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• wireless vital sign monitoring
• patients, elderlies, wellness
• @ forefront of 1st IoT wave
• ultra low-power + small form factor
• challenging system-level design
• integration (analogue + digital)
• medical-grade algorithms
• cross-layer in DSP
• machine learning for diagnosis
• designed to record and wirelessly relay
• medical-grade vital signs
• blood pressure
• heart rate
• electrocardiogram (ECG)
• example use case
• surgical ward monitoring of patients at risk of
deterioration following serious procedures
• e.g. organ transplant
• early detection
* Toumaz Healthcare. 2nd generation SoC Functional Specifications.
Technical report, July 2016.
Current Medical Practice
• Nurses rota e.g. every 6 hours
• Ageing population*
• unsustainable demand
• Healthcare automation
* United Nations (2015). World Population
Prospects: The 2015 Revision.
• Scaling per-night & per-bed cost
• intensive care unit (ICU)
• heavy instrumentation e.g. bedside monitor
• general ward
• order of magnitude cost reduction
i.e. cache patients
• Hospital requires continuous ECG streaming
• reliably (medical-grade QoS)
• up to 32 co-located users
• for 48 hours
• on a single charge
• i.e. approximate performance of expensive bedside
monitor using low-cost disposable patches and scale
* Navas, S., Atrial Fibrillation: part 1. Nursing standard, 2003.
17(37): p. 45-54.
• Pathloss stats
• red 900M
• blue 2.4G
• function of
• frequency band
body area network channel
• variable pathloss
Approach: joint source-channel coding
• Borrowed concepts from mobile wireless video
• Szymon Jakubczak and Dina Katabi. 2011. A cross-layer design for scalable mobile video.
MobiCom '11. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 289-300.
• Siripuram Aditya and Sachin Katti. 2011. FlexCast: graceful wireless video streaming.
MobiCom '11. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 277-288.
• Degradable ECG Streaming
• burn minimal current in transmission
• instantaneous channel determines signal quality
• Transform separate source coding (i.e. compression) and channel
coding (i.e. error protection) into one linear operator
èwaveform degradation proportional to channel errors
èrelax link budget
èconserve current at patches
compression + error protection
• Block operator
• extract ECG similarities in a block
• within a cycle
• across cycles
• ECG can be all sorts
• e.g. rate, morphologies
• very good compression & distortion
• across ECG morphologies
• relax link budget
• increase network capacity
• combat channel variations, contention, and interference
• low power
• save current in RF circuitry
• Linear coding
• gracefully degradable ECG