KALA BAGH DAM Presentation. . .

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A Power Point Presentation about KALA BAGH DAM. . .

Courtesy By: Respectable Irfan Arshad,
IR Department, University of Sargodha, Pakistan

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KALA BAGH DAM Presentation. . .

  1. 1. Irfan Arshad IR Department University of Sargodha Pakistan
  2. 2.  Pakistan is already one of the most water-stressed countries in the world, a situation which is going to degrade into outright water scarcity due to high population growth.  It depends on a single river system ; hence suffering with lack of multiplicity of river basins and diversity of water resources.  Indus Waters have become an increasing bone of contention, not only between India and Pakistan, but also between the regions/provinces in these two countries.  To meet the rising demand of water and power for economic growth, Pakistan urgently needs a series of water storage and hydroelectric power projects.  Kalabagh Dam figures out prominently in this regard.  Opposing concerns be resolved at the earliest in the larger interest of the country, its people and the future generations.
  3. 3. 1.History of Water Dispute 2.Need of large Dams 3.Why Kalabagh Dam? 4.Role of Kalabagh Dam 5.Apprehensions and Answers 6.conclusion Sequence
  4. 4. a. Pre Pakistan b. Post Pakistan c. Water Apportionment Accord-1991 d. Indus River System Authority(IRSA) e. Persistent Dissonance 1. History of Water Dispute
  5. 5. a. Pre Pakistan 1) Provision of irrigation on a controlled year around basis in subcontinent started in 1859. 2) The conflict between Sindh and Punjab over water apportionment is as old as the 1870s, when Punjab started constructing irrigation infrastructure on Indus River. 3) There were several accords and agreements regarding water apportionment between Sindh and Punjab promulgated by the British India governments. 4) India Irrigation Commission 1901-1903, was among the initial accords for Water of Indus River recognizing the need and decreeing Sindh's usage of Indus water. issues.
  6. 6. 5) Punjab was denied right to use Indus River water until the completion of Sukkur Barrage Project (Cotton Committee-1919). Thal Project by Punjab met identical refusals in 1919 and 1925 by the then Viceroys, Lord Chelmsford and Lord Raiding respectively. 6) Anderson Committee was the first that was appointed by the Government of British India around 1935 to resolve water sharing problems among former states of Bekaneer, Bahawalpur and the Punjab, later joined by Khairpur state. Mr. Anderson, Chief Engineer UP presented report in 1935. 7) After restoration of provincial status of Sindh in British India, an agreement was reached in 1945 signed by Chief Engineers of the two provinces, whereby the right of Sindh over Indus water was held supreme, but it was not ratified by the Government of Punjab for lack of settlement of financial .
  7. 7. b. Post Pakistan 1) Consequent to partition of British India, Kashmir, besides its political dimension, being the origin of many rivers, also manifested in enduring disagreement over sharing of Indus waters between India and Pakistan. 2) The origin of issue between the two countries lay in division of 'the major tributaries (Ravi, Beas and Sutlej rivers) of the Indus between upstream and downstream riparians that provided irrigation water for the fertile and densely populated region of Punjab on both sides of the border. 3) The World Bank played major role by providing mediation, support staff, funding and proposals for pushing negotiations forward, and was able to resolve it after 9 years with the signing of Indus Water Treaty (IWT) in September 1960 for joint sharing of water in the Indus basin.
  8. 8. 4) In Pakistan, however, distribution of water continued in accordance with the 1945 Formula till 1977 when, after construction of Tarbella dam, the Federal Government decided to follow ad-hoc arrangements for water apportionment between provinces. 5) After the dismemberment of One Unit in 1970, the Federal Government on the request of the provinces appointed different commissions/committees, headed by Supreme Court Judges, one after another to examine the problem of inter-provincial apportionment of Indus water, but the consensus could not develop amongst the provinces on Justice Fazle Altar committee and Justice Haleem Commission.
  9. 9. c. Water Apportionment Accord-1991 It was signed by chief ministers of all four prov, 1991. It replaced previous agreements to distribute the Indus River waters among the provinces and command areas. It established the water rights among the provinces inces of Pakistan on 16th March 1991 andratified by the Council of Common Interest (CCI) on 21st Marchand protects future water rights, including the effect of future storages.
  10. 10. d. Indus River System Authority (IRSA) 1) The regulatory authority for monitoring and distribution of the water sources of the Indus River. 2) CCI held its meeting on 16th September 1991 to decide 10-day average system-wise, season-wise allocation consented in clause VII of WAA for the provinces. 3) The ground realities suggest that till 2003 sharing for availability below accord allocation was being done on the basis of average uses for five years from 1977-82 (historic uses) rather than on the basis of 10 daily statements approved by the CCI, which was a clear violation of the accord". 4) In May 1994, Punjab presented a working before the Federal Minister of Water proposing a different formula for sharing shortages now known as the so called "Historical Use Formula." The matter was subsequently referred to the Federal Law Division, which duly observed it as violation of the 1991 Accord and the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The proposed provision was regarded by some as a catalyst for sowing the seeds of discord on water accord.
  11. 11. e. The persistent Dissonance 1) In all from 1937 until signing of WAA, there were several attempts made but failed except Rau Commission. These were ;- a) Anderson Committee (1935) b) Indus (Rau) Commission (1939) c) Akhtar Hussain Committee (1968) d) Fazal-e-Akbar Committee (1970) e) Anwar-ul-Haq Commission (1981) f) Haleem Committee (1983) 2) In the Indus Waters Accord of 1991, all provinces also recognized the need for new storages wherever feasible for planned future agricultural development. 3) These structural arrangements by and large managed the conflicts, but remained far from finding their enduring resolution.
  12. 12. a. Water Shortage b. Food Security c. Deteriorating Storage Capacity of Old Dams d. Flood Prevention e. Power Generation f. Modification of Old Irrigation System g. Aggressive Designs of India 2. Need of Large Dams
  13. 13. 13 WATER DEMAND  POPULATION 2005 141 million 2025 220 million  URBAN POPULATION Currently 35% 2025 60%  TOTAL AREA 196 M ACRES CULTIVABLE 77 MA CULTIVATED 54.5 MA REMAINING 22.5 MA Needs Add. Water  To increase the crop yield requires additional water.  Net Crop Water Requirement 2003-4 77.4 MAF 2010-11 89 MAF 2024-25 114.64 MAF  Domestic Demand Currently≈ 4.0 MAF 2025 ≈ 10.5MAF
  14. 14. 14 WATER AVAILABILITY Vs POPULATION GROWTH 5260 3888 2751 2129 1555 1282 1066 915 858 34 46 65 84 115 139.5 195.5 167.72 208.4 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2002 2010 2020 2025 YEAR PERCAPITAAVAILABILITY(M)3 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 PER CAPITA AVAILIBILITY POPULATION GROWTH WATERAVAILABILITY(MAF) POPULATION(Million) 1234 m3 2004 151.11 Million (2004)
  15. 15. 16 ARABIAN SEA DISPUTED TERRITORY LEGEND MOUNTAINS DESERTS AREA UNDER IRRIGATION AREA THAT CAN BE BROUGHT UNDER IRRIGATION CATEGORY AREA (MA) GEOGRAPHICAL AREA 196.0 AREA SUITABLE FOR AGRICULTURE 77.1 CULTIVATED AREA (IRRIGATED + BARANI) 54.5 AREA UNDER IRRIGATION (BY ALL SOURCES) 44.4 ADDITIONAL AREA THAT CAN BE BROUGHT UNDER IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE 22.5 SOURCE: AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS OF PAKISTAN 1998-99 LAND USE IN PAKISTAN Sindh 3.6 MA Punjab 4.3 MA NWFP 3.0 MA Baloch. 11.6 MA TOTAL 22.5 MA
  16. 16. 17 RESERVOIR GROSS STORAGE CAPACITY (MAF) GROSS STORAGE LOSS ORIGINAL YEAR 2004 YEAR 2004 (MAF) YEAR 2010 (MAF) YEAR 2025 (MAF) TARBELA 11.62 (1974) 8.36 (72%) 3.26 (28%) 3.95 (34%) 5.51 (47%) MANGLA 5.88 (1967) 4.64 (78%) 1.24 (22%) 1.60 (27%) 1.97 (34%) CHASHMA 0.87 (1971) 0.48 (55%) 0.39 (45%) 0.58 (55%) 0.50 (57%) TOTAL 18.37 13.48 (73%) 4.89 (27%) 6.03 (33%) 7.98 (43%) RESERVOIR SEDIMENTATION (MAF)
  17. 17. 18 AVAILABILITY  From Western Rivers at RIM Stations 141 MAF  Above Rim Stations 5 MAF TOTAL 146 MAF USES  Above RIM Stations 5 MAF  Canal Diversion 106 MAF TOTAL 111 MAF BALANCE AVAILABLE 35 MAF WATER AVAILABILITY IN PAKISTAN
  18. 18. 19 ESCAPAGE BELOW KOTRI HYDROLOGICAL YEAR FROM APRIL TO MARCH 30.39 29.81 9.68 45.91 29.55 26.90 17.53 52.86 17.22 42.34 53.29 81.49 29.11 91.83 62.76 45.40 0.77 1.93 20.18 69.08 33.79 35.15 2.37 8.83 20.79 80.59 20.10 10.98 0 20 40 60 80 100 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 YEARS ANNUALDISCHARGE(MAF) AVG. (34.7) Source: WRMD WAPDA Source: WRMD WAPDA based on data supplied by Govt. of Sindh April 2005 1.6 MAF May 2005 0.74 MAF 2.34 MAF
  19. 19. Sr. No. Name of Station Installed capacity (MWs) 1 Tarbela 3478 2 Ghazi Barotha 1450. 3 Mangla 1000. 4 Warsak 240.0 5 Chashma 184.0 6 Rasul 22.0 7 Malakand 19.6 8 Dargai 20.0 9 Nandipur 13.8 10 Shadiwal 13.5 11 Chichoki Malian 13.2 12 K.Garhi & Renala 5.1 13 Chitral 1. 14 Satpara 4.86 Total 6464 Installed Hydropower Stations in Pakistan
  20. 20. Name of Project Capacity (MW) Tentative Commissioning New Bong Escape at 84 2010 Rajdhani at Punch (AJK) 132 2011 Matiltan at Swat 84 2012 Malakand III( ) 81 2008 Kotli 100 2011 Gulpur (AJK) 120 2012 Gabral – Kalam 101 2012 Hydropower Projects in Private Sector
  21. 21. Total 19403 MW Oil 6497 MW (34%) Hydel 6489 MW (33%) Nuclear 452 MW (2%) Coal 150 MW (1%) Gas 5815 MW (30%) OVERVIEW OF PAKISTAN POWER SECTOR GENERATION PATTERN
  22. 22. 23 PAKISTAN’S HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL (SUMMARY) Sr. No. River/ Tributary Power (MW) 1. Indus River 35760 2. Tributaries of Indus (Northern Areas) of NWFP 5558 Sub Total (1+2) 41318 3. Jhelum River 3143 4, Kunhar River 1250 5. Neelum River & its Tributaries 2459 6. Poonch River 397 Sub Total (3+4+5+6) 7249 7. Swat River & its Tributaries 2388 8. Chitral River & its Tributaries 2282 Sub Total (7+8) 4670 9. Schemes below 50 MW on Tributaries 1290 TOTAL 54, 527
  23. 23. 24 76.2 8.3 13.2 2.4 Indus River Basin Jhelum River Basin Swat & Chitral River Small Hydel PAKISTAN’S HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL 41816 MW 7249 MW 4528 MW 1290 MW Swat & Chitral River Jhelum River Basin Small Hydel Indus River Basin
  24. 24. a. Diamer-Bhasha b. Akhori c. Munda Dam d. Kurrum Tangi Dam e. Kalabagh Dam 3. Why We Need Kalabagh Dam
  25. 25. Akhori Dam
  26. 26. Kurram Tangi Dam
  27. 27. a. Replacing storage lost by sedimentation b. Providing additional storage c. Providing effective regulation of Indus d. Regulation and control of high flood peaks in the Indus e. Generating hydro-power f. Reducing dependence on imported fuels g. Creating employment 4. Role of Kalabagh Dam
  28. 28. 5. Apprehensions and Answers
  29. 29. a. Apprehensions of Khaber Pakhtunkhawa 1) Flooding of Peshawar Valley including Nowshera. 2) Drainages of Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi . 3) Operation of Mardan SCARP end up. 4) Fertile land would be submerged. 5) Displacment of People.
  30. 30. APPREHENSION OF NWFP 1. flooding of Peshawar Valley including Nowshera  ®Backwater effect of Dam lake would end about 10 miles downstream of Nowshera. 2. Area of Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi plains would be adversely affected creating water logging and salinity.  ® Lowest ground levels at Mardan, Pabbi and Swabi areas are 970, 960 and 1000 feet above MSL respectively, as compared to the maximum conservation level of 915 ft for dam, Operation pattern of reservoir cannot block the land drainage and cause water logging or salinity
  31. 31. 3. Operation of Mardan SCARP would be adversely affected. ® The invert levels of main drains of Mardan SCARP are higher than reservoir elevation of 915 feet and the back water level in Kabul River. These drains would keep on functioning without any obstruction. 4. Fertile cultivable land would be submerged. ® Total cultivable affected land under the reservoir is only 35,000 acres,(24,500 acres in Punjab 3,000 acres in NWFP).irrigated land would be only 3,000 acres (2,900 acres in Punjab and 100 acres in NWFP). 5. Population Dislocation ® Total population to be relocated is 120320 of which 78,170 shall be from Punjab and 42,150 from NWFP. Resettlement of Affected Population will be properly compensated
  32. 32. b. Apprehensions of Sind 1) No surplus water available to fill dam 2) Sindh will be turned into a desert. 3) High level outlets to divert water 4) Cultivation in riverine (Sailaba) will end. 5) Sea water intrusion 6) Mangrove forests are threatened 7) Fish production and drinking water problems
  33. 33. APPREHENSIONS OF SINDH (1) No surplus water to fill Kalabagh Dam reservoir  ® Annual average of 35 MAF escape below Kotri to Sea.  ® Kalabagh Dam reservoir will be filled up by only 6MAF, which will gradually be released to the provinces.  ® Indus River System Authority (IRSA) has studied and confirmed that sufficient water is available for further storage  ® Surface flow annual 151 MAF
  34. 34. (2) Anxiety the project would render Sindh into desert. ® Dams don’t consume water! These only store water during flood season and make it available on crop demand basis ® After Pakistan Dam, the canal withdrawals for Sindh would further increase by about 2.25 MAF. (3) Outlets would be used to divert water from the reservoir ® The project design must not include any provision for canals. ® Telemetric system are working well which are installed at each barrage and flow control points to monitor discharge in various canals commands, on real time basis under the auspices of Indus Water River System Authority (IRSA) and in all provinces.
  35. 35. (4) Cultivation in “Sailaba” areas would be effected ® Flood peaks above 300,000 cusecs would still be coming after construction of Pakistan Dam, without detriment to the present agricultural practices, while large floods would be effectively controlled. This would, in fact, be conducive to installation of permanent tube wells to provide perennial irrigation facility in rive rain areas. The farmer can have two crops annually instead of the present one crop. (5) Sea Water intrusion estuary would accentuate. ® Data shows that sea water intrusion, seems to be at its maximum even now, and it is unlikely to be aggravated further by Pakistan Dam.

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