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Industrial Applications of Infrared Thermography Analysis

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Industrial Applications of Infrared Thermography Analysis

  1. 1. Prepared by Eng. Mohammed Hamed Ahmed Soliman The American University in Cairo Email: mohammed@personal-lean.org : m.h.ahmed@ess.aucegypt.edu Tel : +201001309903 Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 1
  2. 2. Infrared monitoring and analysis has the widest range of application (from high- to low-speed equipment), and it can be effective for spotting both mechanical and electrical failures. It also requires minimum skills for analysis. Everything on this planet contains thermal energy and therefore has a specific temperature. This thermal energy is emitted from the surface of the material. This energy is called is infrared (IR) radiation. The amount of IR radiation emitted at a certain wavelength, from the surface of an object, is a function of the object's temperature. This is a very important concept, since it implies that one can calculate the temperature of an object by measuring the infrared radiation emitted from it. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 2
  3. 3. Detectors in the infrared camera convert this incoming infrared energy from the infrared spectrum to the visual spectrum so we can see the infrared energy Infrared Thermography is the technique for producing a visible image of invisible (to our eyes) infrared energy emitted by objects Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 3
  4. 4. IR Benefit s Applications Thermal & Radiation science Camera handling Inspection routines & reporting Analysis technique s Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 4
  5. 5. Applications of Thermography Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 5
  6. 6.  Measurements are:  Non-contact.  Obtained without disturbing production.  Applies to all type of equipment.  Reliable data  Quickly identifies specific location  Apply to most all conditions Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 6
  7. 7. Average downtime cost: Lost Revenues Industry Sector Revenue/Hour Chemicals $704,101 Construction & Engineering $389,601 Electronics $477,366 Energy $2,817,846 Food & Beverage $804,192 Manufacturing $1,610,654 Metals/natural resources $580,588 Pharmaceuticals $1,082,252 Utilities 643,250 Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 7
  8. 8. Various Inspection Points Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 8
  9. 9. Machine Heat Sources Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 9
  10. 10. Industrial Equipment Applications Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 10
  11. 11. Electromechanical & Mechanical Systems Commonly inspected components • Pumps • Fans • Heat Exchangers • Gearboxes • Bearings • Drive belts • Motors Typical reasons for temperature hotspots or deviations • Bearing problems - lubrication, wear, etc. • Bad alignment • Bad cooling- due to reduced airflow • Friction due to wear, misalignment or inadequate lubrication Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 11
  12. 12. Bearing Temp is 108.4deg C due to overload issue and this may be a cause of unbalanc e issue Bearing Failures Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 12
  13. 13. Bearing temp is 81.2 Bearing temp is high due to greasing problem Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 13
  14. 14. Clean the surface and recheck again Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 14
  15. 15. Bearing temp is 110degC due to overload issue, this may be due to unbalance issue. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 15
  16. 16. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 16
  17. 17. Loose or tight belt heats up abnormally Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 17
  18. 18. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 18
  19. 19. Pumps Bearing Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 19
  20. 20. Motor Bearing Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 20
  21. 21. Motor Bearing Motor bearing temperature is high due to excessive belt tension Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 21
  22. 22. Overheated Motors Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 22
  23. 23. Heat Exchanger Blocked heat exchanger section (green arrow) Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 23
  24. 24. Process installations Commonly inspected components • Refractory insulation • Tanks and vessels • Steam systems/traps • Pipes and valves • Heaters/Furnaces • Manufacturing equipment • Plastics Industry (Molding) • Metal Foundry • Boilers and Reactors Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 24
  25. 25. Furnace Refractory Thermal Isolation Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 25
  26. 26. Refractory Damage Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 26
  27. 27. Furnace tubes & Burners Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 27
  28. 28. SP01 Casing leaks such as this one can be easily identified with infrared Boiler Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 28
  29. 29. Turbine Leakage Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 29
  30. 30. Cement Rotary Kiln Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 30
  31. 31. Piping : lack of insulation Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 31
  32. 32. Piping : lack of insulation Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 32
  33. 33. Piping (missed insulation) Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 33
  34. 34. 85.5°F 144.3°F 100 120 140 75.8°F 196.2°F 80 100 120 140 160 180 SP01: 153.4°F SP02: 173.9°F 79oC 67 oC Notice the temperature difference at flange Condenser Air Leakage Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 34
  35. 35. 66.5°F 396.0°F AR01: >364.3°F This leaking valve is over 177oC (350oF). Most leaking valves are less evident. Detect Valves Leakage Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 35
  36. 36. 93.7°F 488.6°F 100 200 300 400 SP01: 393.3°F 176.6°F 667.2°F 200 300 400 500 600 SP01: 533.9°F AR01: *598.0°F • All boiler, turbine, stop valve, valve chest, etc., drain lines need to be checked for leak through. • Make sure a valve is totally closed before inspecting. Leaking drain Turbine reheat steam line drain valve leaking through. Valves Leakage Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 36
  37. 37. Power plant : Valves leakages Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 37
  38. 38. •IR can identify leaking bypass lines and improper operation (must monitor). •One must know the trap cycle of operation. •Comparison between like equipment that is operating the same often confirms problems. •Use Ultrasonic Acoustics to confirm problems 118.6°F 361.0°F 150 200 250 300 350 SP01 80.2°F 103.2°F 85 90 95 100 SP01 Steam trap stuck open. Steam trap working normall y. Steam trap by- pass leaking. Steam Traps Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 38
  39. 39. Storage Tanks Levels Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 39
  40. 40. Electrical systems •(3 phase) Power distribution •Fuse boxes •Cables & connections •Relays/Switches •Insulators •Capacitors •Circuit breakers •Controllers •Transformers •Battery banks •Motors •Substations Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 40
  41. 41. Connection problem Motor Starter Connection Problem Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 41
  42. 42. Thermal image showing a failing connection on an electrical component Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 42
  43. 43. Transformer Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 43
  44. 44. Transformer Oil Fins Overheating issue Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 44
  45. 45. Transformer cabinet terminal block connection Low Oil Level Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 45
  46. 46. Transformer Winding problem Thermo graphing Windings Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 46
  47. 47. Capacitor Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 47
  48. 48. Insulation problem Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 48
  49. 49. Infrared Analysis for Electric Panels 1. Conductors Problems 2. Starter Problems Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 49
  50. 50. 3. Circuit Breaker 4. Switches Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 50
  51. 51. 5. Terminal Connectors 6. Switch Gears Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 51
  52. 52. 7. Breaker wires & connectors 8. Conductors Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 52
  53. 53. 9. PLC (Some panels have controllers) Fig.1 Fig.2 Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 53
  54. 54. 10. Fuse Boxes Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 54
  55. 55. Buildings Commonly inspected components •Walls •Roofs •Windows •Doors •HVAC •Insulation •Floor heating Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 55
  56. 56. Concrete Inspections This example shows that even though the bridge deck doesn’t generate heat it can still be analyzed with thermography. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 56
  57. 57. Missing insulation in a residential dwelling wall costs the occupants hundreds of dollars each year in heating and cooling. House Insulation Inspection Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 57
  58. 58. Air leakage round a roof latch Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 58
  59. 59. Building –Moisture in Roof Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 59
  60. 60. Roof (trapped water) Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 60
  61. 61. Drain blockage at house Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 61
  62. 62. Heat loss in buildings Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 62
  63. 63. Aircraft Inspections Composite aircraft materials are extremely sturdy and lightweight. These materials are vital to aircraft performance and airworthiness. However, the honeycomb structure of this material presents a potentially dangerous problem: water ingress Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 63
  64. 64. Medical Thermography Race horse sustained an injury in a fall. The infrared image shows where the problem is, and monitored the process of the healing Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 64
  65. 65. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 65
  66. 66.  It shows a visual picture so temperatures over a large area can be compared.  It is capable of catching moving targets in real time.  It is able to find deteriorating, i.e., higher temperature components prior to their failure.  It can be used to measure or observe in areas inaccessible or hazardous for other methods.  It is a non-destructive test method.  It can be used to find defects in shafts, pipes, and other metal or plastic parts.  It can be used to detect objects in dark area. Advantages of Thermography Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 66
  67. 67.  Due to the low volume of thermal cameras, quality cameras often have a high price range (often US$6,000 or more)  Images can be difficult to interpret accurately when based upon certain  objects, specifically objects with erratic temperatures, although this problem is reduced in active thermal imaging  Accurate temperature measurements are conflicted by differing emissivity and reflections from other surfaces  Most cameras have ±2% accuracy or worse and are not as accurate as contact methods.  Only able to directly detect surface temperatures. Limitation of the Thermography: Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 67
  68. 68. Infrared Thermometer  Rapid, precise temperature measurement.  State of the art infrared temperature  measurement technology.  Simple to use  Reduction of unplanned downtime  Available at economical cost. Benefits: Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 68
  69. 69. Terminologies • Emissivity • Distance to spot • Temperature range Emissivity Emissivity is a term used to describe the energy-emitting characteristics of materials. Most organic materials and painted or oxidized surfaces have an emissivity of 0.95. Inaccurate readings can result from measuring shiny or polished metal surfaces. To compensate for this, adjust the unit’s emissivity reading, or cover the surface to be measured with masking tape or flat black paint. Allow time for the tape or paint to reach the same temperature as the material underneath it. Measure the temperature of the tape or painted surface. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 69
  70. 70. An ideal thermometer will measure from -35 to 500C, some others will measure up to 1000C Distance to Spot D: S ratio or distance to spot ratio. This indicates the size of the area measured relative to distance away from the object being measured. If D: S is 1:1 then at 1 foot the area being measured is 1 foot in diameter. If D: S is 8:1 then from 8 ft. away the area measured is 1 ft. in diameter. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 70
  71. 71. There are two models of infrared thermometers, one is non contact and the other is contact, the difference between them are as follow: •The non-contact is faster for measuring than the contact one. •The non-contact can measure in the hazard areas where the contact one can't be used. •The only good thing in the contact one is that it can measure temperature ranges more than the non-contact one. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 71
  72. 72. Material Emissivity Material Emissivity Aluminum, polished 0.05 Clay, fired 0.91 Aluminum, rough surface 0.07 Concrete 0.92 Aluminum, strongly oxidized 0.25 Copper, polished, 0.01 Asbestos board 0.96 Copper, commercial burnished 0.07 Asbestos fabric 0.78 Copper, oxidized 0.65 Asbestos paper 0.94 Copper, oxidized to black 0.88 Asbestos slate 0.96 Electrical tape, black plastic 0.95 Brass, dull, tarnished 0.22 Enamel 0.90 Brass, polished 0.03 Formica 0.93 Brick, common 0.85 Frozen soil 0.93 Emissivity Values of Common Materials Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 72
  73. 73. Material Emissivity Material Emissivity Brick, glazed, rough 0.85 Glass 0.92 Brick, refractory, rough 0.94 Glass, frosted 0.96 Bronze, porous, rough 0.55 Gold, polished 0.02 Bronze, polished 0.10 Ice 0.97 Carbon, purified 0.80 Iron, hot rolled 0.77 Cast iron, rough casting 0.81 Iron, oxidized 0.74 Cast iron, polished 0.21 Iron, sheet galvanized, burnished 0.23 Charcoal, powdered 0.96 Iron, sheet, galvanized, oxidized 0.28 Chromium, polished 0.10 Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 73
  74. 74. Material Emissivit y Material Emissivit y Iron, shiny, etched 0.16 Rubber 0.93 Iron, wrought, polished 0.28 Shellac, black, dull 0.91 Lacquer, black, dull 0.97 Shellac, black, shiny 0.82 Lacquer, black, shiny 0.87 Snow 0.80 Lacquer, white 0.87 Steel, galvanized 0.28 Lampblack 0.96 Steel, oxidized strongly 0.88 Lead, gray 0.28 Steel, rolled freshly 0.24 Lead, oxidized 0.63 Steel, rough surface 0.96 Lead, red, powdered 0.93 Steel, rusty red 0.69 Lead, shiny 0.08 Steel, sheet, nickelplated 0.11 Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 74
  75. 75. Material Emissivity Material Emissivity Mercury, pure 0.10 Steel, sheet, rolled 0.56 Nickel, on cast iron 0.05 Tar paper 0.92 Nickel, pure polished 0.05 Tin, burnished 0.05 Paint, silver finish 0.31 Tungsten 0.05 Paint, oil, average 0.94 Water 0.98 Paper, black, shiny 0.90 Zinc, sheet 0.20 Paper, black, dull 0.94 Porcelain, glazed 0.92 Paper, white 0.90 Quartz 0.93 Platinum, pure, polished 0.08 Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 75
  76. 76. How to choose the right Camera Important Specifications: Temp Measuring Ranges: -30 to 1500C Thermal Sensitivity: 100mkv - < 50mk Resolution: from 160x120 to 320x240 Accuracy: 2% or less Emissivity: adjustable from 0.01 to 1 Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 76
  77. 77. 1-LCD display 7-SD memory card 13-Removable lithium battery 2-Function soft keys 8-Lense cover 14-Two-Bay charging Base 3-Speaker 9-Visual light 15-AC adapter/Power Supply 4-Microphone 10-Infrared lens 5-Autobacklight sensor 11-Focus control ring 6-Hand strap 12-Image capture trigger Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 77
  78. 78. • Backlight • Date/Time • Emissivity • File Format • High Temperature Alarm (Ti32, Ti29, Ti27) or Dew-point Alarm (TiR32, TiR29, TiR27) • Hot Spot and Cold Spot and Center Point on the image • IR-FusionR Mode • Language • Lens Selection • Level/Span • Palette • Reflected Background Temperature Compensation • Temperature Scale • Transmission Correction The menus, coupled with the three soft keys ( , , and ), provide access for thermal image display, saving and viewing stored images, and setting features: Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 78
  79. 79. Reporting Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 79
  80. 80. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 80
  81. 81. Considerations:  As greater as you go close to the the object being inspected when using an infrared camera; while taking safety concerns, the more likelihood of an inaccurate reading.  Long-distance lenses are used for inspections that preclude close proximity, such as electrical poles. A wide-angle lens is used to inspect large objects. Consideration when photo graphing images Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 81
  82. 82.  A variety of weather conditions affect infrared thermo graphy readings; for example, high winds during a roof inspection can obscure the imaging results. Other weather conditions that must be taken into effect include summer sunlight and rain.  The inspector must adapt to weather conditions to ensure accurate readings, including avoiding testing during times of rain or waiting for gusts of wind to subside. Avoid testing during times of intense sunlight, such as the middle of the day. Reschedule testing if adjustments to the conditions are not possible. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 82
  83. 83. Benefits of Thermography Thermo graphy & Lean What is lean? Simply, lean means creating more value for customers with fewer resources. Lean= Minimal Losses+ Minimal Wastes. Lean for equipment: means minimum downtime with maximum reliability. How thermo graph reduce equipment losses & wastes? •Reduce Time of Maintenance. •Detect early failure & prevent CM downtimes. •Detect hidden failures & improve equipment reliability. •Reduce the resources required to do the routine & preventive maintenance. Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 83
  84. 84. Books: Machinery Vibration Analysis & Predictive Maintenance. Institutes: Infraspection Institute Prepared by Eng.Mohammed Hamed Ahmed Soliman Industrial Engineering Consultant & Lecturer Email : mohammed@personal-lean.org : m.h.ahmed@ess.aucegypt.edu Tel : +201001309903 LinkedIn: eg.linkedin.com/in/mohammedhamed/ Done by MHA Soliman - Infrared Temp Analysis 84

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