SlideShare a Scribd company logo

medical glossary.docx

Medical glossary Prepared by: Dr. Mohammed Alruby Medical glossary Aberrancy: occurring or developing away from the normal situation Acantholysis: loss of coherence between epithelial cells due to degeneration of desmosomes (intercellular bridge) this will lead to the formation of intra-epithelial clefts, vesicle and bullae Acanthosis: epithelial hyperplasia, mainly of the stratum spinosum, leading to increase thickness of the stratum granulosum due to increased number of cell layers of prickle cells Achondroplasia: an autosomally inherited disorder characterized by abnormality of conversion cartilage into bone predominantly affecting the epiphyses of long bones, leading to retarded growth at the epiphyses and resulting in dwarfism with short extremities but normal trunk Acidogenic: referring to organisms capable of producing acid Aciduric: referring to organisms capable of surviving and metabolizing under highly acidic conditions Acquired: a term used to describe a condition, habit or other characteristic which is not present at birth, which developed in the individuals by reaction to some environmental factor (to acquire is to obtain) Agenesis: failure of formation leading to absence of a part or organ Aglossia: failure of formation leading to absence of the tongue Agnathia: absence of the jaw, usually the lower jaw, usually accompanied by approximation of the ears Amyloid: pertaining of starch, having the characteristic of starch. A protein compound of albumin and chondroitin sulphate which resembles starch in appearance and may be pathologically deposited in certain tissues Anaplasia: atypical differentiation or lack of differentiation of epithelial cells occurring in the malignant disease. Anaplastic cells have large, hyperchromatic, irregularly shaped nuclei and frequently show a typical mitosis. Aneuploidy: an abnormal number of chromosomes in a nucleus. This usually arise from failure of paired chromosomes or sister chromatids to disjoin at anaphase of cell division Aneurysm: circumscribed dilatation of an artery Aneurysmal: relating to an aneurysm. The term applied to a type of cyst that produce bony expansion simulating the expansion of an artery produced by a vascular aneurysm Angiogenesis: development of blood vessels Angioma: a swelling or mass due to proliferation with or without dilatation of vascular channels Anhydrosis: absence of sweating due to absence of sweat glands Ankyloglossia: tongue tie, usually due to a short lingual frenum or one attached too near the tip of the tongue, may be due to failure of separation of tongue from the floor of the mouth during embryogenesis Ankylosis: stiffening or fixation of a joint as a result of a disease process Anodontia: absence of teeth Anomaly: deviation from the normal, anything structurally unusual or irregular Antigen: a substance that can induce an antibody response Antimongoloid slant: an obliquity of the palpebral fissures laterally

1 of 9
Download to read offline
1
Dr. Mohammed Alruby
Medical glossary
Prepared by:
Dr. Mohammed Alruby
Medical glossary
2
Dr. Mohammed Alruby
Aberrancy: occurring or developing away from the normal situation
Acantholysis: loss of coherence between epithelial cells due to degeneration of desmosomes
(intercellular bridge) this will lead to the formation of intra-epithelial clefts, vesicle and bullae
Acanthosis: epithelial hyperplasia, mainly of the stratum spinosum, leading to increase thickness
of the stratum granulosum due to increased number of cell layers of prickle cells
Achondroplasia: an autosomally inherited disorder characterized by abnormality of conversion
cartilage into bone predominantly affecting the epiphyses of long bones, leading to retarded
growth at the epiphyses and resulting in dwarfism with short extremities but normal trunk
Acidogenic: referring to organisms capable of producing acid
Aciduric: referring to organisms capable of surviving and metabolizing under highly acidic
conditions
Acquired: a term used to describe a condition, habit or other characteristic which is not present
at birth, which developed in the individuals by reaction to some environmental factor (to acquire
is to obtain)
Agenesis: failure of formation leading to absence of a part or organ
Aglossia: failure of formation leading to absence of the tongue
Agnathia: absence of the jaw, usually the lower jaw, usually accompanied by approximation of
the ears
Amyloid: pertaining of starch, having the characteristic of starch. A protein compound of albumin
and chondroitin sulphate which resembles starch in appearance and may be pathologically
deposited in certain tissues
Anaplasia: atypical differentiation or lack of differentiation of epithelial cells occurring in the
malignant disease. Anaplastic cells have large, hyperchromatic, irregularly shaped nuclei and
frequently show a typical mitosis.
Aneuploidy: an abnormal number of chromosomes in a nucleus. This usually arise from failure of
paired chromosomes or sister chromatids to disjoin at anaphase of cell division
Aneurysm: circumscribed dilatation of an artery
Aneurysmal: relating to an aneurysm. The term applied to a type of cyst that produce bony
expansion simulating the expansion of an artery produced by a vascular aneurysm
Angiogenesis: development of blood vessels
Angioma: a swelling or mass due to proliferation with or without dilatation of vascular channels
Anhydrosis: absence of sweating due to absence of sweat glands
Ankyloglossia: tongue tie, usually due to a short lingual frenum or one attached too near the tip
of the tongue, may be due to failure of separation of tongue from the floor of the mouth during
embryogenesis
Ankylosis: stiffening or fixation of a joint as a result of a disease process
Anodontia: absence of teeth
Anomaly: deviation from the normal, anything structurally unusual or irregular
Antigen: a substance that can induce an antibody response
Antimongoloid slant: an obliquity of the palpebral fissures laterally downwards in contrast to the
laterally upward slant seen in mongoloid races
Aplasia: congenital absence of an organ or tissue. in heamatology, incomplete, retarded or
defective development, or cessation of the usual regeneration process
Apoptosis: cell deflection by fragmentation into membrane-bonded particles which are
phagocytosed by other cells
Apostematosa: apostema, old name of abscess, cheilitis glandularis Apostematosa means chronic
inflammation of the lower lips with swelling of mucous gland, ulceration and small abscess
3
Dr. Mohammed Alruby
Atresia: absence of a normal opening or normally patent lumen
Atrophy: wasting of tissue, organs, or the entire body resulting from death and reabsorption of
cells, diminished cellular proliferation, pressure, ischemia malnutrition decreased function or
hormonal or hormonal changes.
Atypsia: a state of being not typical, not conforming to the normal structure of the part
Autoradiography: the process of producing an autoradiograph, which is a reproduction of the
distribution and concentration of radioactivity in a tissue, made by placing a photographic
emulsion in close proximity to the part
Autosomal: a trait transmitted by a gene carried on an autosome (any member of the 22 paired
chromosomes other than the X and Y sex chromosome)
Ballooning degeneration: a type of degeneration of epithelial cells causing marked swelling with
loss of intercellular bridges, Acantholysis results and vesicle or bulla is formed.
Benign: denoting the mild character of an illness, or the nonmalignant nature of neoplasm.
Bleb: a large flaccid vesicle
Boss: a circumscribed rounded swelling or prominence
Bosselated: marked by numerous bosses or rounded protuberances
Botryoid: having numerous rounded protuberances resembling a bunch of grapes
Buccal: pertaining to or adjacent to, or in direction of cheek
Bulla: a large vesicle from 5mm to several centimeters in size
Cachexia: a general lack of nutrition and wasting occurring in the course of a chronic disease or
emotional disturbance
Calculus: stone, a concretion formed in any part of the body, mostly biliary, urinary or salivary
passages and formed of inorganic or organic salts
Cariogenic: capable of producing caries
Cell nest: a term used to describe a cluster of cells arranged in a concentric manner like a bird’s
nest usually found in malignant neoplasm of the skin or mucous membrane
Cellular adhesion: attachment of cells to neighboring cells through desmosomes and various type
of cell junctions
Cellular pleomorphism: variation in the size, shape, and staining of cells of the same tissue or
neoplasm
Cellular polarity: the direction or orientation of cells in a common direction, this is lost if cells
lose their adhesion to neighboring ones
Centromere: the constriction of a chromosome which is the point of attachment of the spindle fiber
and is concerned with chromosome movement during cell division
Cheilitis: inflammation of lips, angular cheilitis denotes inflammation of lips with redness and the
production of fissures radiating from the corner of the mouth
Chemotaxis: attraction of living cells or protoplasm to chemical stimuli
Cherubism: a form of fibro- osseous lesion of the jaws producing the characteristic facies of the
cherub
Coloboma: the part taken away from mutilation, denoting any defect, congenital, pathologic or
artificial, especially of eye (of palpebral fissure). A congenital notch in the eyelid margin
Congenital: existing since before birth or at birth, dating from birth, congenital malformations are
anatomical or structural abnormalities that are present at birth, though they may not be diagnosed
until later.
Craniotabes: a disease marked by the presence of areas of thinning and softening in the bones of
the skull
4
Dr. Mohammed Alruby
Cyst: an abnormal sac (cavity) containing gas, fluid or a semisolid material, with a membranous
epithelial lining
Deaf-mutism: in ability to speak due to congenital or early acquired profound deafness
Deletion: (genetic): loss of a portion of chromosome between two break points or as a result of a
parental translocation
Dense in dent: a developmental disturbance in tooth formation resulting from invagination of
odontogenic epithelium associated with enamel development into the area which was supposed to
be the pulp space, after calcification, there is an invagination of enamel and dentine into the pulp
space, and distortion of pulp space and the root contour to accommodate this invagination
Dense: tooth, a tooth like process
Dantigerous: arising from or associated with teeth
Dentinoid: resembling dentine
Desmoplastic: causing fibrosis in the stroma of neoplasm
Desmosome: site of adhesion between two cells, consisting of a dense plate separated from similar
structure in the other by thin layer of extracellular material
Developmental: characterized by, or belonging to the process of development
Dextran: approved name for ploy-an-hydro-glucose. It is a gummy high molecular weight glucose
polymer produced by the action of certain bacteria on carbohydrates
Diabetes insipidus: chronic excretion of very large amount of pale urine of low specific gravity,
accompanied by extreme thirst, usually resulting from inadequate production of pituitary
antidiuretic hormone
Dichotomy: cutting or division into two parts
Dilaceration: displacement of some portion of a developing tooth which is then further developed
in a new direction resulting in a tooth with sharply angulated root
Dizygotic: twins derived from two different zygotes
Dominant: a dominant gene is which will produce its effects when present in either heterozygous
or homozygous condition (when only one or both alleles are affected)
dyskeratosis: imperfect or abnormal development, orientation and keratinization of epithelial
cells. The appearance of premature keratinization in individual cells that have not reached the
keratinizing surface layer. Keratinization of individual cells or groups of cells may occur within
the lesions; the cells exhibit hyper-chromatism, loss polarity and increased nuclear size and
prominent nucleoli, and there may also be an increased mitotic rate with abnormal mitosis
Dysostosis: defective bone formation
Dysplasia: abnormal tissue development
Dystrophy: defective nutrition
Ectopic: aberrant, out of place, refers to an organ or structure which is not in its proper position
Enucleation: the entire removal of a tumor, a cyst or other structure in one piece without rupture
Epiphora: an overflow of tears upon the cheek due to imperfect drainage by the lachrymal duct
Epithelial pearl: whorls of epithelial cells arranged in a concentric manner, with keratin in its
center
Erosion: a shallow defect in the surface mucosa representing loss of epithelium down to, but not
including, the basal layer
Erythroplakia: a red, velvety plaque-like lesion of mucous membrane which often represents
developing malignant change
Exanthema: a skin eruption occurring as a symptom of an acute viral or coccal disease
5
Dr. Mohammed Alruby
Exophthalmos: prominence or protrusion of the eyeballs due to disease to such an extent that the
eyelids will not cover them
Expressivity: the degree to which effects of a gene are expressed or shown in an individual
Familial: affecting several members of the same family
Fistula: an abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
Fluorosis: a condition caused by an excessive intake of fluorides
Foam cells: cells with abundant, pal-staining, finely vacuolated cytoplasm, usually histocytes that
have ingested or accumulated material that dissolves during tissue preparation, usually lipid
Fontanelles: un-ossified, membranous intervals at the angles where the parietal bone meet other
bones in the infant.
= The anterior fontanelle is a diamond- shaped interval closed by membrane at the junction of the
frontal, coronal, and sagittal sutures. It is normally ossified at about twelve months of age
= the anterior lateral fontanelle is an interval at the junction of the parietal bone with the fontal,
squamous, temporal and greater wing of the sphenoid bone, it is normally obliterated within the
1st
three months after birth.
= the posterior fontanelle, is a triangular interval at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoid
sutures. It is normally ossified within the 1st
three months after birth.
= the posterior lateral fontanelle is an interval between the adjacent edges of the parietal, occipital
and temporal bones. It is normally closed by eighteen months of age
Fusion: the growth together, as one of two or more teeth, in consequence of abnormal union of
their formative organs
Germination: embryonic partial division of primordium as, of a tooth germ resulting in two
partially or completely separated crowns
Genetic: transmitted from one generation to another through genes, same as hereditary
Ghost cell: a dead cell in which the outline remains visible, but without other cytoplasmic
structures or stainable nucleus. Ghost cells may become keratinized and may classify
Glossoptosis: falling back of the tongue
Gnotobiote: an originally germ-free animal that has been inoculated with known and controlled
bacteria
Hemangioma: a swelling or tumor due to proliferation, with or without dilatation, of blood vessels
Hamartoma: a focal malformation, resulting from faulty development of an organ or tissue that
resemble neoplasm
Hepatomegaly: enlargement of liver
Hereditary: transmitted from ancestors or parents to a child, same as genetic
Heredity: the transmission of character from parents to offspring
Hyaline: having glossy, homogenous, translucent appearance
Hydropic degeneration: this signifies edema and degeneration of basal cells; the nuclei being
replaced by clear spaces. The entire basal cells gradually degenerate and the epithelial connective
tissue boundary becomes ill-defined
Hyper-chromatic (nuclei): abnormally highly colored, excessively stained nuclei
Hyperkeratosis: this means widening or thickening of the stratum corneum. It results clinically in
a white lesion. The degree of whiteness and opacity of the lesion is related to the degree of
hyperkeratosis.
Hyper-parakeratosis: increased thickness of keratin layer with retained pyknotic nuclei
6
Dr. Mohammed Alruby
Hyperplasia: increase of size of a tissue or organ due to increase in the number of its constituent
cells. Hyperplasia of connective tissue is characterized by a markedly increased density of collagen
fibers
Hypertrophy: increased size of a tissue or organ due to increase in size of its constituent cells
Hyperhidrosis: diminished sweating
Hypoplasia: underdevelopment of a tissue or organ due to decrease in number of its cells
Inversion: this arises through two chromosomal breaks with inversion through 180 degree of the
segment between the breaks
Karyolysis: apparent destruction of the nucleus of a cell with loss of affinity of its chromatin to
basic dyes
Karyorrhexis: a state of necrosis characterized by fragmentation of the nucleus whereby its
chromatin is irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm
Leukoedema: a benign abnormality of the oral mucosa clinically resembling leukoplakia,
consisting of filmy, opalescent to whitish-gray finely to a coarsely wrinkled epithelium
Leukoplakia: a disturbance of keratinization of mucous membranes. Variously present as
opalescent patches or as extensive leathery plaque, occasionally ulcerated, histologically it may
exhibit disturbance in the orderly maturation of stratified squamous epithelium and is then
regarded as precancerous
Levan: a polymer of fructose produced by action of certain bacteria on sucrose
Lymphangioma: a swelling or tumor due to proliferation with or without dilatation of lymphatic
vessels
Macrodontia: abnormally large teeth
Macroglossia: enlargement of tongue
Macrognathia: enlargement or elongation of the jaw
Macrostomia: abnormally large mouth
Macule: a circumscribed non-raised area of altered coloration varying in size from a pinhead to
several centimeter is diameter. Macules may be circular, ovoid, or linear, there color is usually
deeper the surrounding normal mucosa, and they may be red, brownish –red or brown-black.
= A macular eruption may represent punctate hemorrhage as seen in thrombocytopenic purpura,
it may contain melanin deposits as in Addison’s disease or it may consist of small vascular
malformation as in hereditary telangiectasis.
Malignant: in reference to a neoplasm, having the property of local invasiveness, destructive
growth and metastasis
Melanoblast: a cell derived from the neural crest, it migrates to various parts of the body during
early embryogenesis and then becomes a mature melanocyte
Melanocyte: a cell located at the dermal epidermal junction, having dendritic processes and
capable of forming melanin
Melanophore: a phagocytic cell that contain melanin but does not form the pigment
Mendelian: attributed to or described by Mendel
Mesiodens: a supernumerary tooth located in the midline of the upper jaw
Metaplasia: abnormal transformation of an adult, fully differentiated tissue of one kind into a
differentiated tissue of another kind
Microdontia: single or multiple disproportionately small teeth
Microglossia: smallness of the tongue
Ad

Recommended

More Related Content

Similar to medical glossary.docx

Benign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the Jaws
Benign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the JawsBenign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the Jaws
Benign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the JawsHadi Munib
 
Fibro osseous lesions of jaw
Fibro osseous lesions of jawFibro osseous lesions of jaw
Fibro osseous lesions of jawShivani Shivu
 
Connective tissue lesions
Connective tissue lesionsConnective tissue lesions
Connective tissue lesionsIAU Dent
 
DENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptx
DENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptxDENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptx
DENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptxDr.Mohit Bains
 
326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.ppt
326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.ppt326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.ppt
326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.pptAbuKaram1
 
Odontogenic Cysts (1).pdf
Odontogenic Cysts (1).pdfOdontogenic Cysts (1).pdf
Odontogenic Cysts (1).pdfAbuKaram1
 
Odontogenic Tumors Oral Pathology
Odontogenic Tumors Oral PathologyOdontogenic Tumors Oral Pathology
Odontogenic Tumors Oral PathologySana Rasheed
 
Odontogenic tumors II
Odontogenic tumors IIOdontogenic tumors II
Odontogenic tumors IIIAU Dent
 
Benign connective tissue jaw tumors rl
Benign connective tissue jaw tumors rlBenign connective tissue jaw tumors rl
Benign connective tissue jaw tumors rlSsemagandaAddinan
 
Radiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant courses
Radiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant coursesRadiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant courses
Radiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant coursesIndian dental academy
 
Growth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.Vinay
Growth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.VinayGrowth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.Vinay
Growth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.VinayVenkat Vinay
 
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...ishita1994
 
Pseudo cyst
Pseudo cystPseudo cyst
Pseudo cystIAU Dent
 

Similar to medical glossary.docx (20)

Benign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the Jaws
Benign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the JawsBenign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the Jaws
Benign Non-Odontogenic Tumors of the Jaws
 
Fibro osseous lesions of jaw
Fibro osseous lesions of jawFibro osseous lesions of jaw
Fibro osseous lesions of jaw
 
Ameloblastoma
AmeloblastomaAmeloblastoma
Ameloblastoma
 
Ameloblastoma
AmeloblastomaAmeloblastoma
Ameloblastoma
 
Connective tissue lesions
Connective tissue lesionsConnective tissue lesions
Connective tissue lesions
 
DENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptx
DENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptxDENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptx
DENTIGEROUS CYST & CALCIFYING ODONTOGENIC CYST.pptx
 
326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.ppt
326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.ppt326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.ppt
326036820-Introduction-Cysts-of-Jaws.ppt
 
Odontogenic Cysts (1).pdf
Odontogenic Cysts (1).pdfOdontogenic Cysts (1).pdf
Odontogenic Cysts (1).pdf
 
Odontogenic Tumors Oral Pathology
Odontogenic Tumors Oral PathologyOdontogenic Tumors Oral Pathology
Odontogenic Tumors Oral Pathology
 
Odontogenic tumors II
Odontogenic tumors IIOdontogenic tumors II
Odontogenic tumors II
 
Odontogenic cyst
Odontogenic cystOdontogenic cyst
Odontogenic cyst
 
Benign connective tissue jaw tumors rl
Benign connective tissue jaw tumors rlBenign connective tissue jaw tumors rl
Benign connective tissue jaw tumors rl
 
Cysts of jaw
Cysts of jawCysts of jaw
Cysts of jaw
 
Radiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant courses
Radiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant coursesRadiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant courses
Radiopacities not necessarily contacting teeth/ dental implant courses
 
Jaw bone lesions
Jaw bone lesionsJaw bone lesions
Jaw bone lesions
 
Pulp
PulpPulp
Pulp
 
Growth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.Vinay
Growth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.VinayGrowth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.Vinay
Growth plate & Various disorders affecting growth plate by Dr.Vinay
 
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL OSSIFYING FIBROMA IN A SERIES OF 4...
 
Osteochondroma
OsteochondromaOsteochondroma
Osteochondroma
 
Pseudo cyst
Pseudo cystPseudo cyst
Pseudo cyst
 

More from Dr.Mohammed Alruby

Questions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdf
Questions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdfQuestions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdf
Questions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdfDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
Informations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic Surgery
Informations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic SurgeryInformations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic Surgery
Informations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic SurgeryDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
Information leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdf
Information leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdfInformation leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdf
Information leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdfDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
Informations Leaflet for Fixed Braces.pdf
Informations Leaflet  for Fixed Braces.pdfInformations Leaflet  for Fixed Braces.pdf
Informations Leaflet for Fixed Braces.pdfDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
Extra-oral forces and appliances.docx
Extra-oral forces and appliances.docxExtra-oral forces and appliances.docx
Extra-oral forces and appliances.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
effects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docx
effects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docxeffects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docx
effects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
orthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docx
orthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docxorthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docx
orthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
orthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docx
orthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docxorthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docx
orthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
diagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docx
diagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docxdiagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docx
diagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
diagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docx
diagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docxdiagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docx
diagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
diagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docx
diagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docxdiagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docx
diagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
smile and orthodontic implication.docx
smile and orthodontic implication.docxsmile and orthodontic implication.docx
smile and orthodontic implication.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 
orthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docx
orthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docxorthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docx
orthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docxDr.Mohammed Alruby
 

More from Dr.Mohammed Alruby (20)

Questions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdf
Questions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdfQuestions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdf
Questions asked by Orthodontic Patients.pdf
 
Informations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic Surgery
Informations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic SurgeryInformations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic Surgery
Informations Leaflet for Ortho-gnathic Surgery
 
Information leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdf
Information leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdfInformation leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdf
Information leaflet for Orthodontic Mini-Screw.pdf
 
Informations Leaflet for Fixed Braces.pdf
Informations Leaflet  for Fixed Braces.pdfInformations Leaflet  for Fixed Braces.pdf
Informations Leaflet for Fixed Braces.pdf
 
Rotation in orthodontics.docx
Rotation in orthodontics.docxRotation in orthodontics.docx
Rotation in orthodontics.docx
 
Torque in orthodontics.docx
Torque in orthodontics.docxTorque in orthodontics.docx
Torque in orthodontics.docx
 
Extra-oral forces and appliances.docx
Extra-oral forces and appliances.docxExtra-oral forces and appliances.docx
Extra-oral forces and appliances.docx
 
effects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docx
effects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docxeffects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docx
effects of extra-oral appliances and forces.docx
 
orthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docx
orthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docxorthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docx
orthodontic appliance and treatment philosophy.docx
 
distalization appliances.docx
distalization appliances.docxdistalization appliances.docx
distalization appliances.docx
 
Laser in orthodontics.docx
Laser in orthodontics.docxLaser in orthodontics.docx
Laser in orthodontics.docx
 
orthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docx
orthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docxorthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docx
orthodontic mangement of orthognathic cases.docx
 
muscles part 3.docx
muscles part 3.docxmuscles part 3.docx
muscles part 3.docx
 
muscles part 2.docx
muscles part 2.docxmuscles part 2.docx
muscles part 2.docx
 
muscles part 1.docx
muscles part 1.docxmuscles part 1.docx
muscles part 1.docx
 
diagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docx
diagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docxdiagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docx
diagnostic aids part 3, photograph and radiograph.docx
 
diagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docx
diagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docxdiagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docx
diagnostic aids part 2 study cast, cast analysis.docx
 
diagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docx
diagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docxdiagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docx
diagnostic aids part 1 diagnosis, examination, BMR, EMG.docx
 
smile and orthodontic implication.docx
smile and orthodontic implication.docxsmile and orthodontic implication.docx
smile and orthodontic implication.docx
 
orthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docx
orthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docxorthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docx
orthodontic biology of tooth and supporting structure.docx
 

Recently uploaded

Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajHepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
SEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdf
SEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdfSEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdf
SEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdfmarlonduqueupb
 
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...Dr. Madduru Muni Haritha
 
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...leejalashrestha2
 
A complete guide to the Human Digestive System
A complete guide to the Human Digestive SystemA complete guide to the Human Digestive System
A complete guide to the Human Digestive Systemantoneymichael992
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CareBrian Peacock
 
Malaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Malaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajMalaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Malaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTyphoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdfHongBiThi1
 
seminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaa
seminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaaseminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaa
seminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaasofialopezvalencia
 
Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024
Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024
Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024ERWINPEJI2
 
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Dr. Madduru Muni Haritha
 
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
GLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptx
GLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptxGLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptx
GLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptxWINCY THIRUMURUGAN
 
Seminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez Ramírez
Seminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez RamírezSeminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez Ramírez
Seminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez Ramírezmanuelaalvarezr
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Subrata Roy
 
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...bkling
 
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...Rajshri
 
Measles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Measles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajMeasles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Measles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajSurabhi Srivastava
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajHepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Hepatitis A.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
SEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdf
SEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdfSEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdf
SEMINARIO VIH BIOLOGIA MOLECULAR PDF.pdf
 
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...
SCIENTIFIC APPROACH OF DIET IN MASANUMASIKA GARBINI PARICHARYA – FOR A HEALTH...
 
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
Bursitis is inflammation or irritation of a bursa sac. Bursae are small fluid...
 
A complete guide to the Human Digestive System
A complete guide to the Human Digestive SystemA complete guide to the Human Digestive System
A complete guide to the Human Digestive System
 
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated CarePsychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
Psychedelic Treatment Planning: Opportunities in Integrated Care
 
Malaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Malaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajMalaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Malaria Disease.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTyphoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Typhoid.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
1. GP Chi trên hay lạ khó cần xem nhiều.pdf
 
seminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaa
seminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaaseminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaa
seminario bio mol- sofia lopez valenciaa
 
Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024
Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024
Impact of Early Pregnancy---Lecture-2024
 
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...Namburi phased spot test - NPST  To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
Namburi phased spot test - NPST To identify bhasma and sindhura - A Qualitat...
 
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajTuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Tuberculosis .pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
GLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptx
GLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptxGLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptx
GLANDS IN THE SKIN,FUNCTIONS AND ABNORMALITIES ..pptx
 
Seminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez Ramírez
Seminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez RamírezSeminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez Ramírez
Seminario Biología Molecular Manuela Álvarez Ramírez
 
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajPoliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Poliomyelitis.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
Work-role of Radiation Therapists in the Consequences of Adaptive Radiotherap...
 
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
Report Back from San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) 2023: Spotlight ...
 
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...Bioavailability & Bioequivalence  Studies- Definitions, Methods  of Measureme...
Bioavailability & Bioequivalence Studies- Definitions, Methods of Measureme...
 
Measles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Measles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, PrayagrajMeasles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
Measles.pptx Department of Physiotherapy, SHUATS, Prayagraj
 

medical glossary.docx

  • 1. 1 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Medical glossary Prepared by: Dr. Mohammed Alruby Medical glossary
  • 2. 2 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Aberrancy: occurring or developing away from the normal situation Acantholysis: loss of coherence between epithelial cells due to degeneration of desmosomes (intercellular bridge) this will lead to the formation of intra-epithelial clefts, vesicle and bullae Acanthosis: epithelial hyperplasia, mainly of the stratum spinosum, leading to increase thickness of the stratum granulosum due to increased number of cell layers of prickle cells Achondroplasia: an autosomally inherited disorder characterized by abnormality of conversion cartilage into bone predominantly affecting the epiphyses of long bones, leading to retarded growth at the epiphyses and resulting in dwarfism with short extremities but normal trunk Acidogenic: referring to organisms capable of producing acid Aciduric: referring to organisms capable of surviving and metabolizing under highly acidic conditions Acquired: a term used to describe a condition, habit or other characteristic which is not present at birth, which developed in the individuals by reaction to some environmental factor (to acquire is to obtain) Agenesis: failure of formation leading to absence of a part or organ Aglossia: failure of formation leading to absence of the tongue Agnathia: absence of the jaw, usually the lower jaw, usually accompanied by approximation of the ears Amyloid: pertaining of starch, having the characteristic of starch. A protein compound of albumin and chondroitin sulphate which resembles starch in appearance and may be pathologically deposited in certain tissues Anaplasia: atypical differentiation or lack of differentiation of epithelial cells occurring in the malignant disease. Anaplastic cells have large, hyperchromatic, irregularly shaped nuclei and frequently show a typical mitosis. Aneuploidy: an abnormal number of chromosomes in a nucleus. This usually arise from failure of paired chromosomes or sister chromatids to disjoin at anaphase of cell division Aneurysm: circumscribed dilatation of an artery Aneurysmal: relating to an aneurysm. The term applied to a type of cyst that produce bony expansion simulating the expansion of an artery produced by a vascular aneurysm Angiogenesis: development of blood vessels Angioma: a swelling or mass due to proliferation with or without dilatation of vascular channels Anhydrosis: absence of sweating due to absence of sweat glands Ankyloglossia: tongue tie, usually due to a short lingual frenum or one attached too near the tip of the tongue, may be due to failure of separation of tongue from the floor of the mouth during embryogenesis Ankylosis: stiffening or fixation of a joint as a result of a disease process Anodontia: absence of teeth Anomaly: deviation from the normal, anything structurally unusual or irregular Antigen: a substance that can induce an antibody response Antimongoloid slant: an obliquity of the palpebral fissures laterally downwards in contrast to the laterally upward slant seen in mongoloid races Aplasia: congenital absence of an organ or tissue. in heamatology, incomplete, retarded or defective development, or cessation of the usual regeneration process Apoptosis: cell deflection by fragmentation into membrane-bonded particles which are phagocytosed by other cells Apostematosa: apostema, old name of abscess, cheilitis glandularis Apostematosa means chronic inflammation of the lower lips with swelling of mucous gland, ulceration and small abscess
  • 3. 3 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Atresia: absence of a normal opening or normally patent lumen Atrophy: wasting of tissue, organs, or the entire body resulting from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, pressure, ischemia malnutrition decreased function or hormonal or hormonal changes. Atypsia: a state of being not typical, not conforming to the normal structure of the part Autoradiography: the process of producing an autoradiograph, which is a reproduction of the distribution and concentration of radioactivity in a tissue, made by placing a photographic emulsion in close proximity to the part Autosomal: a trait transmitted by a gene carried on an autosome (any member of the 22 paired chromosomes other than the X and Y sex chromosome) Ballooning degeneration: a type of degeneration of epithelial cells causing marked swelling with loss of intercellular bridges, Acantholysis results and vesicle or bulla is formed. Benign: denoting the mild character of an illness, or the nonmalignant nature of neoplasm. Bleb: a large flaccid vesicle Boss: a circumscribed rounded swelling or prominence Bosselated: marked by numerous bosses or rounded protuberances Botryoid: having numerous rounded protuberances resembling a bunch of grapes Buccal: pertaining to or adjacent to, or in direction of cheek Bulla: a large vesicle from 5mm to several centimeters in size Cachexia: a general lack of nutrition and wasting occurring in the course of a chronic disease or emotional disturbance Calculus: stone, a concretion formed in any part of the body, mostly biliary, urinary or salivary passages and formed of inorganic or organic salts Cariogenic: capable of producing caries Cell nest: a term used to describe a cluster of cells arranged in a concentric manner like a bird’s nest usually found in malignant neoplasm of the skin or mucous membrane Cellular adhesion: attachment of cells to neighboring cells through desmosomes and various type of cell junctions Cellular pleomorphism: variation in the size, shape, and staining of cells of the same tissue or neoplasm Cellular polarity: the direction or orientation of cells in a common direction, this is lost if cells lose their adhesion to neighboring ones Centromere: the constriction of a chromosome which is the point of attachment of the spindle fiber and is concerned with chromosome movement during cell division Cheilitis: inflammation of lips, angular cheilitis denotes inflammation of lips with redness and the production of fissures radiating from the corner of the mouth Chemotaxis: attraction of living cells or protoplasm to chemical stimuli Cherubism: a form of fibro- osseous lesion of the jaws producing the characteristic facies of the cherub Coloboma: the part taken away from mutilation, denoting any defect, congenital, pathologic or artificial, especially of eye (of palpebral fissure). A congenital notch in the eyelid margin Congenital: existing since before birth or at birth, dating from birth, congenital malformations are anatomical or structural abnormalities that are present at birth, though they may not be diagnosed until later. Craniotabes: a disease marked by the presence of areas of thinning and softening in the bones of the skull
  • 4. 4 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Cyst: an abnormal sac (cavity) containing gas, fluid or a semisolid material, with a membranous epithelial lining Deaf-mutism: in ability to speak due to congenital or early acquired profound deafness Deletion: (genetic): loss of a portion of chromosome between two break points or as a result of a parental translocation Dense in dent: a developmental disturbance in tooth formation resulting from invagination of odontogenic epithelium associated with enamel development into the area which was supposed to be the pulp space, after calcification, there is an invagination of enamel and dentine into the pulp space, and distortion of pulp space and the root contour to accommodate this invagination Dense: tooth, a tooth like process Dantigerous: arising from or associated with teeth Dentinoid: resembling dentine Desmoplastic: causing fibrosis in the stroma of neoplasm Desmosome: site of adhesion between two cells, consisting of a dense plate separated from similar structure in the other by thin layer of extracellular material Developmental: characterized by, or belonging to the process of development Dextran: approved name for ploy-an-hydro-glucose. It is a gummy high molecular weight glucose polymer produced by the action of certain bacteria on carbohydrates Diabetes insipidus: chronic excretion of very large amount of pale urine of low specific gravity, accompanied by extreme thirst, usually resulting from inadequate production of pituitary antidiuretic hormone Dichotomy: cutting or division into two parts Dilaceration: displacement of some portion of a developing tooth which is then further developed in a new direction resulting in a tooth with sharply angulated root Dizygotic: twins derived from two different zygotes Dominant: a dominant gene is which will produce its effects when present in either heterozygous or homozygous condition (when only one or both alleles are affected) dyskeratosis: imperfect or abnormal development, orientation and keratinization of epithelial cells. The appearance of premature keratinization in individual cells that have not reached the keratinizing surface layer. Keratinization of individual cells or groups of cells may occur within the lesions; the cells exhibit hyper-chromatism, loss polarity and increased nuclear size and prominent nucleoli, and there may also be an increased mitotic rate with abnormal mitosis Dysostosis: defective bone formation Dysplasia: abnormal tissue development Dystrophy: defective nutrition Ectopic: aberrant, out of place, refers to an organ or structure which is not in its proper position Enucleation: the entire removal of a tumor, a cyst or other structure in one piece without rupture Epiphora: an overflow of tears upon the cheek due to imperfect drainage by the lachrymal duct Epithelial pearl: whorls of epithelial cells arranged in a concentric manner, with keratin in its center Erosion: a shallow defect in the surface mucosa representing loss of epithelium down to, but not including, the basal layer Erythroplakia: a red, velvety plaque-like lesion of mucous membrane which often represents developing malignant change Exanthema: a skin eruption occurring as a symptom of an acute viral or coccal disease
  • 5. 5 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Exophthalmos: prominence or protrusion of the eyeballs due to disease to such an extent that the eyelids will not cover them Expressivity: the degree to which effects of a gene are expressed or shown in an individual Familial: affecting several members of the same family Fistula: an abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another Fluorosis: a condition caused by an excessive intake of fluorides Foam cells: cells with abundant, pal-staining, finely vacuolated cytoplasm, usually histocytes that have ingested or accumulated material that dissolves during tissue preparation, usually lipid Fontanelles: un-ossified, membranous intervals at the angles where the parietal bone meet other bones in the infant. = The anterior fontanelle is a diamond- shaped interval closed by membrane at the junction of the frontal, coronal, and sagittal sutures. It is normally ossified at about twelve months of age = the anterior lateral fontanelle is an interval at the junction of the parietal bone with the fontal, squamous, temporal and greater wing of the sphenoid bone, it is normally obliterated within the 1st three months after birth. = the posterior fontanelle, is a triangular interval at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. It is normally ossified within the 1st three months after birth. = the posterior lateral fontanelle is an interval between the adjacent edges of the parietal, occipital and temporal bones. It is normally closed by eighteen months of age Fusion: the growth together, as one of two or more teeth, in consequence of abnormal union of their formative organs Germination: embryonic partial division of primordium as, of a tooth germ resulting in two partially or completely separated crowns Genetic: transmitted from one generation to another through genes, same as hereditary Ghost cell: a dead cell in which the outline remains visible, but without other cytoplasmic structures or stainable nucleus. Ghost cells may become keratinized and may classify Glossoptosis: falling back of the tongue Gnotobiote: an originally germ-free animal that has been inoculated with known and controlled bacteria Hemangioma: a swelling or tumor due to proliferation, with or without dilatation, of blood vessels Hamartoma: a focal malformation, resulting from faulty development of an organ or tissue that resemble neoplasm Hepatomegaly: enlargement of liver Hereditary: transmitted from ancestors or parents to a child, same as genetic Heredity: the transmission of character from parents to offspring Hyaline: having glossy, homogenous, translucent appearance Hydropic degeneration: this signifies edema and degeneration of basal cells; the nuclei being replaced by clear spaces. The entire basal cells gradually degenerate and the epithelial connective tissue boundary becomes ill-defined Hyper-chromatic (nuclei): abnormally highly colored, excessively stained nuclei Hyperkeratosis: this means widening or thickening of the stratum corneum. It results clinically in a white lesion. The degree of whiteness and opacity of the lesion is related to the degree of hyperkeratosis. Hyper-parakeratosis: increased thickness of keratin layer with retained pyknotic nuclei
  • 6. 6 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Hyperplasia: increase of size of a tissue or organ due to increase in the number of its constituent cells. Hyperplasia of connective tissue is characterized by a markedly increased density of collagen fibers Hypertrophy: increased size of a tissue or organ due to increase in size of its constituent cells Hyperhidrosis: diminished sweating Hypoplasia: underdevelopment of a tissue or organ due to decrease in number of its cells Inversion: this arises through two chromosomal breaks with inversion through 180 degree of the segment between the breaks Karyolysis: apparent destruction of the nucleus of a cell with loss of affinity of its chromatin to basic dyes Karyorrhexis: a state of necrosis characterized by fragmentation of the nucleus whereby its chromatin is irregularly distributed in the cytoplasm Leukoedema: a benign abnormality of the oral mucosa clinically resembling leukoplakia, consisting of filmy, opalescent to whitish-gray finely to a coarsely wrinkled epithelium Leukoplakia: a disturbance of keratinization of mucous membranes. Variously present as opalescent patches or as extensive leathery plaque, occasionally ulcerated, histologically it may exhibit disturbance in the orderly maturation of stratified squamous epithelium and is then regarded as precancerous Levan: a polymer of fructose produced by action of certain bacteria on sucrose Lymphangioma: a swelling or tumor due to proliferation with or without dilatation of lymphatic vessels Macrodontia: abnormally large teeth Macroglossia: enlargement of tongue Macrognathia: enlargement or elongation of the jaw Macrostomia: abnormally large mouth Macule: a circumscribed non-raised area of altered coloration varying in size from a pinhead to several centimeter is diameter. Macules may be circular, ovoid, or linear, there color is usually deeper the surrounding normal mucosa, and they may be red, brownish –red or brown-black. = A macular eruption may represent punctate hemorrhage as seen in thrombocytopenic purpura, it may contain melanin deposits as in Addison’s disease or it may consist of small vascular malformation as in hereditary telangiectasis. Malignant: in reference to a neoplasm, having the property of local invasiveness, destructive growth and metastasis Melanoblast: a cell derived from the neural crest, it migrates to various parts of the body during early embryogenesis and then becomes a mature melanocyte Melanocyte: a cell located at the dermal epidermal junction, having dendritic processes and capable of forming melanin Melanophore: a phagocytic cell that contain melanin but does not form the pigment Mendelian: attributed to or described by Mendel Mesiodens: a supernumerary tooth located in the midline of the upper jaw Metaplasia: abnormal transformation of an adult, fully differentiated tissue of one kind into a differentiated tissue of another kind Microdontia: single or multiple disproportionately small teeth Microglossia: smallness of the tongue
  • 7. 7 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Micrognathia: smallness of the jaws, especially lower jaw Microradiography: making a radiograph of a uniform thickness ground section Microstomia: smallness of the mouth Monostotic: occurring in single bone Monozygotic: twins: twins resulting from a division into two of an embryo derived from a single fertilized ovum, such twins are genetically identical Mosaic pattern: a tessellated pattern resembling inlaid work Mosaic: an individual with cell lines, or tissue of different chromosomal constitution Mottling: an area comprised of varying shades or colors Multi-locular: many celled having many compartments Multiple: occurring in several parts at the same time Nevus: a circumscribed malformation of the skin or mucous membrane, consisting of cells native to the part and grossly resembling to a neoplasm Necrosis: this means destruction of the epithelium and its replacement by an amorphous mass of tissue. it is usually brought about by chemicals or by some bacterial products as in fusospirochetal disease ( progressive painful infection with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the gums). Neoplasia: the pathologic process that results in the formation of neoplasm. Neoplasm: an abnormal growth due to more rapid cellular proliferation than normal and that continues to grow after cessation of the stimuli that may have evoked it Neuralgia: pain of a severe throbbing or stabbing character in the course of distribution of a sensory nerve Non-disjunction: failure of two homologous chromosomes to separate and pass into two separate gametes (or cells) either at meiosis or mitosis. Nuclear pleomorphism: variation in size and staining of nuclei, resulting from unequal content of chromatin, usually seen in malignant neoplasms Ocular: ophthalmic, pertaining to eyes Odontome: a tooth like structure with abnormal arrangement of the component tissues Oophoritis: inflammation of the ovary Operon: a genetic functional unit that controls production of a messenger RNA, it consists of an operator gene and two or more structural gene located in sequence in one chromosome Orchitis: inflammation of testis may be associated with mumps Osmosis: the phenomenon in which water or other solvent or solutes pass through a membrane Osteogensis imperfecta: a condition of abnormal fragility and plasticity of bones with recurring fractures on minimal trauma Osteomalacia: a disease characterized by gradual softening and bending of bones with varying degrees of severity of pain Osteopetrosis: a disease characterized by extensive formation of dense trabecular bone and calcified cartilage, leading to obliteration of marrow spaces and narrowing of foramina Oxycephaly: a type of craniosynostosis in which there is premature closure of the lambdoid and coronal sutures resulting in an abnormally high, peaked or conically shaped skull Papilla: a small elevation shaped like a nipple Papilleferous: bearing papillae Papule: a small circumscribed solid elevated area varying in size from a pinched to about 5mm. Its base may be round or ovoid and the surface configuration may be pointed, rounded, or flattened
  • 8. 8 Dr. Mohammed Alruby A popular eruption on the oral mucosa usually consists of large numbers of individual pinhead lesions arranged in varying patterns The color of individual papules on the oral mucosa is usually greyish white and gross lesions composed of numbers of papules may be white as: lichen planus Paranesthesia: an abnormal sensation such as burning, pricking or tingling sensations Parakeratosis: here there is persistence of nuclei in the stratum corneum. In the parakeratosis the stratum corneum presents varying degrees of thickening so that it may be actually be hyperkeratotic Parakeratosis usually results clinically in a white lesion Pedunculated: a growth attached to the normal surface by a pedicle or stalk Penetrance: frequency with which a genetic effect is shown in a population Plaque: small, or large, raised or depressed firm clearly demarcated area of greyish or white coloration. Its surface may be relatively smooth or it may be rough and pebbled in texture. Cracks or fissures may appear on its surface. Multiple, closely placed papules may resemble a plaque superficially, but close examination with a magnifying glass will reveal the nature of the lesion Pleomorphic: having more than one form Polarized light: light whose waves Polyostotic: involved more than one bone Polyp: a tumor with a stalk Polyposis: the presence of several polyps Precocity: unusually early or rapid development of mental, sexual or physical characteristic Premalignant: a lesion from which a malignant neoplasm may be develop in a significant number of cases Prenatal: occurring before birth Primordial: primitive: relating to the structure in its first or earliest stage of development Primordium: an aggregation of cells in the embryo indicating the first trace of a developing organ or structure Prognathism: abnormal projection of one or both jaws Pseudo-epitheliomatous hyperplasia: is characterized by: - Extensive down growth of rete pegs accompanied by marked acanthosis giving rise to an appearance similar to that of carcinoma - Cells are normal in size and shape and are not hyperchromatic Ptosis: a sinking down or dropping of an organ. Dropping of upper eyelid Pustule: is a vesicular type lesion containing purulent material instead of clear fluid Pyknosis: condensation or reduction in size of a cell or its nucleus Radiolucent: neither wholly penetrable nor wholly impenetrable by x-ray or other forms of radiation Radiopaque: exhibiting opacity to, or relative impenetrability by x-ray or other forms of radiation Recessive: a recessive gene is one which will produce its effects only when present in a homozygous condition (only when both alleles are affected) Refined carbohydrates: carbohydrates from which the fiber content has been extracted resulting in concentration and availability of its sugar content Refractive index: the degree of refraction of a ray of light when passing from one medium to another Rickets: a vitamin D deficiency disease characterized by over production and deficient calcification of osteoid tissue
  • 9. 9 Dr. Mohammed Alruby Sarcoidosis: a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause especially involving the lungs with resulting fibrosis, but also involving lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, and parotid glands. The granulomas are composed of epithelioid and giant cells with little or no necrosis Sessile: a tumor attached to the surface directly by a broad base without a pedicle or stalk. Having a broad base of attachment. Sex linked: a trait transmitted by a gene carried on one of the sex chromosome Sinus: a channel for the passage of blood or lymph. A hollow in bone or other tissue. a tract leading from a suppurating cavity to a skin or mucosal surface Solitary: single Splenomegaly: enlargement of spleen Spongiosis: this signifies intercellular edema of the epithelium. The intercellular bridges of the stratum spinosum become more prominent Supernumerary: more than the normal number Supplemental: (teeth) supernumerary resembling those of the normal dentition in area of their occurrence Teratogen: any agent that can induce or increase the incidence of the congenital malformation. An agent capable of causing abnormal development prior to birth Teratogenic: capable of producing a developmental malformation in the embryo Tract: an elongated area or path Trait: a characteristic, especially one that distinguish an individual from others Translocation: transfer of chromosomal material between chromosomes. This involves breakage of both chromosomes with repair in an abnormal arrangement Tumor: any swelling or tumefaction. One or the signs of inflammation. Used as synonymous with neoplasm Ulcer: is a defect or breakage in continuity of surface epithelium reaching and involving the corium It results in a depression or a punched-out area. The floor of an ulcer is formed of connective tissue and fibrin, and may be contain a polymorph nuclear leukocytic infiltrate. An ulcer may small about 2mm or quite large reaching several centimeters in diameter. Unilocular: having only one compartment or cavity Verrucous: resembling a wart, denoting wart like elevations Vesicle: a small 2 to 5mm cavity forming either within or underneath the epithelium and filled with fluid. It gives rise to a circumscribed, elevated lesion composed of a thin surface covering overlying and containing an accumulation of fluid X-linked: a trait whose gene is located on an X chromosome Xanthoma: a yellow nodule or plaque, specially of the skin or mucous membrane, consisting of lipid –laden histocyte Xerostomia: dryness of the mouth