Renal Physiology (I) - Kidney Function & Physiological Anatomy

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by dr Mohammed Abel Gawad (drgawad@gmail.com): Nephrology Specialist at Kidney & Urology Center - Alexandria - Egypt. website: www.nephrotube.blogspot.com

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Renal Physiology (I) - Kidney Function & Physiological Anatomy

  1. 1. 1RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (I) m KIDNEY FUNCTION &PYSIOLOGICAL ANATOMY Mohammed Abdel Gawad
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES2  Introduction  Functions of the kidney  Physiological anatomy of the kidney  Nephron & its types  Renal circulation & renal blood flow  Nervous supply of the kidney
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION – THE KIDNEY3 A retroperitoneal organ T11-L3 Normal size: 11-15cm in adults. Right kidney usually shorter than the left (upper limit of variation in length between right & left 1.5 cm)
  4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEY4  1- Execratory function:  a. metabolites  b. drugs  c. toxins  2- Homeostatic function:  a. Maintenance of water balance.  b. Maintenance of electrolyte balance.  c. Maintenance of acid-base balance.  3- Endocrine (hormonal) secretory function:  a) Renin by the juxtaglomerular cells (JG)  b) Erythropoietin hormone by endothelial cells of peritubular capillaries of renal cortex  c) Prostaglandins.  4- Endocrine (hormonal) metabolic function:  The kidney converts vitamin D3 → active 1,25­dihydroxycholecalciferol by alpha one hydroxylase enzyme in cells of PCT under effect of PTH.
  5. 5. PHYSIOLOGIC ANATOMY5 OF THE KIDNEY
  6. 6. NEPHRON (Renal malpighian corpuscle & Renal tubules)6
  7. 7. NEPHRON (Renal malpighian corpuscle)7
  8. 8. NEPHRON (Renal malpighian corpuscle)8
  9. 9. TYPES OF NEPHRON9
  10. 10. TYPES OF NEPHRON10 (85-90%) (10-15%)
  11. 11. RENAL CIRCULATION11  See the video on our facebook group NephroTube
  12. 12. RENAL CIRCULATION12
  13. 13. RENAL CIRCULATION
  14. 14. KIDNEYS BLOOD FLOW RATE14  - One fourth (25%) of the cardiac output passes into the kidney/minute (1300 ml blood/minute).  - The high renal blood flow does not reflect a high O2 consumption (kidneys utilize 8% of the total O2 consumption of the body).  - This high blood flow is related to the homeostatic function of the kidney → allows a high rate of glomerular filtration
  15. 15. NERVE SUPPLY15 The renal blood vessels are supplied by splanchnic nerves, vasoconstrictors → renal blood is reduced in stress condition due to sympathetic stimulation → blood is shifted to vital organs The kidney also receives input from the parasympathetic nervous system, by way of the renal branches of Vagus nerve (Cranial nerve X), the function of this is yet unclear. Sensory input from the kidney travels to the T10-11 levels of the spinal cord and is sensed in the corresponding dermatome. Thus, pain in the flank region may be referred from corresponding kidney
  16. 16. 16 Follow On www.nephrotube.blogspot.com & Facebook Group NephroTube
  17. 17. 17 Gawad

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