.
-Lake of production planning.
-There is no good chain to connect diff depts with each
others to gain fast and reliable improvement in the
weakness areas, ex. Maintenance & production dept
should be connected and cooperated.
Opportunities
-Our product can be more reliable and spread through
the west if quality is enhanced.
-There are many areas of improvement in the factory.
-Continuous improvement can be sustained with good
support and commitment from the MD & the top
management.
There is a chance of profitability increase.
Threats
-Florien companies are competing in the global market. A
lot of them have been grown up (China, India..etc).
-Reduction of product making cost will be necessary to
increase our profit or sell at lower prices while still
making the same profit!.
SWOT
Process Improvement & Maps Creation.
There are three common types of maps:
•Big Picture Maps.
Suite managers & head, it illustrate the relation between different depts so the area of
improvement can be pointed out easily, and problems can be driven out.
Its like the Google Earth when you look at the map from its big size without zooming
or having details.
These maps illustrates the relation between the depts.
•Value Stream Maps.
The non value added and the value added are being separated in the map, time of each is
calculated and pointed out, so the time saving by eliminating the non-value is clear.
Value add
Non-value add
Value add Value add Value add
Non-value add Non-value add
•Process Maps.
Look for all details inside each dept, point out the wastes and improvement chances, , its the
most common map.
This is my preferred MAP, and will begin with it. Other maps can be discussed in the next
report.
Process MAP can zome ++ for specific points and show up the wastes in wider scale.
•Add value =add value to the customer.
•Non-add value essential =support process
•Unnecessary non-add value =waste
{quality check points, safety considerations, redundant machines, increase of
maintenance labors on process line}
Production call
for service
Workshop
trouble call
received
Send supervisor
for inspection
Inspection
process for 3
possible faults
Send the crew to
machine place-
Crew prepare tools
Crew reached
production
facility
Crew started the
repair job
3 Trips from
workshop to
production
Crew taken off GB Back to workshop
Discuss with
workshop leader
& take decision
Prepare spare
parts needed for
the spare GB
Back to
production
facility
Place the spare
GB on the
machine
Test OK
Receive request
for service no &
back to workshop
Discussion with
workshop leader
+ wash hands
Dismantle
gearbox to
specify needs
Write down
needed parts
Back to workshop
Searching for
Oracle no and
ask for help
Send paper to
follow up office
Back to workshop
& wait for
followup office
Crew re back to
follow up office
Searching for
Oracle &
warehouse data
Release of
warehouse
permission
Back to workshop
& sign the paper
from the head
2 Trips from
workshop to
follow up office
Break time for
maintenance
crew
Break time
12:00pm to
1:00pm
Store break time
12:30pm to
1:30pm
Crew went to the
store warehouse
no 124 at 1:35pm
Reached store
and wait for store
man service
Receive parts Back to workshop
1 unnecessary
trip to warehouse
1.5
min
1.5
min
1.5
min
3.5
min
16.25
min
6.5
min
1.5
min
1.5
min
Waiting 9 min
Waiting 40 min
Waiting 6.5 min
Over processing
Waiting 7 min
Waiting 5.5 min
Over processing
ERP
Over processing
Waiting 10 min
ERP
27
min
1.5
min
2 min 7 min
20
min
Over processing
Waiting 3.5 min
Over processing
Waiting for 14 min
ERP
Training/ Instructions
Map keys:
Yellow posts are the process steps.
Red posts indicate waste.
Blue posts are the ideas for improvement.
Process Map (1)
Waiting
Training
Waiting
Transportation/
Waiting 3.5 min
Untapped Human
Potential
Process Information:
Work type: Repair process for a washing machine breakdown.
Location: Factory 2.
Equipment Name: Washing machine no.4.
Process Actual/Current Best Possible
Machine availability for the
shift
71.5% 100% (no breakdowns)
MTTR(machine downtime) 2hrs 1.44hr
Repair efficiency 57.7% 80%
Total cycle time for the
process
285min 118min
Process cycle time
efficiency
41% 100%
Number of crews 1
SMED NO YES
Data Box (KPIs)
•Repair efficiency = time utilized actually in maintenance / cycle time of the process.
•SMED = Single Minute Exchange of Die.
Key definitions:
Process Map Analysis “Red Post-its Analysis”.
Process /issue description Symptom/Problem Exists Total time
Inspection Process Waiting 40
3 trips from workshop to production section Waiting/ Over processing 9
Labor Searching for Oracle code Waiting 6.5
Delay in the follow up office in issuing the Waiting 10
Searching for parts & warehouse data in the
follow up office
Waiting 5.5
Sign permission from the head Waiting/Over processing 5
Crew take break before the break time of
the warehouse
Waiting 30
Receiving parts from inventory Waiting 7
Long trip to far away warehouse “124” Waiting/ Transporting/Untapped
Human Potential
7
Unnecessary trip to the warehouse Waiting/ Over processing 7+7
Crew getting parts Untapped Human Potential/Waiting Process Sum=41
Total 123.5
Net downtime of the machine Waiting 43.5
Total 167 minutes
Processes with
wastes
Analysis Comments
Inspection
Inspection is done for 3 equipments at once.
Waiting for labor time,
supervisor time, and
machine downtime
The repair of the breakdown equipment didn’t start
immediately after diagnosis, the supervisor continued to
inspect others without calling the crew.
Inspection took 40 minutes because the supervisor had to
inspect another machines for the robot function, he had to
wait for 2 complete cycles of the robot.
There were no fault in the machine no.5 after 30 minutes of
2 robot cycles and complete inspection!.
Too many trips from
workshop to production
section
Inspection done by supervisor not the crew
No forecasting, crew had to back to workshop to get the
bearing of the shaft
Crew had to talk to the supervisor in the workshop to take
the decision of fitting the backup gearbox or wait till fix the
faulty one and fit it.
Labor/crew searching for
Oracle code
Its paper based, lots of paper to search in, he had to ask his
colleague to search for him.
Waiting for labor time &
refurbish time
Delay in the follow up
office
Too many permissions are waiting list, 2 data entry persons
were absent, so the load was concentrated on two persons.
Searching for parts &
warehouse no
We need to run better system
Process with wastes Comments & Causes
Sign permission paper
from the head
Administrative work Waiting for labor
time & refurbish
time
Crew break No comment!
Waiting for labot
time & refurbish
time
A trip to warehouse 124 Parts should be all in the warehouse 111 which is near the
workshop
Receiving parts
delayed in the
warehouse
Inventory store labor skills
Lack of ERP system
Unnecessary trip to
warehouse
Who should bring parts from warehouse?
The downtime
Frequency of repairing the same fault must be tracked to
analyze the repair efficiency.
Waiting for
machine & labor
time
Downtime must be eliminated by enhancing
maintenance & inspection.
It seems backup machine was operating, downtime was
in the beginning of the shift, not in the break time.
Total wastes exist 123.5 min, could be reduced to 35.5 min. So the total cycle time is reduced.
If each employee is wasting 123.5 minutes from his daily time during the breakdown then for 30 employee
the wastes are 10 employee daily!!
{Calculation=(123.5 x 30)/60=62man/hrs daily, 7hrs per shift=9 employees daily}.
If we can keep the machine with no unplanned breakdown, we could save this time for inspection or PM
instead.
Please consider the production loss, production can produce more if the downtime is eliminated.
Some Costs & Losses. (Time=Money)
Wastes
There is a good opportunity to reduce the 123.5 minutes, as well as eliminating the downtime, if
done, this means saving more than 2.5 hr for this process, remember this is just for one process
for one employee we could save many hours per day if all maintenance processes are mapped.
Production Availability
There is also a productivity loss during the machine downtime, this could be due to the waiting,
transportation & over processing wastes (have a look at the previous table).
Main Processes
There are 2 processes involved in this map which we can zoom in ++ for each:
1. Inspection& Repair process “Downtime of Machine” Effect production
availability & labor time.
2. Refurbish of gearbox process “Workshop” effect labor time.
•Each process has wastes, the no 1 are critical due to the downtime & productivity wastes.
•The mutual wastes in 1& 2 are about time, and as time equal money, so this must be pointed
out.
I do always prefer to create more than one map for the same process to recognize
repeated issues & evaluate the cost better.
Production call
for service
Workshop
trouble call
received
Send crew for
inspection
Inspection
process
Give the supervisor
the feedback
through the phone
Supervisor
waiting for the
request of service
Supervisor
receive the no &
write it down
1 trip to the store
112
Searching for
Oracle code
Write down the
request for spare
parts
Send the request
and to follow up
office
Getting the
warehouse data
& the permission
Searching for the
Head to get his
sign
Receiving parts
from store 112
Trip to store 124
Receiving parts
from store 124
Going to the
machine place
Waiting for crew
to get tools
Going to
machine place
Call supervisor in
the workshop
Inspection by
supervisor
Talking to
production &
agreement
Start repair at
11:30am, replace
GB with the spare
Replacing GB with
the spare one
Bringing cutter
during the repair
process
Production call
electric man
Electric man
arrived after 15
min
Electric finished
Electric waiting
for the test
opportunity
Electric writing
the WO
Mechanical
finished (from
start to finish)
Cleaning &
getting back tools
+ Wash hands
To the workshop
Dismantle
gearbox & inspect
it
Getting oil seals +
bearing from
Inventory
Finished the
refurbish process
1.5
min
1 min
3.5
min
4 min
1.5
min
Waiting 5 min
2,20
min
3,5
min
Over processing
13.5
min
Waiting 3.5 min
ERP
Map keys:
Yellow posts are the process steps.
Red posts indicate waste.
Blue posts are the ideas for improvement.
Process Map (2)
2 min
15
min
2 min
50
min
Waiting 6 min
Over processing/
Waiting 6 min
Waiting/Transportation
4.5 min
ERP
Training
ERP
Waiting 6 min
Waiting 6 min
Transportation 7min
Waiting Transportation Over processing 2min
Process Information:
Work type: Repair process for a washing machine breakdown.
Location: Factory 1.
Equipment Name: Washing machine no.9 basin no.3.
20
min
Waiting 10 min
Waiting 2.5 minWaiting 1.2 min Waiting 2.25 min
Planning
System
Training
ERP
Process Actual/Current Best Possible
Machine availability for the
shift
85.7% 100% (no breakdowns)
MTTR(machine downtime) 50min 45min
Repair efficiency 74% 85%-90%
Cycle time for the process 321min 188min
Process cycle time
efficiency
58% 100%
Number of crews 1
SMED NO YES
Data Box (KPIs)
•Repair efficiency = time utilized actually in maintenance / cycle time of the process.
•SMED = Single Minute Exchange of Die.
Key definitions:
Process Map Analysis “Red Post-its Analysis”.
Process step/issue description Symptom/Problem Exists Total time
Getting the request for service number Waiting 10
Getting the spare parts and the warehouse data Waiting 4
Searching for Oracle codes Waiting 6
Searching for the head to sign paper permission Waiting/Over processing 4.5
A trip to store 111+ receive parts Waiting 3.45
A trip to the store 124 to get spare parts + Receive parts Waiting/Transportation 7
2 trips to two stores to get parts Over processing 3.45+7
Supervisor getting parts Untapped Human Potential/
Waiting
Process Sum=38
Getting tools Waiting 2
Inspection by supervisor Over processing 2
Negotiating with production Waiting 6
Bring tools during the job of repair Waiting 5
Electrical tech finished and waiting Waiting 6
Back to workshop after repair finish Transportation 7
Getting spare parts for the refurbish process of the GB Over processing 30
Total 88 minutes
The downtime of machine Waiting 45
Total 133 minutes
Process with wastes Comments & Causes Comments
Supervisor getting parts
by himself
The crew was busy (even the crew shouldn’t go!)
Waiting for supervisor time
The service labor is not available at the time
Searching for Oracle codes
Its paper based, lots of paper to search in, he had to
ask his colleague to search for him.
Searching for the head to
sign the inventory
permission paper
Administrative work
A trip to store 124 to get
parts
All parts must be in one store
2 trips to two stores All parts must be in one store
Getting tools To be discussed later Waiting for labor time
Inspection by supervisor Crew must be trained to perform inspection
and never double the inspection Waiting for supervisor
timeNegotiation with
production
There must be a system for that, not every time
negotiation
Bring tools Tools must be planned once and for all Waiting for labor &
machine downtime
Wastes Analysis
Process with wastes Comments & Causes Comments
Electrical technician is
waiting
He must come on time and finish his work on
time, never wait
Waiting for electrical
man time
Back to workshop Its a long distance from workshop to factory.1 Waiting for labor
time
Getting parts for the
refurbish
This is a lake of planning issue, all parts must be
planned together, why supervisor didn’t bring
those parts from the beginning to be all in one
process?
Waiting for labor
time
The downtime
Frequency of repairing the same fault must be
tracked to analyze the repair efficiency.
Waiting for machine
& labor time
Downtime must be eliminated by enhancing
maintenance & inspection.
Backup machines takes 1-1.5 hr for preparation.
Consider no backup!, downtime wasn’t in the
break time.
Summarizing Common Issues and
Brainstorming Ideas for Improvement
1.Employee spend 30 minutes to get parts from the warehouse.
Quantifying the issue= average 10 times need to get parts/day for this maintenance dept.
10x 30 min= 300 min, this is 5hrs per day to just get the required spare parts (almost equal 1
employee).
This is 120hrs per month, 720hrs for 6 months, 1440 hours per year.
Remember this is just in one maintenance dept!, what if the issue is quantified & measured
for the engineering sector???? what would be the total time losses then?
The Lean goal here is to reduce wasted time for labors to make more time
available for other useful works like PM or projects, also the lead time to
get spare parts must be minimum if the machine is in downtime
Elimination of wastes will reduce the overtime percentage & cost.
Overtime hours during 2011 was: 1307hrs for 6 months only.
Cost of overtime during 2011 was: 11,247 EGP for 6 months only.
Receive service
request no from
production
Search for Oracle
codes
Write down
request for
permission
Send the paper to
the technical/follow
up office
Search for parts
and warehouse
location
Print the
permission
Sign the
permission from
the head
Send the labor to get
the spare parts from
the store
Get parts from 2
stores
Wait to receive
parts at the store
Back to the
workshop or
production facility
Getting spare parts process map “Time Analysis”:
Waiting Waiting Over processing
Waiting Over processing
Untapped Human
Potential
Transportation/
Waiting Waiting Transportation
Over processing
Over processing
Four Main Wastes Allocated:
6th Over processing
1st Transportation
4th Waiting
8th Untapped Human Potential
5
min
1
min
6
min
1min
6
min
10
min
6
min
3
min
Trouble call
received through
ERP
Forecast WO issued Spare parts request
Production
approval
Maintenance
approval
Check stock
availability
OK
Parts got
prepared by
inventory labor
Receive spare parts
through the delivery
from one warehouse
Cost & data
assigned to WO
CMMS with ERP:
1
min
2
min
2
min
2
min
3
min
5
min
Total time=15 min as max.
Reduction in time achieved=50%
*We already have the ERP and it can work by the above process.
Interaction Between, WO, Inventory & Production Depts.
I tried to figure out how thing may go if we have a CMMS to manage the WO and
connected to the ERP ”Oracle”. Time saving could be more than half.
2.Skills/Training Issues.
IN MAP.1
One problem in this MAP regarding the supervisor skills, he inspected all machines and got the
crew to fix one of them, he spent 40 minutes inspection and just 5 minutes inspecting the
concerned breakdown!.
He should have called the crew “Hosam” to come and start the repair process immediately after he
finished inspecting this failure, and he shouldn’t has to wait for 40 minutes. We could have saved
35 minutes from the equipment downtime by just following this rule.
In MAP.2
The supervisor performed a step of inspecting the failure by himself although the crew was already
inspected it. This is Over processing issue result in waiting and time delay. We could have been
saved 15 minutes from the supervisor time by insuring the crew has enough skills to take the
decision, for difficult failures, supervisor should inspect by himself, but here we are talking about a
common failure.
Achievement possibility.
Reduce MTTR .
Increase equipments availability.
Decrease process cycle time.
Achievement possibility.
Reduction of process cycle time.
Save valued time for the supervisor.
First, using the same person for every specific type of machine upon breakdown will
maybe create a faster repair. However, it will reduce the skill level of the others through
experience loss. Also, what would happen if the “expert” was not available?
Task name
Fixing the washing machine’s Gearbox
Fixing the washing machines Robot
Fixing the suction fans for Phoya lines
Replace the driving belt/chain in the Phoya lines.
Fix fans in the electric painting section
Replace crusher bearing
Diagnosis robot failures
Labor Names across
No Knowledge
Has knowledge but require practice
Intro, but require some training
Competent
Can train participators
Skill MATRIX
Some principles:
•We should train techs for the most
common repeated issues.
•We should train all techs on the diagnosis
of most common symptoms/problems.
Plan each step and understand the outcome expected at each point.
Do the task as planned.
Check that is the outcome is as expected “Audit”.
Act –find out what is going wrong . Then repeat the cycle.
Plan what you are going to do to put it right.
Do make the corrections. Then continue the rest of the cycle,
repeat the loop as necessary.
Plan-Do-Check-Act. PDCA Cycle.
After modifying the MAP, the new future state MAP is released, you have to re check to insure
problems are solved as properly as needed, sustaining the changes and insuring no recurrence
of the problems will be the biggest challenge, an audit system must be available in place.
This report has been classified to some episodes, the next one will have some solutions and
suggestions based scientifically on lean concept & lean perspectives.
•Strategic Lean Mapping by Steven Borris.
Total Productive Maintenance “TPM” by Steven Borris.
Lean Maintenance by Joel Levitt.
Toyota Way by Jeff K Liker.
References:
For more learning materials and information
please visit: www.personal-lean.org

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Process Mapping for Improvement and Sustained Results

  • 2.
  • 3. The core idea is to maximize CUSTOMER VALUE while minimizing waste. Simply, lean means creating more value for customers with fewer resources. A lean organization understands customer value and focuses its key processes to continuously increase it. The ultimate goal is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect value creation process that has zero waste. 1.Lean “Is the production control technique for eliminating the waste from your manufacturing”. 1.2.Lean Maintenance
  • 4. “Lean maintenance is a proactive maintenance operation employing planned and scheduled maintenance activities through total productive maintenance (TPM) practices using maintenance strategies developed through application of reliability centered maintenance (RCM) decision logic and practiced by empowered (self-directed) action teams using the 5S process, weekly Kaizen, and autonomous maintenance together with multi-skilled, maintenance technician-performed maintenance through the committed use of their work order system and their computer managed maintenance system (CMMS) or enterprise asset management (EAM) system. They are supported by a distributed, lean maintenance/MRO storeroom that provides parts and materials on a just-in-time (JIT) basis and backed by a maintenance and reliability engineering group that performs root cause failure analysis (RCFA), failed part analysis, maintenance procedure effectiveness analysis, predictive maintenance (PdM) analysis, and trending and analysis of condition monitoring results”.
  • 5. Lean simply means minimization of Wastes to increase company’s profitability and increase product value.
  • 7.
  • 8. •Basic Process Mapping •The Big Picture Map •Capacity Maps •Value Stream Mapping ”VSM” •Value and Capacity Stream Map •Swim Lanes Mapping. •SIPOC Maps. Commonly used for: -As a tool for problems finding and process improvement. -Pointing out inefficient process steps “non-value added”. -Allocate wastes and remove them. Mapping Tools: 2.1.Introduction Process mapping is a workflow diagram to bring forth a clearer understanding of a process or series of parallel processes. The Most common used map is the PROCESS MAP.
  • 9. Company profitability Profit= turnover- (cost to make the product and sell it). To be more accurate and according to lean concept, the equation should be changed to: Profit= turnover- (cost to make the product and sell it + wastes). Elimination of wastes increase the company’s profitability. SO by lean concept: what makes a company profitable than another is reduction of these wastes. Company with too many WASTES will be diminished dramatically!. Eliminating the process wastes will allow the company to compete more in the market by increasing its profitability or reducing the sell price.
  • 10. Size isn’t everything! •A common problem in huge number of countries where employee easily will spend 30 minutes a day looking for the tools or spare parts they need to do their work, if employee wastes 30 minutes each day; the company is losing 3 hours a week, this is about 6 hours in 2 weeks & 12 hours in one month ! what a big waste!. Remember this is just for 1 employee! per 1 month!. •Another Ex. series issues usually cost a company a lot of money and have an immediate impact. However not all the expensive issues are big ones. Small recurring problems virtually always tends to be overlooked. This in itself is a fundamental mistake made by many manufacturers!, In TPM, issues that frequently repeated are called as minor stops. Minor Stops: -Consume resources. -Waste time. -Accumulative cost is huge if calculated per year. -Reduce process efficiency. Process Line that fails 2-3 times daily What do you think if you have 600 lines with the same minor stops? 5 min20 min
  • 11. Imagine we have 600 grinding lines, and each line fails triples per day, so we have 1800 minor stops? Each minor took 5-20min to repair (MTTR), if we took it as average of 10min, so we have 18,000min equal 300hrs/day loss in productivity?! If the productivity rate is 200,000 stones average per shift per line, its 28,000 stone per hour. Then we loose 28,000 x 300hrs=8,400,000 stones per day!!. Company loose 134,400EGP daily productivity. This could be 3.5 millions per month! if our production are continuous & no brake time during shifts (maintenance have to appreciate that). According to the maintenance data, only 0.5% of these failures are emergency or production effective, so actual production losses=210,000EGP per year. We don’t lose much value of production because we use the system of 3hrs break time per day, 1hr per shift and the ability to force the labors to take break at any time!, but this is an administrative thing that has been made to avoid loosing productivity, it could be made because the process is manual, it may has been saved us but effected the company from another way. We have high labor turnover ratio, one of the reasons could be the system of forcing labors to take break at any time rather than the original specified break time. What of there were no minors? we could produce then during the break time or utilize the break time for doing preventive maintenance instead of fixing failures. 3.1.Ex No.1. Losses due to minor stops. 3.Quick overview on some hidden losses. 3.1.1.Counting the productivity losses “lean prefer money language”. Gross=144 stones(approximately its vary depend on SS size). Gross price (for S3)=0.4$ One stone price=0.0027$=0.016EGP
  • 12. 3.1.2.What about resources cost of minor stops? (hidden losses!) Costs should be for SPARE PARTS used & LABORS utilized during the minors fix. If we consider 1800 minors, each minor takes 10 min to repair, this is 300hrs per day for 600 production lines. This means company lose 300man/hrs daily just to fix those minors. This is equal 43 employee per day just to fix those minors!!. If the employee average daily rate is 50EGP, then the company pay more than half million pounds annually just to fix minors . 1 day 1 week 1 month 3 months 6 months 9 months 1 yr #REF! 1 Employee Losses EGP 2,150 12,900 51,600 154,800 309,600 464,400 619,200 Total cost 2150 12900 51600 154800 309600 464400 619200 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 500000 600000 700000 TotalCost Annual Losses Due To Minors Figure illustrate the total losses per year for employee utilized to fix minors, but remember they aren’t actually 43 employee, they are excessively more due to wastes!.
  • 13. Recording of data: 1800 minors per day, each failure require 1 minute to be recorded in the data base, so you need 30man/hrs per day to just record the failures, this is 5 employee, this is another lost. Generally, utilizing or using more labor than what is actually needed is because of wastes, lean should solve this efficiently.
  • 14. I have found that 50% of those minors are without spare parts replacement, its all about adjustment, tightening, and cleaning. The cost of consuming the maintenance resources in fixing the minors can be reduced by getting the operators/LINE MECHANIC involved in doing adjustments, cleaning, tightening, and other non-intensive technical works which is called Autonomous or Routine maintenance. This technique which has some special procedures and training requirements “won’t be discussed here”. In a study made in 2011, I have found that there are some specific lines with minimum maintenance involvement in fixing breakdowns although their productivity weren’t the maximum, but the operators/LINE MECHANIC were involved in fixing the minor issues without calling the maintenance for every trouble. So the above technique is 100% applicable and makes sense. Autonomous is when responsibilities for routine care and inspection are transferred to equipment operators instead of trained maintenance professionals The 8th Waste “Untapped Human Potential “
  • 15. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Line 83 Line 87 Line 72 Line 94 Line 79 Hours ProductionLines Average downtime hrs repaired by maintenance In a study I made during FEB, March, April 2011, it showed that some lines are being cared from the mechanical line, some others are being done by maintenance, the productivity was the same but this is good for Autonomous concept. Min utilization of maintenance crews Max utilization of maintenance crews
  • 16. 3.2.Ex No.2 Losses due to turnover (hidden losses!): •Loss of knowledge & experience, the need to re train new employee. •Cost of internal training. •Cost of filling new jobs “advertisements, third party....etc). •Losses in productivity during the hiring & leaving. •Defects in the product quality during the training process. •Benefits applied to new candidates such as salaries, medical insurance, social insurance, profit,..etc. •Upon completion of whatever training is provided, the employee is contributing at a 40% productivity level for the first 2 - 4 weeks. The cost therefore is 60% of the new employees full salary during that time period. •And much more! The previous points can be easy transferred to cost & money meaning, but due to lake of date I have so I will point out some costs & losses quickly.
  • 17. Asfour turnover ratio during the past 4 months (JAN to APRIL 2012) Period Week no Month Turnover ratio “No of FTE departures/ no of FTE employed” Comments Week.1 JAN 0.07% Week.2 JAN 0.05% Week.3 JAN 0.05% Week.4 JAN 0.03% Week.1 FEB 0.07% Week.2 FEB 0.05% Week.3 FEB 0.05% Week.4 FEB 0.081% Week.1 MARCH 0.088% No new candidates and the same departures level Week.2 MARCH 0.044% Week.3 MARCH 0.061% Week.4 MARCH 0.874% Week1 APRIL 0.084% No new candidates but the departures level reduce to almost half Week2 APRIL 0.043% Week.3 APRIL 0.03% Week4 APRIL 0.02%
  • 18. Period Total no of recruited candidates Losses JAN 2011 593 148,250 FEB 2011 154 38,500 MARCH-2011 0 0 APRIL-2011 0 0 MAY-2011 0 0 JUNE-2011 0 0 JULY 2011 8 2000 SEPT-2011 0 500 AUG 2011 2 0 OCT 2011 197 49250 NOV 2011 474 118,500 DEC 2011 291 145,500 JAN 2012 105 26250 FEB 2012 54 13500 MARCH 2012 Zero 0 APRIL 2012 Zero 0 Total 1719 429,750EGP 1st Losses calculation due to employee turnover (JAN 11 to APRIL 12. Losses are based on paying 60% salary in the first month against getting out 30-40% productivity.
  • 19. Total no of employee recruited=1719 employees. Productivity needed in the first month 40% Salary paid during the first month is 60% (750 from 1250EGP). 60%-40%=20% 20% x 1250=250EGP losses per labor. The looses are only for production quantity, what about the defects? and the defects during the first 3 months of training? in the first month I assume it very high specially for grade C which mostly go for recycle. Total Losses=250x 1719=429,750EGP during 1 year “2011”. 1st Losses
  • 21. 2nd Loss, old/experienced employee leaving. Employee that have been stayed in the company for 5 yrs or more, they are taking what equals 500EGP for each 1 yr “fellowship box” Fellow ship deserve=300. 500-300=200 additional for employee with 5 yrs or more in the company. Losses due to departure of old/experienced employee Total No of departures in 2011 No of old recruited (5 yrs and more with contract) Total Losses (no of labor x basic salary x no yrs) 6991 Hired since 2006=228 228 x 5 x 200=228,000 Hired since 2005=202 202 x 6 x 200=242,400 Hired since 2004=62 62 x 7 x 200=86,800 Hired since 2003=53 53 x 8 x 200=84,800 Hired since 2002=29 29 x 9 x 200=52,200 Hired since 2001=13 13 x 10 x 200=26,000 Hired since 2000=10 10 x 11 x 200=22,000 Hired since 1999=3 3 x 12 x 200=7,200 Hired since 1998=1 1 x 13 x 200=2,600 Hired since 1997=19 19 x 14 x 200=53,200 Hired since 1996=6 6 x 15 x 200=48,000 Hired since 1995=9 9 x 16 x 200=28,800 Hired since 1994=9 9 x 17 x 200=30,600
  • 22. Total Losses due to company failed to keep old employees= 1,071,400EGP plus the cost of losing experienced employee + the cost of productivity loss Did I mention that I found all of the previous losses by just mapping the hiring process?! 2nd Losses Total No of departures in 2011 No of old recruited (5 yrs and more with contract) Total Losses 6991 Hired since 1993=2 2 x 18 x 200=7,200 Hired since 1992=6 6 x 19 x 200=22,800 Hired since 1991=1 1 x 21 x 200=4,200 Hired since 1990=1 1 x 22 x 200=4,400 Hired since 1989=1 1 x 23 x 200=4,600 Hired since 1987=1 1 x 25 x 200=5,000 Hired since 1984=1 1 x 28 x 200=5,600 Hired since 1983=2 2 x 29 x 200=11,600 Hired since 1982=1 1 x30x 200=6,000 Hired since 1980=3 13x 32 x 200=72,800 Total 663 1,071,400 EGP
  • 23. 3rd Loss, (Production Performance Losses) There is a production losses during the recruitment of labors because you have to specify lines for training. If you specify a line for each 5 recruited labors and during the first week of training they do produce 10% of the productivity target, this mean the line is losing 90% of its productivity, for 1719 labors in 2011, there are 344 lines have been assigned to produce 10% of their productivity in the first week, if this line is working just 7hrs per shift for training purpose, so it should produce 200,000 stones per shift, and 1,400,000 stone per week, if its only producing 10% during this week then it only get 140,000 stones. Losses is 1,260,000 stones per line per week, for 344 lines, sum of losses would be 433,440,000 stones. 7200 stones=90EGP (roughly). 433,440,000 stones= 5,418,000EGP during 1 yr “2011”. 3rd Losses The losses is that you are getting productivity out of the machine less than its designed capacity, OEE should be calculated too. Production Efficiency= Actual Capacity/ Designed Capacity = 11% Total Losses=89% of production capacity 344 lines produce the productivity of 10 day in 1 day during the training and this is a waste.
  • 24. Total losses due to turnover in 2011=6,919,150 EGP! Total losses (1+2+3) If employee are only leaving, we may not look for the losses, because company don’t need them and want to reduce the load, but employee are being hired and fired, so the losses here is for the turnover as well as the company
  • 25. Problem Solving. Applying the problem solving techniques could solve many problems with lean, RCFA & Why-Why are the most common techniques involved. For example if we ask why the turn over ratio is high we could find the solution by asking the following questions: Why-Why Technique Q:Why we have high turnover? A: Labors in the grinding dept are leaving. 2nd why? A:They aren’t satisfied, they are claiming. 3rd why? No motivation system, no good working environment, no support, bad treatment may be, heavy load.4th why? Q:Unsatisfation/ Financial benefits against effort. 5th why? A:There is no attention made to the losses due to turnover/ There is no serious study for this phenomena Some ideas for solution: •Environment need treatment. •Benefits need to have a look against work load. •Study should be made for the cost of leaving & hiring versus the cost of offering a new motivation system. •There are many ways to build trust and make labors feel secure. •Improve training so they could recognize they are valued to the company. Brainstorming ideas require a team work
  • 26. Value is something that adds to the process or to the customer. Value added is good, non-value added is bad. Value actually is what customer want to pay for. Value stream. This present every step from the start to the end of the process. Every step of the process should bring the product closer to the completion. •Transportation •Inventory •Motion •Waiting •Over Production •Over Processing •Defects Lean & Value.
  • 27. 7 Wastes: Commonly known in lean language as Muda “which is a Japanese term”. It has been given a shortcut as “TIMWOOD” T=Transportation, I=Inventory, M=Motion, W=Waiting, O=Over processing, O=Over productivity, D=Defects. Asfour Training Session 27
  • 35. 8th Waste Untapped Human Potential •Underutilized person •Loss of skills & knowledge. •Loss of creativity. Asfour Training Session 35
  • 37. 37 Seven-Wastes in Maintenance Generally the same as in the manufacturing process with some considerations & notes: Transportation Any handling of materials or spare parts from the inventory warehouses to the refurbishment workshops as well as any handling process from the maintenance workshops to the production facilities. Inventory Inventory is the same in all, but we might have extra refurbishment parts the have been done by maintenance workshops. Motion All ergonomics in the workplace while the technician doing his job. Asfour Training Session
  • 38. 38 Waiting All maintenance activities are a waiting waste with relative to production & downtime. Over productivity Any workshop that do refurbishment more than needed, they are consuming more resources and increasing the inventory level. Over processing Doing unnecessary steps during the repair process. This is a result from lack of standardization of work procedures & lack of training. Asfour Training Session
  • 39. 39 • Why do we do this step? Is this step needed? • Why do we do it now? • Why do we do it this way? Is there an easier way to do it? • Do we need this step? • Can we eliminate this step? Or reduce its time? • Can we do two steps together at the same time? Can the step be grouped with others and preassembled? • Could two tasks be done at the same time? • Would two peoples doing the job make it faster? Over processing analysis: Asfour Training Session
  • 40. 40 Defect Any re-work for the maintenance job within a short time, immediately, or within a time less than the planned is a defect in the repair process. It will double the time of the repair, and consume resources (time, labor, spare parts…etc). So if a technician has carried a repair and the repair has returned back quickly, so this is a defect in the maintenance/repair process that will duplicate the losses. Asfour Training Session
  • 41. 41 Untapped human potential waste Also called loss of creativity, or unused employee creativity. Examples: An operator that is not trained to do the routine maintenance tasks. A professional or expert doing a simple maintenance job rather than doing the root cause analysis and problem solving process. Supervisors that are not utilized to do the RCFA root cause failure analysis. A manager that do not teach his stuff how to manage & lead. Asfour Training Session
  • 42. Process improvement & elimination of wastes to reduce cost and improve productivity thus increase value to the customer.  Improvement isn’t about blaming anyone, people don’t like to be blamed, the improvement process is based on continuous improvement and team work to build a better working environment and culture. Improvement works by getting the managers and the team involved to find solutions, by this way we can avoid making them feel that they are being blamed. When managers are contributed in the team of maps creation & process improvement, they will feel that they are an add value to the process, they are a part of it, and they are a part of the improvement process, by this way we can get a competitive advantage of process improvement.
  • 43. SWOT Analysis Strengths -Our product is globally competitive in the market, our reputation is good too. -Our product quality is good the & the price is moderate so we can compete the Asian prices. -Company is building a structure of good management & innovation by creating new determents such HR, R&D, Industrial Engineering and hiring professionals. -Backup machines are exist to avoid production interruption. Weakness -Lake of technology being used with production. -Building a good IT management system is amust with a good support of a full functional ERP system. -High turnover ratio for labors. -Lake of production planning. -There is no good chain to connect diff depts with each others to gain fast and reliable improvement in the weakness areas, ex. Maintenance & production dept should be connected and cooperated. Opportunities -Our product can be more reliable and spread through the west if quality is enhanced. -There are many areas of improvement in the factory. -Continuous improvement can be sustained with good support and commitment from the MD & the top management. There is a chance of profitability increase. Threats -Florien companies are competing in the global market. A lot of them have been grown up (China, India..etc). -Reduction of product making cost will be necessary to increase our profit or sell at lower prices while still making the same profit!. SWOT
  • 44. Process Improvement & Maps Creation. There are three common types of maps: •Big Picture Maps. Suite managers & head, it illustrate the relation between different depts so the area of improvement can be pointed out easily, and problems can be driven out. Its like the Google Earth when you look at the map from its big size without zooming or having details. These maps illustrates the relation between the depts.
  • 45.
  • 46. •Value Stream Maps. The non value added and the value added are being separated in the map, time of each is calculated and pointed out, so the time saving by eliminating the non-value is clear. Value add Non-value add Value add Value add Value add Non-value add Non-value add •Process Maps. Look for all details inside each dept, point out the wastes and improvement chances, , its the most common map. This is my preferred MAP, and will begin with it. Other maps can be discussed in the next report. Process MAP can zome ++ for specific points and show up the wastes in wider scale.
  • 47.
  • 48. •Add value =add value to the customer. •Non-add value essential =support process •Unnecessary non-add value =waste {quality check points, safety considerations, redundant machines, increase of maintenance labors on process line}
  • 49.
  • 50. Production call for service Workshop trouble call received Send supervisor for inspection Inspection process for 3 possible faults Send the crew to machine place- Crew prepare tools Crew reached production facility Crew started the repair job 3 Trips from workshop to production Crew taken off GB Back to workshop Discuss with workshop leader & take decision Prepare spare parts needed for the spare GB Back to production facility Place the spare GB on the machine Test OK Receive request for service no & back to workshop Discussion with workshop leader + wash hands Dismantle gearbox to specify needs Write down needed parts Back to workshop Searching for Oracle no and ask for help Send paper to follow up office Back to workshop & wait for followup office Crew re back to follow up office Searching for Oracle & warehouse data Release of warehouse permission Back to workshop & sign the paper from the head 2 Trips from workshop to follow up office Break time for maintenance crew Break time 12:00pm to 1:00pm Store break time 12:30pm to 1:30pm Crew went to the store warehouse no 124 at 1:35pm Reached store and wait for store man service Receive parts Back to workshop 1 unnecessary trip to warehouse 1.5 min 1.5 min 1.5 min 3.5 min 16.25 min 6.5 min 1.5 min 1.5 min Waiting 9 min Waiting 40 min Waiting 6.5 min Over processing Waiting 7 min Waiting 5.5 min Over processing ERP Over processing Waiting 10 min ERP 27 min 1.5 min 2 min 7 min 20 min Over processing Waiting 3.5 min Over processing Waiting for 14 min ERP Training/ Instructions Map keys: Yellow posts are the process steps. Red posts indicate waste. Blue posts are the ideas for improvement. Process Map (1) Waiting Training Waiting Transportation/ Waiting 3.5 min Untapped Human Potential Process Information: Work type: Repair process for a washing machine breakdown. Location: Factory 2. Equipment Name: Washing machine no.4.
  • 51. Process Actual/Current Best Possible Machine availability for the shift 71.5% 100% (no breakdowns) MTTR(machine downtime) 2hrs 1.44hr Repair efficiency 57.7% 80% Total cycle time for the process 285min 118min Process cycle time efficiency 41% 100% Number of crews 1 SMED NO YES Data Box (KPIs) •Repair efficiency = time utilized actually in maintenance / cycle time of the process. •SMED = Single Minute Exchange of Die. Key definitions:
  • 52. Process Map Analysis “Red Post-its Analysis”. Process /issue description Symptom/Problem Exists Total time Inspection Process Waiting 40 3 trips from workshop to production section Waiting/ Over processing 9 Labor Searching for Oracle code Waiting 6.5 Delay in the follow up office in issuing the Waiting 10 Searching for parts & warehouse data in the follow up office Waiting 5.5 Sign permission from the head Waiting/Over processing 5 Crew take break before the break time of the warehouse Waiting 30 Receiving parts from inventory Waiting 7 Long trip to far away warehouse “124” Waiting/ Transporting/Untapped Human Potential 7 Unnecessary trip to the warehouse Waiting/ Over processing 7+7 Crew getting parts Untapped Human Potential/Waiting Process Sum=41 Total 123.5 Net downtime of the machine Waiting 43.5 Total 167 minutes
  • 53. Processes with wastes Analysis Comments Inspection Inspection is done for 3 equipments at once. Waiting for labor time, supervisor time, and machine downtime The repair of the breakdown equipment didn’t start immediately after diagnosis, the supervisor continued to inspect others without calling the crew. Inspection took 40 minutes because the supervisor had to inspect another machines for the robot function, he had to wait for 2 complete cycles of the robot. There were no fault in the machine no.5 after 30 minutes of 2 robot cycles and complete inspection!. Too many trips from workshop to production section Inspection done by supervisor not the crew No forecasting, crew had to back to workshop to get the bearing of the shaft Crew had to talk to the supervisor in the workshop to take the decision of fitting the backup gearbox or wait till fix the faulty one and fit it. Labor/crew searching for Oracle code Its paper based, lots of paper to search in, he had to ask his colleague to search for him. Waiting for labor time & refurbish time Delay in the follow up office Too many permissions are waiting list, 2 data entry persons were absent, so the load was concentrated on two persons. Searching for parts & warehouse no We need to run better system
  • 54. Process with wastes Comments & Causes Sign permission paper from the head Administrative work Waiting for labor time & refurbish time Crew break No comment! Waiting for labot time & refurbish time A trip to warehouse 124 Parts should be all in the warehouse 111 which is near the workshop Receiving parts delayed in the warehouse Inventory store labor skills Lack of ERP system Unnecessary trip to warehouse Who should bring parts from warehouse? The downtime Frequency of repairing the same fault must be tracked to analyze the repair efficiency. Waiting for machine & labor time Downtime must be eliminated by enhancing maintenance & inspection. It seems backup machine was operating, downtime was in the beginning of the shift, not in the break time.
  • 55. Total wastes exist 123.5 min, could be reduced to 35.5 min. So the total cycle time is reduced. If each employee is wasting 123.5 minutes from his daily time during the breakdown then for 30 employee the wastes are 10 employee daily!! {Calculation=(123.5 x 30)/60=62man/hrs daily, 7hrs per shift=9 employees daily}. If we can keep the machine with no unplanned breakdown, we could save this time for inspection or PM instead. Please consider the production loss, production can produce more if the downtime is eliminated. Some Costs & Losses. (Time=Money)
  • 56. Wastes There is a good opportunity to reduce the 123.5 minutes, as well as eliminating the downtime, if done, this means saving more than 2.5 hr for this process, remember this is just for one process for one employee we could save many hours per day if all maintenance processes are mapped. Production Availability There is also a productivity loss during the machine downtime, this could be due to the waiting, transportation & over processing wastes (have a look at the previous table). Main Processes There are 2 processes involved in this map which we can zoom in ++ for each: 1. Inspection& Repair process “Downtime of Machine” Effect production availability & labor time. 2. Refurbish of gearbox process “Workshop” effect labor time. •Each process has wastes, the no 1 are critical due to the downtime & productivity wastes. •The mutual wastes in 1& 2 are about time, and as time equal money, so this must be pointed out. I do always prefer to create more than one map for the same process to recognize repeated issues & evaluate the cost better.
  • 57.
  • 58. Production call for service Workshop trouble call received Send crew for inspection Inspection process Give the supervisor the feedback through the phone Supervisor waiting for the request of service Supervisor receive the no & write it down 1 trip to the store 112 Searching for Oracle code Write down the request for spare parts Send the request and to follow up office Getting the warehouse data & the permission Searching for the Head to get his sign Receiving parts from store 112 Trip to store 124 Receiving parts from store 124 Going to the machine place Waiting for crew to get tools Going to machine place Call supervisor in the workshop Inspection by supervisor Talking to production & agreement Start repair at 11:30am, replace GB with the spare Replacing GB with the spare one Bringing cutter during the repair process Production call electric man Electric man arrived after 15 min Electric finished Electric waiting for the test opportunity Electric writing the WO Mechanical finished (from start to finish) Cleaning & getting back tools + Wash hands To the workshop Dismantle gearbox & inspect it Getting oil seals + bearing from Inventory Finished the refurbish process 1.5 min 1 min 3.5 min 4 min 1.5 min Waiting 5 min 2,20 min 3,5 min Over processing 13.5 min Waiting 3.5 min ERP Map keys: Yellow posts are the process steps. Red posts indicate waste. Blue posts are the ideas for improvement. Process Map (2) 2 min 15 min 2 min 50 min Waiting 6 min Over processing/ Waiting 6 min Waiting/Transportation 4.5 min ERP Training ERP Waiting 6 min Waiting 6 min Transportation 7min Waiting Transportation Over processing 2min Process Information: Work type: Repair process for a washing machine breakdown. Location: Factory 1. Equipment Name: Washing machine no.9 basin no.3. 20 min Waiting 10 min Waiting 2.5 minWaiting 1.2 min Waiting 2.25 min Planning System Training ERP
  • 59. Process Actual/Current Best Possible Machine availability for the shift 85.7% 100% (no breakdowns) MTTR(machine downtime) 50min 45min Repair efficiency 74% 85%-90% Cycle time for the process 321min 188min Process cycle time efficiency 58% 100% Number of crews 1 SMED NO YES Data Box (KPIs) •Repair efficiency = time utilized actually in maintenance / cycle time of the process. •SMED = Single Minute Exchange of Die. Key definitions:
  • 60. Process Map Analysis “Red Post-its Analysis”. Process step/issue description Symptom/Problem Exists Total time Getting the request for service number Waiting 10 Getting the spare parts and the warehouse data Waiting 4 Searching for Oracle codes Waiting 6 Searching for the head to sign paper permission Waiting/Over processing 4.5 A trip to store 111+ receive parts Waiting 3.45 A trip to the store 124 to get spare parts + Receive parts Waiting/Transportation 7 2 trips to two stores to get parts Over processing 3.45+7 Supervisor getting parts Untapped Human Potential/ Waiting Process Sum=38 Getting tools Waiting 2 Inspection by supervisor Over processing 2 Negotiating with production Waiting 6 Bring tools during the job of repair Waiting 5 Electrical tech finished and waiting Waiting 6 Back to workshop after repair finish Transportation 7 Getting spare parts for the refurbish process of the GB Over processing 30 Total 88 minutes The downtime of machine Waiting 45 Total 133 minutes
  • 61. Process with wastes Comments & Causes Comments Supervisor getting parts by himself The crew was busy (even the crew shouldn’t go!) Waiting for supervisor time The service labor is not available at the time Searching for Oracle codes Its paper based, lots of paper to search in, he had to ask his colleague to search for him. Searching for the head to sign the inventory permission paper Administrative work A trip to store 124 to get parts All parts must be in one store 2 trips to two stores All parts must be in one store Getting tools To be discussed later Waiting for labor time Inspection by supervisor Crew must be trained to perform inspection and never double the inspection Waiting for supervisor timeNegotiation with production There must be a system for that, not every time negotiation Bring tools Tools must be planned once and for all Waiting for labor & machine downtime Wastes Analysis
  • 62. Process with wastes Comments & Causes Comments Electrical technician is waiting He must come on time and finish his work on time, never wait Waiting for electrical man time Back to workshop Its a long distance from workshop to factory.1 Waiting for labor time Getting parts for the refurbish This is a lake of planning issue, all parts must be planned together, why supervisor didn’t bring those parts from the beginning to be all in one process? Waiting for labor time The downtime Frequency of repairing the same fault must be tracked to analyze the repair efficiency. Waiting for machine & labor time Downtime must be eliminated by enhancing maintenance & inspection. Backup machines takes 1-1.5 hr for preparation. Consider no backup!, downtime wasn’t in the break time.
  • 63. Summarizing Common Issues and Brainstorming Ideas for Improvement
  • 64. 1.Employee spend 30 minutes to get parts from the warehouse. Quantifying the issue= average 10 times need to get parts/day for this maintenance dept. 10x 30 min= 300 min, this is 5hrs per day to just get the required spare parts (almost equal 1 employee). This is 120hrs per month, 720hrs for 6 months, 1440 hours per year. Remember this is just in one maintenance dept!, what if the issue is quantified & measured for the engineering sector???? what would be the total time losses then? The Lean goal here is to reduce wasted time for labors to make more time available for other useful works like PM or projects, also the lead time to get spare parts must be minimum if the machine is in downtime Elimination of wastes will reduce the overtime percentage & cost. Overtime hours during 2011 was: 1307hrs for 6 months only. Cost of overtime during 2011 was: 11,247 EGP for 6 months only.
  • 65. Receive service request no from production Search for Oracle codes Write down request for permission Send the paper to the technical/follow up office Search for parts and warehouse location Print the permission Sign the permission from the head Send the labor to get the spare parts from the store Get parts from 2 stores Wait to receive parts at the store Back to the workshop or production facility Getting spare parts process map “Time Analysis”: Waiting Waiting Over processing Waiting Over processing Untapped Human Potential Transportation/ Waiting Waiting Transportation Over processing Over processing Four Main Wastes Allocated: 6th Over processing 1st Transportation 4th Waiting 8th Untapped Human Potential 5 min 1 min 6 min 1min 6 min 10 min 6 min 3 min
  • 66. Trouble call received through ERP Forecast WO issued Spare parts request Production approval Maintenance approval Check stock availability OK Parts got prepared by inventory labor Receive spare parts through the delivery from one warehouse Cost & data assigned to WO CMMS with ERP: 1 min 2 min 2 min 2 min 3 min 5 min Total time=15 min as max. Reduction in time achieved=50% *We already have the ERP and it can work by the above process. Interaction Between, WO, Inventory & Production Depts. I tried to figure out how thing may go if we have a CMMS to manage the WO and connected to the ERP ”Oracle”. Time saving could be more than half.
  • 67. 2.Skills/Training Issues. IN MAP.1 One problem in this MAP regarding the supervisor skills, he inspected all machines and got the crew to fix one of them, he spent 40 minutes inspection and just 5 minutes inspecting the concerned breakdown!. He should have called the crew “Hosam” to come and start the repair process immediately after he finished inspecting this failure, and he shouldn’t has to wait for 40 minutes. We could have saved 35 minutes from the equipment downtime by just following this rule. In MAP.2 The supervisor performed a step of inspecting the failure by himself although the crew was already inspected it. This is Over processing issue result in waiting and time delay. We could have been saved 15 minutes from the supervisor time by insuring the crew has enough skills to take the decision, for difficult failures, supervisor should inspect by himself, but here we are talking about a common failure. Achievement possibility. Reduce MTTR . Increase equipments availability. Decrease process cycle time. Achievement possibility. Reduction of process cycle time. Save valued time for the supervisor.
  • 68. First, using the same person for every specific type of machine upon breakdown will maybe create a faster repair. However, it will reduce the skill level of the others through experience loss. Also, what would happen if the “expert” was not available? Task name Fixing the washing machine’s Gearbox Fixing the washing machines Robot Fixing the suction fans for Phoya lines Replace the driving belt/chain in the Phoya lines. Fix fans in the electric painting section Replace crusher bearing Diagnosis robot failures Labor Names across No Knowledge Has knowledge but require practice Intro, but require some training Competent Can train participators Skill MATRIX Some principles: •We should train techs for the most common repeated issues. •We should train all techs on the diagnosis of most common symptoms/problems.
  • 69. Plan each step and understand the outcome expected at each point. Do the task as planned. Check that is the outcome is as expected “Audit”. Act –find out what is going wrong . Then repeat the cycle. Plan what you are going to do to put it right. Do make the corrections. Then continue the rest of the cycle, repeat the loop as necessary. Plan-Do-Check-Act. PDCA Cycle. After modifying the MAP, the new future state MAP is released, you have to re check to insure problems are solved as properly as needed, sustaining the changes and insuring no recurrence of the problems will be the biggest challenge, an audit system must be available in place. This report has been classified to some episodes, the next one will have some solutions and suggestions based scientifically on lean concept & lean perspectives.
  • 70. •Strategic Lean Mapping by Steven Borris. Total Productive Maintenance “TPM” by Steven Borris. Lean Maintenance by Joel Levitt. Toyota Way by Jeff K Liker. References: For more learning materials and information please visit: www.personal-lean.org