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KinPhy

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KinPhy

  1. 1. KinPhy: A Kinetic In-Band Channel for Millimetre-Wave Networks Mohammed Alloulah Zoran Radivojevic, René Mayrhofer, and Howard Huang Mohammed Alloulah, Zoran Radivojevic, René Mayrhofer, and Howard Huang. 2019. KinPhy: A Kinetic In-Band Channel for Millimetre-Wave Networks. In The 17th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys ’19), November 10–13, 2019, New York, NY, USA. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 14 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3356250.3360039
  2. 2. 2 Bell Labs, Cambridge Zoran Radivojevic René Mayrhofer Howard HuangMo Alloulah Bell Labs, Cambridge JKU, Linz Bell Labs, Murray Hill
  3. 3. 0 10GHz 20GHz 30GHz 40GHz 50GHz 60GHz 70GHz 80GHZ 90GHz 100GHz Next Gen WiFiWiFi vast spectrum dense, compact antenna arrays 1-1 0 0.5 2 -0.5 04 0 6 -0.5 8 0.5 -110 1 E H sub 6GHz 60GHz finer wavelength mm-wave
  4. 4. 0 10GHz 20GHz 30GHz 40GHz 50GHz 60GHz 70GHz 80GHZ 90GHz 100GHz Next Gen WiFiWiFi vast spectrum dense, compact antenna arrays 1-1 0 0.5 2 -0.5 04 0 6 -0.5 8 0.5 -110 1 E H sub 6GHz 60GHz finer wavelength mm-wave Challenge networking orthodoxies
  5. 5. Voltage OFDM Waveform -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Frequency (d) Communication Sensing (a) Communication only Communication and Sensing Communications Payload Sensing Preamble Communications Payload Communications Preamble Communications Preamble (b) Up Down Start Frequency End Frequency ~~ ~~ Start Time End Time Time Voltage Frequency Time Chirp Waveform (c) Vision: Joint Communication & Sensing for Millimetre-Wave Networks
  6. 6. Voltage OFDM Waveform -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Frequency (d) Communication Sensing (a) Communication only Communication and Sensing Communications Payload Sensing Preamble Communications Payload Communications Preamble Communications Preamble (b) Up Down Start Frequency End Frequency ~~ ~~ Start Time End Time Time Voltage Frequency Time Chirp Waveform (c) Vision: Joint Communication & Sensing for Millimetre-Wave Networks
  7. 7. Voltage OFDM Waveform -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Frequency (d) Communication Sensing (a) Communication only Communication and Sensing Communications Payload Sensing Preamble Communications Payload Communications Preamble Communications Preamble (b) Up Down Start Frequency End Frequency ~~ ~~ Start Time End Time Time Voltage Frequency Time Chirp Waveform (c) Vision: Joint Communication & Sensing for Millimetre-Wave Networks Built-in, high-fidelity sensing mode in next gen networks Will make possible new compelling capabilities
  8. 8. KinPhy Kinetic Physical Layer:=
  9. 9. KinPhy Kinetic Physical Layer:= Physically oscillating metasurfaces Trans’d Refl’d Transmitted Reflected Node 2 Node N Node 1 …
  10. 10. KinPhy Kinetic Physical Layer:= Micrometre-scale vibrations of phone form factors can backscatter information to an mm-wave router Physically oscillating metasurfaces Trans’d Refl’d Transmitted Reflected Node 2 Node N Node 1 …
  11. 11. [I] Some Technicalities
  12. 12. READER CHANNEL METASURFACE Transmitter Receiver Transmitted Signal Reflected Signal Physical Oscillations KinPhy Consists of 2 components + channel - metasurface - radar reader
  13. 13. READER CHANNEL METASURFACE Transmitter Receiver Transmitted Signal Reflected Signal Physical Oscillations Channel Over-the-air round-trip radio signal strength decays in 4th power of distance
  14. 14. READER CHANNEL METASURFACE Transmitter Receiver Transmitted Signal Reflected Signal Physical Oscillations Channel Prx ∝ Ptx R4 i.e. ∝ 1 R4 Over-the-air round-trip radio signal strength decays in 4th power of distance
  15. 15. READER CHANNEL METASURFACE Transmitter Receiver Transmitted Signal Reflected Signal Physical Oscillations Channel Prx ∝ Ptx R4 i.e. Calls for robust metasurface modulation to compensate for distance-dependent losses ∝ 1 R4 Over-the-air round-trip radio signal strength decays in 4th power of distance
  16. 16. READER CHANNEL METASURFACE Transmitter Receiver Transmitted Signal Reflected Signal Physical Oscillations Metasurface Consists of 2 components + channel - metasurface - radar reader
  17. 17. Metasurface Precise mechanical actuation for accurate phase modulation of reflected mm-wave. μm
  18. 18. Metasurface Precise mechanical actuation for accurate phase modulation of reflected mm-wave. μm Iterative in-house prototyping
  19. 19. Metasurface Precise mechanical actuation for accurate phase modulation of reflected mm-wave. μm Iterative in-house prototyping Measurement Display Control Panel Excitation Amplifier Device Under Test Microscope
  20. 20. Metasurface Precise mechanical actuation for accurate phase modulation of reflected mm-wave. μm Iterative in-house prototyping Measurement Display Control Panel Excitation Amplifier Device Under Test Microscope Device Under Test Measurement Display Microscope
  21. 21. Winning Metasurface Design 2 © Nokia 20162 © Nokia 2016 <Change information classification in footer> Vibrating surface mm-wave Ground plane SIDE view TOP view Structure of Vibrating reflective surface Conductive jig Piezo actuators d d+Dd
  22. 22. Winning Metasurface Design 2 © Nokia 20162 © Nokia 2016 <Change information classification in footer> Vibrating surface mm-wave Ground plane SIDE view TOP view Structure of Vibrating reflective surface Conductive jig Piezo actuators d d+Dd Fabrication details in paper
  23. 23. Metasurface In Action
  24. 24. READER CHANNEL METASURFACE Transmitter Receiver Transmitted Signal Reflected Signal Physical Oscillations KinPhy Consists of 2 components + channel - metasurface - radar reader
  25. 25. Radar Shine mm-wave onto remote metasurface Decode kinetically backscattered signal READER CHANNEL METASURFACE Transmitter Receiver Transmitted Signal Reflected Signal Physical Oscillations
  26. 26. Radar Shine mm-wave onto remote metasurface Decode kinetically backscattered signal FFT CFAR Peak Detection raw radar ADC Fast-Time FFT CFAR Peak Detection Slow-Time Preprocessing PSD Integration DOA MIXER DESPREADER Peak Detection DSSS Demod coded surface info: - range - range rate - angle - KSSI range info range rate info 0 10 20 30 40 lag (sec) 20 30 40 50 60 70 despreader(dB) 20 40 60 80 100 freq. (Hz) -20 0 20 40 60 PSD(dB/Hz) 0 50 100 150 200 250 range bin 20 40 60 80 power(dB) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 range rate bin 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 power(dB) (a) overall pipeline (b.i) (b) output (b.ii) (b.iii) (b.iv)
  27. 27. Radar Shine mm-wave onto remote metasurface Decode kinetically backscattered signal FFT CFAR Peak Detection raw radar ADC Fast-Time FFT CFAR Peak Detection Slow-Time Preprocessing PSD Integration DOA MIXER DESPREADER Peak Detection DSSS Demod coded surface info: - range - range rate - angle - KSSI range info range rate info 0 10 20 30 40 lag (sec) 20 30 40 50 60 70 despreader(dB) 20 40 60 80 100 freq. (Hz) -20 0 20 40 60 PSD(dB/Hz) 0 50 100 150 200 250 range bin 20 40 60 80 power(dB) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 range rate bin 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 power(dB) (a) overall pipeline (b.i) (b) output (b.ii) (b.iii) (b.iv) Signal processing details in paper
  28. 28. Implementation In-house metasurface
  29. 29. Implementation In-house metasurface Off-the-shelf Radar from Texas Instruments Configurable FMCW signalling DAQ for raw data 10 dBm Tx power
  30. 30. Evaluation 5m Radar Metasurface •Distance: d ∈ [1, 3, 5]m •Bandwidth: [1.75, 3.5] GHz •Gold code: [63, 127, 511] chips •Yaw: [0, ±5, ±10, ±22.5, ±45, ±67.5, 90, 180]° •Pitch: [0, ±22.5, ±45, ±67.5, 90]° Dataset
  31. 31. Results - Detection Accuracy 1.75 GHz 3.5 GHz Investigate effects of distance, axial alignment, coding gain, and bandwidth
  32. 32. Results - Detection Accuracy 1.75 GHz 3.5 GHz Finding 1: coding gain compensates for distance and axial misalignment losses
  33. 33. Results - Detection Accuracy 1.75 GHz 3.5 GHz Finding 2: Using less bandwidth enhances performance
  34. 34. Results - Kinetic Signal Strength Indicator (KSSI) Investigate KSSI in yaw and pitch as a function of distance and coding gain
  35. 35. Results - Kinetic Signal Strength Indicator (KSSI) Finding 3: Decent KSSI even when metasurface was i.e. facing away from radar 180o
  36. 36. Results - NLOS Detection Finding 4: Many successful demodulations were possible from NLOS reflections in a cluttered office environment, originating from as far as 12 metres away
  37. 37. [II] Provocations & Applications
  38. 38. KinPhy Applications
  39. 39. Beam alignment KinPhy Applications [Abari & Hassanieh SigComm ’18]
  40. 40. KinPhy Applications Surface sequence A Surface sequence C … 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 time time Multi-metasurface KinPhy Metasurface sequence A Metasurface sequence B Metasurface sequence C BeamA Beam BBeam C Node 2 Transmitted Reflected Node 1Beam alignment at physical-layer ?
  41. 41. KinPhy Applications Security & Privacy
  42. 42. Current Spontaneous Authentication Is “Clunky” Apple echo-system example: Screen Mirroring
  43. 43. Current Spontaneous Authentication Is “Clunky” Apple echo-system example: Screen Mirroring (1)
  44. 44. Current Spontaneous Authentication Is “Clunky” Apple echo-system example: Screen Mirroring (1) (2)
  45. 45. Current Spontaneous Authentication Is “Clunky” Apple echo-system example: Screen Mirroring (1) (2) (3)
  46. 46. Current Spontaneous Authentication Is “Clunky” Apple echo-system example: Screen Mirroring (1) (2) (3) (4)
  47. 47. KinPhy-Enabled Spontaneous Authentication
  48. 48. Conclusions KinPhy is a novel “mechanical” backscatter channel Maps onto commodity tri-band routers [capable of communications sensing] & modern haptics. Empirically shown to work indoors under realistic conditions and assumptions Affords particular benefits to spontaneous secure interaction Physically oscillating metasurfaces Trans’d Refl’d Transmitted Reflected Node 2 Node N Node 1 …
  49. 49. Cheers alloulah [@] outlook . com

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