Fiqh of Salah


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Adhān, description of the prayer, Congregational prayer, Voluntary prayers, Friday Prayers, Jumuah, Pray like prophet

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  • Direct Link w/Allah :: Recitation of Fatihah, Allah answers directly
    Direct Spoken Order from Allah
    “Verily I am Allah; there is no God but Me: so worship [and obey] me and establish the Prayer [properly] for my Remembrance.” (Ta-Ha: 14-15)
    First act of belief
    Al-Muzammil 73, Ayat 1-9 :: O you who wraps himself [in clothing], Arise [to pray] the night, except for a little – Half of it – or subtract from it a little Or add to it, and recite the Qur’an with measured recitation. Indeed, We will cast upon you a heavy word. Indeed, the hours of the night are more effective for concurrence [of heart and tongue] and more suitable for words. Indeed, for you by day is prolonged And remember the name of your Lord and devote yourself to Him with [complete] devotion. [He is] the Lord of the East and the West; there is no deity except Him, so take Him as Disposer of [your] affairs.
    50 Waqt equals to 5
    Obligated even in the battle

    Soundness of the Salah follows onto other deeds

    Leaving it is disbelief

    Divides between Islam & Kufr

    Protects from filthy & evil deeds.

    Final Advise :: The Salah, The Salah

    Those who does not pray will go blind

    Without Salah NOTHING is accepted
  • Very important note : There is a serious difference between passing a ruling of kufr on a specific case and stating the general principle. So just because leaving Prayer is disbelief, it does not necessarily mean that a particular person who is not praying is a disbeliever. Declaring takfeer of a specific individuals or families (etc.) is a very serious matter, not to be undertaken lightly by laymen.
  • Two types of Adhan
    15 Phrases :: Usual Adhan
    19 Phrases :: Repeat again from “Ash-hadu Allah la ilaha …Ash-hadu anna Muhammad”
    Three types of Iqamah :: “Qadgaimati Salah” always twice
    11 Phrases :: All Single times
    17 Phrases :: Same as Adhan + Qadgaimati Salah
    15 Phrases :: All twice except “Haya ….” single time
  • Two types of Adhan
    15 Phrases :: Usual Adhan
    19 Phrases :: Repeat again from “Ash-hadu Allah la ilaha …Ash-hadu anna Muhammad”
    Three types of Iqamah :: “Qadgaimati Salah” always twice
    11 Phrases :: All Single times
    17 Phrases :: Same as Adhan + Qadgaimati Salah
    15 Phrases :: All twice except “Haya ….” single time
  • Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Five prayers which Allaah has made obligatory. Whoever does wudoo’ properly for them, prays them on time, does rukoo’ properly and has perfect khushoo’, it is a promise from Allaah that he will be forgiven, but whoever does not do this, has no such promise – if Allaah wishes, He will forgive him, and if He wishes, He will punish him.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 425; Saheeh al-Jaami’, 3242).

    the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also said: “Whoever does wudoo’ and does it well, then prays two rak’ahs focusing on them completely [according to another report: and does not think of anything else], will be forgiven all his previous sins [according to another report: will be guaranteed Paradise].” (Al-Bukhaari, al-Bagha edn., no. 158; al-Nisaa'i, 1/95; Saheeh al-Jaami’, 6166).
  • Allahumma Inni A’uthu bika min kalbe la Yakhsha’u :: O Allah, I seek refuge in you from a heart that does not have any Khushu [Tirmidhi 3482]
  • Among the surah’s which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah of upon him) used to recite during Salaat al-Fajr we find a great and blessed number.
    The longer mufassal soorahs (soorahs from the last seventh of the Qur’aan), such as al-Waaqi’ah [56], al-Toor [52] and Qaaf [50], and shorter mufassal soorahs such as Idhaa al-shamsu kuwwirat [al-Takweer 81],al-Zalzalah [99], and al-Mi’wadhatayn [the last two soorahs].
    It was reported that he recited al-Room [30], Yaa-Seen [36] and al-Saaffaat [37], and on Fridays he would recite al-Sajah [32] and al-Insaan [76, a.k.a. al-Dhahr] in Fajr prayer.
    It was reported that in Salaat al-Zuhr, he would recite the equivalent of thirty aayaat in each of the two rak’ahs, and that he recited al-Taariq [86], al-Burooj [85] and wa’l-layli idhaa yaghshaa [al-Layl, 92].
    In Salaat al-‘Asr, he would recite the equivalent of fifteen aayaat in each rak’ah, and he would recite the soorahs already mentioned in connection with Salaat al-Zuhr.
    In Salaat al-Maghrib, he would recite short mufassal soorahs such as al-teeni wa’l-zaytoon [al-Teen 95], and he recited Soorat Muhammad [47], al-Toor [52], al-Mursalaat [77] and others.
    In ‘Ishaa’ he would recite medium-length mufassal soorahs, such as al-shamsu wa duhaahaa [al-Shams91], idhaa’l-samaa’u inshaqqat [al-Inshiqaaq 84]. He told Mu’aadh to recite al-A’laa [87], al-Qalam [68] andal-layli idhaa yaghshaa [al-Layl, 92].
    In qiyaam al-layl, he used to recite the long soorahs. It was reported that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite 200 or 150 aayaat, and sometimes he used to shorten the recitation.
  • Different between Jumuah Prayer and Dhur Prayer P:24
  • Fiqh of Salah

    1. 1. Fiqh Of Salah
    2. 2. Definition of Salah • In Arabic, Salah literally means, “to supplicate, to petition, to pray for someone.” • “And pray for them, for your prayers are a comfort for them.” [alTawbah,103] Salah in this ayah, means to make du’a. • The Legal Technical Definition – and the most important definition: • “The worship of Allah with a particular set of statements and actions that begin with the takbir (Allahu Akbar) and end with the taslim (Assalamu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullah).”
    3. 3. THE RULING OF SALAH • The prayer is an individual obligation based on evidence from the Qur’an, the Sunnah and Ijma’ (consensus of the Muslim Scholars). • Fardul Ayn – Individual obligation, Allah (swt) looks at person and not the action • Fardul Kifayah – Communal obligation, Allah (swt) looks at the action • Salah is an obligation and “known by necessity in the religion”. It is amongst the small number of things that a Muslim will be held accountable for that ignorance will not excuse as it’s “known by necessity”.
    4. 4. History of Salah • Before Islam: • 1. During the time of Ibrahim - Dua of Ibrahim 14:37 • 2. During the time of Isma’il - Surah Mariam 19:55 • 3. During the time of Musa - Yunus, 10:87 • 4. During the time of Bani Isra’il - Al Ma’ida 5:12 • 5. During the time of ‘Eesa - Mariam 19:31 • In Islam: • Stage 1: The 2nd or 3rd year after the first revelation. The obligation of salah was something early. • 1. Two prayers, one in the morning and one in the evening [Ghafir 40:55] • 2. Qiblah was towards Jerusalem [Al Baqarah 2:143]
    5. 5. History of Salah Cont… • Stage 2: The Night Prayer • 1. The obligatory night prayer [Al Muzzammil 73:1-4] • 2. The abrogation of the obligation [Al Muzzammil 73:20] • Stage 3: On the year of Isra wa al Miraj • 1. The five daily prayers • 2. Times of the five daily prayers • 3. Prayers were two rak’ah only • 4. They were allowed to speak during salah. • Stage 4: 2nd year after the Hijra • 1. Qiblah was changed towards Makkah • 2. Salat was enhanced and number of rak’ahs increased
    6. 6. Different Type of Salah • 1. Fard salat • The five obligatory salah • Friday’s salah • 2. Wajib salah • Eid prayer • Witr prayer • 3. Nafl salah • Ar-rawaatib - The optional prayers performed in association with the obligatory Salah • At-tasabeeh • 4. Congregational prayer • Taraweeh • Al-istisqaa’ (salah asking for the rain) • 5. Individual’s prayer • Ad-duhaa (The Salah during the forenoon time.) • Ash-shurooq/Ishraq (The Salah performed after sunrise.) • 6. Prayers performed with no specific sabab (occasion or cause) • Nafl mutlaq (Voluntary Prayer) • Qiyam al-layl • 7. Prayers performed for a specific sabab (occasion or cause) • Al-istikhara • Khusoof and kusoof (observe a solar or lunar eclipse, kusuf is the solar eclipse and khusuf
    7. 7. Importance of Salah • Fasting :: In times of hardship you can break it. • Zakah :: You can delay if you do not have the money • Salah :: NO EXCUSE !!!
    8. 8. Importance of Salah • Direct Link w/Allah :: Recitation of Fatihah, Allah answers directly • Direct Spoken Order from Allah • First act of belief • 50 Waqt equals to 5 • Obligated even in the battle • Soundness of the Salah follows onto other deeds • Leaving it is disbelief • Divides between Islam & Kufr • Protects from filthy & evil deeds. • Final Advise :: The Salah, The Salah • Those who does not pray will go blind • Without Salah NOTHING is accepted
    9. 9. Proof for the obligation of Prayer “What has caused you to enter into the terrible torment?’ They said: ‘We were not of those who used to pray’.” (surah al- Muddaththir: 42-43) Five Prayers, Allah has obligated upon his slaves in a day and night. So whoever preserves them has a covenant with Allah to admit him into Jannah, and whoever does not preserve them, then there is no such covenant. If he wishes He will punish him, and if he wishes He may forgive him. [Abu Dawud]
    10. 10. Accountability for Salah A person who is accountable for salah should be: • A Muslim, man or woman • Reached the age of puberty. The physical signs of puberty are different for men and women. When a woman has her first period, this is when she has reached the age of puberty. When a boy has his first wet dream, he has reached the age of puberty. If they do not show any physical signs, then the maximum legal age for puberty is 15. • In a state of sound mind. The person who prays should know what they are doing. Some may lose sound mind forcefully (i.e. through surgery) or a person who may faint or be so tired that if they prayed they would not know what they are saying.
    11. 11. Establishing the Prayer • Establishing the Prayer entails performance of the Prayer to the best of one’s ability by praying it at the regular times without shortcomings in its pillars and conditions. It must also be upon the Sunnah of Rasool-Allah sallahu ‘aliha wa sallam. • It is not permissible to delay the Prayer beyond its specified time by complete consensus (see Maratibul-Ijma p. 30) because of the following: • From Qur’an: “Verily the Prayer is enjoined upon the believers at appointed times.” (an-Nisa’ 4: 103) • Ibn-Uthaimeen rahimahullah said: “If he does not have any excuse, then his Prayer will not be correct, even if he were to pray a thousand times. The proof for that is in the statement of the Prophet sallahu ‘aliha wa sallam: ‘Whoever does an action which we have not sanctioned will have it rejected’.” (Fiqhul-Ibadat p. 145)
    12. 12. Rulings of Abandoning Salah • If someone gives up the Prayer, being ignorant of its obligation, then he is forgiven in general. • If someone believes that it is not obligatory, without having the excuse of ignorance, then it is complete disbelief by consensus (al-Majmoo’ 3/14, Majmoo’ al-Fatawa 10/434, 20/97, 22/40, 28/308,and 35/106). • If someone does so because of laziness or without a valid reason, then it is disbelief according to the correct opinion.(Fasiq or Kufr ?) • Proofs: “So if they repent and establish the Prayer and pay the Zakat, then they are your brothers in the religion.” (at-Tawba 9: 11) “Verily, between a man and Shirk and Kufr is the abandonment of the Prayer.” (Muslim)
    13. 13. Adhan and Iqamah • Sunnah to give Adhan. Even if alone • Fajr has two Adhan • False Dawn • True Dawn • Adhan’s Dua and Rasul (saw) will intercede • Intention is a must • Muadhdhin must be a trustworthy and reliable person, • He should have Loud, Pleasant and beautiful delivery of Voice • Two types of Adhan • 15 Phrases • 19 Phrases • Three types of Iqamah • 11 Phrases • 17 Phrases • 15 Phrases
    14. 14. Adhan and Iqamah • Abu Hurayrah (radhi Allahu ‘anhu) narrates, the Messenger (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said, “If people would know what is there (as reward) in (calling for) adhan and (praying) in the first row, they would have to draw lots for them (to avoid conflict over them).” [Bukhari] • If you are calling for the adhan, then do it regularly. • The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “On the Day of Judgment, the mu’adhins will come having the longest necks.” This is a sign of their excellence. When the mu’adhin calls for the adhan, he extends his neck as much as possible. • The Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “On the Day of Judgment, everything around the mu’adhin while he was calling the adhan will testify for him.” • The prophet(saw) said: Whoever hears the adhaan and says, my intercession will be confirmed for him on the day of judgment.
    15. 15. Action of Salah • Every Obligatory acts in Islam has • Shurut(Conditions) – e.g the person must be muslims, have iman, be sane etc. • Shurut of action itself – e.g when praying the salah, the place needs to be clean, body needs to clean etc. • Arkan – Obligations that can not be compensated for. Integrals, Pillars etc. • Wajibat - Obligations • Sunan – Preferred Actions • Adhab - Etiquette
    16. 16. Pre-Condition of Salah - Time of Salah “Verily Salaah is at fixed times for the believers”[4:103] • Times of each salah • Ibn Abbas narrated that the Angel Jibreel led the Prophet to teach him the prayer times. On the first day, he prayed all the prayers at the beginning of their respective times and on the second day he delayed the prayers until just before the end of their times for all prayers except maghrib where he instead prayed in on both days at the same time, and then said, “…the time of each salat is between these two times.” [Tirmidhi] • Fajr • The time for this starts with the second fajr and last until sunrise. This is a matter for complete consensus • Dhuhr • The time starts upon the moving of the sun off mid-noon until the length of Shadow of an object is similar to its height according to its height according to majority while until the shadow is equal to two times the object according to the Imam Abu Hanifa. • ASR • Time of Permissibility: The time for this starts when the shadow of an object is similar to its height until the sky turns orange-reddish : Majority, Hanafi : Shadow of the object is twice the height • Time of Necessity: The time for this starts when the sky is orange-reddish until sunset • Maghrib • The time for this starts at sunset and goes on until the twilight in the sky disappears • Majority of the scholars are of the opinion that the twilight is the redness while the Hanafi state it is the whiteness • ASR • Time of Permissibility: The time for this starts when the twilight in the sky dies down and lasts until midnight • Time of Necessity: This starts at midnight and lasts until Fajr Prayer
    17. 17. Pre-Condition of Salah - Time of Salah There are five times based on two narrations from bukhari and muslim that are prohibited to pray during: 1. After Fajr prayer until the length of spear after sunrise 2. During Sunrise until about 15-20mins afterwards 3. When the sun is at Zenith 4. After Asr until Sunset 5. During the yellow period of sunset
    18. 18. Pre-Condition of Salah - Purifications • Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and love those who purify themselves (2:22) • Allah (SWT) said, "O you who believe! When you intend to offer prayer, wash your faces and your hands (fore-arms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles…" (Al-Ma'idah 5:6) • The Prophet (SAW) said, "Allah does not accept prayer without purification ..." (Sahih - Muslim and others) • Physical and Spiritual Cleansing:: Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said: When the Muslim or the believing servant performs Wudu' and washes his face, every sin that he looked at with his eyes will depart from his face with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, every sin that his hands committed will depart from his hands with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, every sin to which his feet walked towards comes off with the water, or with the last drop of water – so that he leaves clean from sins.[Muslim} • Rasoolullah (SAW) said, "None of you makes wudu and completes the wudu then says: "Ash hadu an la ilaha illal lahu wah dahu la shareeka lahu wa ash hadu an-na muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasulhu" except that all eight Gates of Paradise are opened for him - so that he enters by whichever he pleases." (Sahih - Muslim, Abu Dawood, At-Tirmithee, An-Nasaa'ee, Ibn Maajah)
    19. 19. Pre-Condition of Salah: Covering the Awrah O Children of Adam! Take your adornment (by wearing your clean clothes), while praying and going round (the Tawaf of ) the Ka'bah, and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not Al-Musrifûn (those who waste by extravagance). [Al A’raaf 7:31] • Awrah is a term which denotes the parts of the body that are not meant to be exposed in public • The Awrah for males is between the navel and the knee upon strongest opinion due to hadith of prophet(saw): If it is wide cover yourself with it, and if it is sall wear it as a lower garment(izar)[Bukhari] • The awrah for female is all of her body except her face and hands, due to the hadith of prophet(SAW): Allah will not accept the prayer of female except with a khimar[Ahmed, Abu Dawud] • Hanafi: Feet of the female are not awrah
    20. 20. Pre-Condition of Salah: Cleanliness of the body, cloths and place of prayer • Purity of Body • Verily they are being punished, but they are not being punished for anything major. As for one of them, he used not to avoid soiling himself with urine, As for other, he used to spread tales i.r gossip, rumours[Bukhari, Muslim] • Purity of Clothes • And purify your clothes [Al-Muddathathir 74:4] • Purity of Place of Worship • And purify my house for those doing Tawaaf, standing, bowing and prostrating [Al-Hajj 22:26] The Whole earth has been made a place of prayer and purification for me. So whatever one of my Ummah comes upon the time of prayer, let him pray[Bukhari, Muslim] * exception Graveyards, the washroom and toilet, camel stables
    21. 21. Pre-Condition of Salah • An-Niyyah, the intention for salah • Verily actions are by intentions[Bukhari 1] • Facing the direction of the qiblah • And wherever you go, turn your face towards the Masjid al Haram, wherever you are, turn your face towards it [Bakarah 2:150]
    22. 22. Arkan(Pillars) of Salah • Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle entered the mosque and a person followed him. The man prayed and went to the Prophet and greeted him. The Prophet returned the greeting and said to him, "Go back and pray, for you have not prayed." The man went back prayed in the same way as before, returned and greeted the Prophet who said, "Go back and pray, for you have not prayed." This happened thrice. The man said, "By Him Who sent you with the Truth, I cannot offer the prayer in a better way than this. Please, teach me how to pray." The Prophet said, "When you stand for Prayer say Takbir and then recite from the Holy Koran (of what you know by heart) and then bow till you feel at ease. Then raise your head and stand up straight, then prostrate till you feel at ease during your prostration, then sit with calmness till you feel at ease (do not hurry) and do the same in all your prayers [Bukhari 724]
    23. 23. Arkan(Pillars) of Salah • There are 12 integral parts (Arkaan) of the prayer: These pillars are absolutely essential; a Muslim is not excused from any of them except by inability. Whoever misses a pillar intentionally or forgetfully, or adds a pillar intentionally, then his Prayer is invalid. • 1. Standing up (if one is able), due to the statement of Allah: • “...And stand [in Prayer] for Allah attentively.” (al-Baqarah 2: 238) • 2. Takbeeratul-Ihram due to the hadeeth: • “The key to Prayer is purification; its start is the Takbeer and its endingis the Tasleem.” (Ahmed no. 1006, Abu-Dawud no. 61 and others) • 3. Reciting the Fatihah due to the statement of Rasool-Allah sallahu ‘aliha wa sallam: • “There is no Prayer for the one who does not recite the opening chapter of the Book.” (al-Bukhari no. 756; Muslim no. 394)
    24. 24. Arkan(Pillars) of Salah Cont… • 4. Bowing Down (Ruku) • 5. Standing up after bowing(Raising Up from the Ruku) • 6. Prostrating on the seven parts of the body: These are the forehead and nose (which count as one, because they are part of one face), two hands, two knees and two feet. • 7. Sitting up between the prostrations: This is agreed upon by all the scholars. • 8. The final sitting: This is a matter of complete consensus. • 9. The final Tashahhud, as in the hadeeth where the Prophet sallahu ‘aliha wa sallam taught Ibn-Mas’ud to say it in the Prayer. • 10. The first tasleem: the pillar is only up to “as-salaamu alaikum”; as for the rest of it (“wa rahmatullah” and the second tasleem), those are sunnah. • 11. Praying in the order recorded from the Prophet sallahu ‘aliha wa sallam. The proof for this is that it has never been reported from the Prophet sallahu ‘aliha wa sallam that he ever prayed in any other way. • 12. Possessing tranquility and calmness during Prayer – even if it be only a small amount.
    25. 25. Obligatory actions (waajibaat) in Prayer These are the actions in the Prayer that, if one omits any one of them intentionally one’s Prayer is invalid; and if one misses it forgetfully during the Prayer or a little after, then one has to offer the prostrations of forgetfulness. • 1. Transitional Takbeer • 2. Supplications in Bowing & Prostration • 3. Supplication when getting up from Bowing • 4. Sitting down and reciting the first tashahhud after the first two rakaats (units) of Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers. • ** Saying the prayers for the Prophet Muhammad (saw) • Some Hanbali Scholars– Wajib • Majority – Non Obligatory
    26. 26. The Sunnah acts of Salah • 1. Placing a sutra (barrier) in the front between the person praying and the qiblah • 2. Raising the hands on saying the takbir • Imams Abu Hanifah, Malik : Only raise the hands for the opening takbir. • Imams Shafi’ee, Ahmad : Raise the hands: • 1. At the opening of salat • 2. Before bowing for ruku’ • 3. After rising up from ruku’ • 4. After finishing the first tashahhud • 3. Folding the right hand on the left hand • 4. Looking down towards the spot of one’s prostration • 5. Commencing the salah with the prescribed du’a • 6. A’meen (saying Ameen) • 7. Silence: Quiet in three places of Salah • 8. Spreading between the feet in the standing position
    27. 27. The Sunnah acts of Salah Cont… • 9. Reciting Surah after Fatiha • 10. Reciting du’a between the two sujood • 11. Should a person recite Bismillah aloud or not ? • a. Argument for :: Sahih Muslim, Book 4, 0790 to 0791 • b.. Argument against :: Sahih Muslim, Book 4, 0786 to 0788 • 12. Should follower recite loudly behind the Imam in Jammah ? • a. Sahih Muslim, Book 4, 0783 to 0785 • 13. Should follower read Fatihah in Jammah ? • Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 723 • Sahih Muslim, Book 4, 0771 to 0782 • 13. Rasul (saw) used to raise his hands before and after Ruku. 50 companions narrated in favor of which 10 are promised Jannah. • a. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 702 to 706 • b. Sahih Muslim, Book 4, 0758 to 07632
    28. 28. The Sunnah acts of Salah Cont… • 14. Dua after standing up from Ruku • 15. How to go to prostration ? • a. Do not fold / tuck up clothing • Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 774, 776, 779 to 780 • 16. What to do in the state of Prostration ? Dhikr & the way to prostate • Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 785 • 17. What to do when sitting between two prostrations ? • 18. Where to place your hand and what to do with the finger in the Tashahhud ? • 19. Prophet used to keep his index finger pointed throughout the Tashahhud • 20. Dua after Tashahhud not necessarily Dua Ibrahimah • a. Blessings on the Prophet • i. Sahih Muslim, Book 4, 0803 to 0808 • b. Durud or Dua Ibrahimah • i. Mohammad ibn Abdul Wahab (Hanbali) made this wajib/obligatory • 21. One can supplicate as much as they after this Dua • 22. Do not look at the sky • a. Sahih Bukhari, Volume 1, Book 12, Number 717 • b. Sahih Muslim, Book 4, 0862 to 0863
    29. 29. Makrooh (Abominable) Acts of Salah • 1. To omit one of the wajibaat intentionally. • 2. Moving without any excusable reason • 3. To close the eyes • 4. To look away from the spot of one’s prostration • 5. To pray while in need of going to the bathroom • 6. Yawning • 7. To spread the forearms on the ground • 8. To wear clothes untidily • 9. To wear clothes that carry distractive designs or images • 10. To wear tight clothes
    30. 30. Mubah (Permissible) Acts of Salah Acts that do not nullify the salat and do not lessen the reward. • 1. To pray behind a human who is praying or sitting down. • 2. To move and take action in order to remove an eminent harm. • 3. To assist the imam if he makes a mistake. • 4. To respond to the salaam by raising the hand. • 5. To respond to a caller by sign.
    31. 31. Manners of Walking to Prayer One of the greatest acts of worship is walking to the prayer: • Verily if one of you does his Wudu properly and comes to the mosque desiring nothing except the prayer, then he does not take a single step except that by it Allah will raise him up one level and remove a sin from him until he enters the mosque[Bukhari/Muslim] Etiquettes of Walking: • If you hear the iqamah then walk to the prayer in peace and tranquility. Do not hurry. Whatever you are able to catch, pray it and whatever you miss, then complete it. [Bukhari/Muslim]
    32. 32. Prostration of Forgetfulness
    33. 33. Prostration of Forgetfulness Omission: • If the prostrations are due to an omission, offer them before tasleem Increase: • If the prostrations are due to an increase, offer them after tasleem Doubt: • If the person in doubt built the case upon the least most certain, then offer them before the tasleem, if the imam acted upon the most probable case, then it should be after tasleem
    34. 34. KHUSHU’ IN SALAH • Khushu’ is to be still, calm, and relaxed. It is how focused, concentrated and aware you are of Allah (swt). To help internalise and achieve khushu in your salah, ensure that the external aspects are there. • ‘And seek help in patience and al-salaah (the prayer), and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for al-khaashi’oon …’ [al-Baqarah 2:45]. • Successful indeed are the believers, those who offer their salaah (prayers) with all solemnity and full submissiveness… These are indeed the inheritors, who shall inherit the Firdaws (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever.’ [al-Mu’minoon 23:1-2, 10-11] • Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Five prayers which Allaah has made obligatory. Whoever does wudoo’ properly for them, prays them on time, does rukoo’ properly and has perfect khushoo’, it is a promise from Allaah that he will be forgiven, but whoever does not do this, has no such promise – if Allaah wishes, He will forgive him, and if He wishes, He will punish him.” (Reported by Abu Dawood, no. 425; Saheeh al-Jaami’, 3242). • Ammar b Yasir(ra) reported’ Verily the servant prays a prayer of which nothing is written down for him except a tenth, ninth, eighth, seventh, sixth, fifth, quarter, third or half of it(the reward).
    35. 35. KHUSHU’ IN SALAH • Khushu’ is to be still, calm, and relaxed. It is how focused, concentrated and aware you are of Allah (swt). To help internalise and achieve khushu in your salah, ensure that the external aspects are there. • Things to do before you start your salah: • 1. Prepare for Salah ahead of time • 2. Do not challenge your stomach, and eat first. • 3. If you need to answer the call of nature, then do it first. • 4. Do not pray if you were overtaken by slumber or fatigue. • 5. Make a thorough Wudu, enough time prior to your Salah. • 6. Dress nicely for your Salah. • 7. Select a place or spot where there will be less or no distractions. • 8. Come early to your Salah whether at home or in the Masjid. • 9. Race for the first row, in order to have less distraction. • 10. Pray as close as possible to the Imam. • 11. Repeat the words of the Adhan after the Mu’adhdin. • 12. Pray your Nafl Salah. • 13. Pray behind a Sutrah. • 14. Read some Qur’an (especially what you plan to recite in your Salah). • 15. Make some Du’a and Dhikr. • 16. If praying in the Masjid, don’t talk too much with people until after Salah is over. • 17. Do not look around and get distracted in the Masjid; focus on this upcoming event (Salah). • 18. If praying in congregation, straighten your lines for the Salah. • 19. Contemplate about the greatness of whom you are standing before. • 20. Remember the salaf and how they performed their Salah. • 21. Contemplate over the excellences and virtues of Khushu’. • 22. Remember to consider this your final Salah.
    36. 36. KHUSHU’ IN SALAH Cont… • Means required during the Salah: • 1. Contemplate over the word Allahu Akbar while raising your hands up. You are throwing everything behind your back and focusing on the salah. • 2. Considering the status of ihsan, ‘Pray as if you see Allah, if not then that as He sees you.’ • 3. Fold your hands, the right on the left and look with your eyes down in humility. You are putting yourself in a position of humbleness to Allah (swt). • 4. Observe the Sunnah and correct way of Salah • 5. Bring tranquility to your Salah and slow down the pace of your recitation. • 6. Start with commencing Du’a • 7. Contemplate over the ayat you recite, or try to understand what the imam is reciting. You cannot read a translation while in salah (i.e. during Salah attaraweeh). • 8. Beautify the Quran with your voice. If you master tajwid, you will have a beautiful recitation. • 9. Remember that Allah answers you as you recite the Fatihah. • 10. Savor the sweetness of each position in Salah • 11. Adhkar of salah, learn more than just one • 12. Never look around or up • 13. Never let the designs of the prayer rug distract you • 14. Strive when overwhelmed with yawning • 15. Make lots of Du’a, especially in the Sujud
    37. 37. KHUSHU’ IN SALAH Cont… • Means required after the Salah: • 1. Do not move from your position right away. The Sunnah of the Prophet (saw) is to make tasbih in the same place. The Prophet (saw) said the angels make Du’a for you until you move from your position or break the wudu. • 2. Do your Tasbih • 3. Do your dhikr and Du’a • 4. Review your Salah, and evaluate yourself • 5. Pray your Nafl Salah • 6. Look forward to the next Salah • The Post Salah Dhikr : • Abu Hurayrah (RA) narrated, the Messenger (saw) said: “Whoever glorifies Allah at the end of every Salah 33 times (subhanAllah) and praises Allah 33 times (alHamdulillah), and utters the word of Greatness 33 times (Allahu Akbar) that is ninety nine, then completes it with one hundred saying: ‘la ilaha ilAllab wahdahu la shareeka lah lahul Mulk wa lahul hamd wa huwa ala kulli shay in qadir’ (There is no god but Allah alone Who has no partner, to Him belongs the kingdom, to Him praise is due, and He is Omnipotent) his shortcomings will be forgiven, even if it is as large as the froth in the sea.” [Muslim]
    38. 38. Salah (English Meaning) 1-Intention (it is a determination in the heart that you are performing a particular Salah; not to be uttered). 2-Face the direction of the Qiblah (Sacred House in Makkah Known as Ka'bah). Raise your hands to the level of the shoulders, or earlobes, and say ALLAHU AKBAR 3-Place the right hand over the left on the chest. Look at the place of prostration without lowering your head: 4- Recite the Opening Invocation (du'aa) for Salah: • [Subhanaka Allaahumma wa bihamdika tabaarakas muka wa ta'aalaa jadduka wa laa ilaaha ghairuk.] • O Allaah! I declare You far removed from above all imperfection, and that You deserve all Praise. Blessed is Your Name. Your Majesty (Glory and Might) is Exalted., and there is no true God Worthy of Worship Except You
    39. 39. Salah (English Meaning) 5-Recitation of Soorat Al-Faatiha (Opening Chapter of the Qur'an): Must be recited in every unit of prayer (Rak'ah). Begin by utter the following with a low voice: A'oodthu billahi minash-shaitanir-rajeem. •(I seek Refuge with Allaah from Satan, the outcast.) Bismillaahir-Rahmannir-Raheem (In the Name of Allaah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful, I begin-) -All the praises and thanks be to Allaah, the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists). - The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. - The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) - You (Alone) we worship, and You (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything). - Guide us to the Straight Way - The Way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, not (the way) of those who earned Your Anger (such as the Jews), nor of those who went astray (such as the Christians). At the end, you must say Aameen
    40. 40. Salah (English Meaning) 6-Rukoo' (Bowing Down) (i) raise the hands as described previously (see above) and say ALLAAHU AKBAR (Allaah is the Greater) while going into the bowing position. (ii) In bowing posture, put the hands on the knees and grab them with your elbows away from your sides, and your back straightened with the head leveled with your back (iii) While in Bowing position one says: Subhanna Rabbiyal 'Adheem (3 times) Far removed from every imperfection is my Rabb (Lord), the Great. [3 times]. 7-Standing Erect (Qiyaam) after Rukoo': (i) Rise from bowing, raising you hands to the levels of the shoulders, or earlobes, saying: Sami'Allahu li man hamdidah Allaah hears the one who praises Him. ii) Stand upright until one's very parts take their positions and say: Rabbana walakal-hamd O our Rabb (Lord)! All the praise is due to You.
    41. 41. Salah (English Meaning) 8- The Sujood (Prostration) & Juloos (Sitting): (i) Reach the ground with the hand's first and then the knees while saying ALLAAHU AKBAR (Allaah is the Greater), and rest on your palm's and place your forehead, nose, knees, and feet on the floor with your belly away from your thighs. Toes should be erected and directed to the Qiblah. Your arms should be away from the ground, as bellow, saying: Subhaana Rabiyyal-'Alaa (3 times) "Far removed is my Rabb, the Most High, from any Imperfection" (iii) Then you raise your head while saying: ALLAAHU AKBAR (sometimes raising one's hands), sit on your left leg while keeping your right foot upright with its fingers to the Qiblah. Put your hands on your knees [see below], and supplicate saying: Rabbigh-fir lee O my Rabb! Forgive me. 9-Sitting for Tashahhud (Testification of Faith): (i) Once you finish the second Rak'ah, follow the same way of sitting as above. Hold your right hand closed with its thumb and middle finger touching each other like in a circle while pointing the index finger straight in the direction of the Qiblah and moving it through the recitation of the Tashahhud
    42. 42. Salah (English Meaning) Attahiyyaatu lillaahi wassalawaatu wattayyibatu. Assalaamu 'alayka ayyuhan-Nabiyyi warahmatullaahi wabarakaatuh. Assalaamu 'alyna wa 'ala 'ibaadillaahis saaliheen. Ash- hadu an laa ilaaha illallaah wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasooluh. All compliments [Allaah is free of all imperfection, His is the dominion, Magnificence, Endless existence belongs to Him], prayers, and pure words and deeds, are due to Allaah. May Allaah grant the Prophet safety from all defects and imperfections and keep his message safe from all evil; [may Allaah grant him] mercy and honor. May safety and security be granted to us and to all the righteous slaves of Allaah. I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Allaahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala aali Muhammad kama sallaita 'ala Ibraaheem wa 'ala aali Ibraaheem innaka Hameedun Majeed, wabaarik 'ala Muhammad wa 'ala aali Muhamaad kama baarakta 'ala Ibraaheem wa 'ala aali Ibraaheem innaka Hameedun Majeed. O Allaah! Praise Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as You Praised Ibraaheem, and the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory. And send blessings on Muhammad, and on the family of Muhammad, as you sent blessings on Ibraaheem, and the family of Ibraaheem; You are indeed Worthy of Praise, Full of Glory.
    43. 43. Salah (English Meaning) 10-Concluding Salah by Tasleem: •After you recite the Tashahhud and make the supplications, turn your head to •the right and say: •Assalaammu 'alaykum warahmatul-lahi wabarakatuh •May Allaah's Peace, Mercy and Blessings be upon you. • Then turn your head left and say: • Assalaammu 'alaykum warahmatul-laah
    44. 44. Use Cases A person who is naked and searching for cloths s that he can pray, if the time is about to expire whilst they are still naked ? A new Muslim, who does not know the fatiha and tashahhud as yet ? A Women with defective bleeding is required to pray in her current state before the time expires ? Anyone who awakes in a state of Janaabah and does not have enough time for purification ? How should following pray ? People who are being tortured or humiliated by being kept without cloths ? Those who are so poor that they do not have enough to cover their awrah ? Who do not have access to any pure cloths or stuck in a place that has impurity on the place of prayer ?
    45. 45. Congregational Prayer • The Reward for praying in the mosque • The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If anyone exits his house having performed wudu for the prescribed prayer in congregation, his reward will be like that of one who goes for hajj having put on ihram, and he who goes our for mid morning(al-Duha) prayer and takes a trouble for this purpose, will take the trouble for this purpose, will take the reward like that of a person who performs Umrah and a prayer followed by a prayer with no worldly talk during the gap between them will be recorded in illiyyin .” Al-Nawawi, Al-Khulasah, 1/313. • Virtues of Congregational Prayer • Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Salat in congregation is twenty-seven times more meritorious than a Salat performed individually.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]. • Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “A man’s Salat in congregation is twenty-five times more rewarding than his Salat at home or in his shop, and that is because when he performs his Wudu’ properly and proceeds towards the mosque with the purpose of performing Salat in congregation, he does not take a step without being raised a degree (in rank) for it and having a sin remitted for it, till he enters the mosque. When he is performing Salat, the angels continue to invoke Blessings of Allah on him as long as he is in his place of worship in a state of Wudu’. They say: `O Allah! Have mercy on him! O Allah! Forgive him.’ He is deemed to be engaged in Salat as long as he waits for it.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] • Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “I was thinking of ordering that the iqaamah for prayer be given, then I would tell a man to lead the people in prayer, and I would set out with men carrying bundles of firewood, and go to people who do not attend the prayer and burn their houses down around them.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari (657) and Muslim (651).
    46. 46. Friday Prayer • Specific to Ummah of Muhammad(SAW) • The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah led those who came before us away from Friday. The Jews had Saturday, and the Christians had Sunday. Then Allaah brought us and Allaah guided us to Friday. So there is Friday, Saturday and Sunday, and thus they will follow us on the Day of Resurrection. We are the last of the people of this world but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, and we will be dealt with before all others.” Narrated by Muslim, 856. • Best Day Send Salutation upon the prophet(saw): • The Prophet (SAW) said: “The best of your days is Friday. On that day Adam (peace be upon him) was created; on that day he died; on that day the Trumpet will be blown and on that day all of creation will swoon. So send a great deal of blessings upon me, for your blessings will be shown to me.” They said, “O Messenger of Allaah, how will our blessings upon you be shown to you when you have turned to dust?” He said, “Allaah has forbidden the earth to consume the bodies of the Prophets, peace be upon them.[Abu Dawood, 1047; classed as saheeh by Ibn al-Qayyim in his comments on Sunan Abi Dawood, 4/273; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 925.] • Best and Master of All Days • The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Friday is the master of days, and the greatest of them before Allaah. It is greater before Allaah than the day of al-Adha and the day of al-Fitr. It has five characteristics: on this day Allaah created Adam, on it He sent Adam down to the earth, on it Allaah caused Adam to die, on it there is a time when a person does not ask Allaah for anything but He gives it to him, so long as he does not ask for anything haraam, and on it the Hour will begin. There is no angel who is close to Allaah, no heaven, no earth, no wind, no mountain and no sea that does not fear Friday.” Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1084; classed as hasan by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, no. 2279
    47. 47. Friday Prayer • Supplications during Friday • Prophet (SAW) said: “Seek the hour in which there is hope that prayers will be answered, on Friday after Asr (mid- afternoon) prayer, until the sun goes down.” (Narrated by al-Tirmidhi; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb, no. 700). • Recitation of Surah Al-kahf: • Prophet said: "Whoever recites Surah al-Kahf on Jumu'ah will have illumination from the light from one Jumu'ah to the next."(saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 6470) • Performing ghusl, beautifying ones self, using the miswak • Prophet (SAW) said: “Whoever makes his wife do ghusl and does ghusl himself on Friday and goes out early, walking not riding, and comes close to the imaam and listens [to the sermon] without interrupting, will have for each step he takes a reward equal to that of fasting and praying at night for one year.” (Narrated by Ahmad and al-Tirmidhi; classed as saheeh by al- Albaani in Saheeh al-Targheeb wa’l-Tarheeb, no. 687) • Prophet (SAW) said, "Whoever takes a bath on Friday, purifies himself as much as he can, then uses his (hair) oil or perfumes himself with the scent of his house, then proceeds (for the Jumua prayer) and does not separate two persons sitting together (in the mosque), then prays as much as (Allah has) written for him and then remains silent while the Imam is delivering the Khutba, his sins in-between the present and the last Friday would be forgiven." [Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 13, Number 8] • Going early to Salatul Jumuah • Prophet(SAW) said, "When it is a Friday, the angels stand at the gate of the mosque and keep on writing the names of the persons coming to the mosque in succession according to their arrivals. The example of the one who enters the mosque in the earliest hour is that of one offering a camel (in sacrifice). The one coming next is like one offering a cow and then a ram and then a chicken and then an egg respectively. When the Imam comes out (for Jumua prayer) they (i.e. angels) fold their papers and listen to the Khutba." [Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 13, Number 51]
    48. 48. Jumua’h • The Friday prayer as an obligation: • “O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salât (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumu'ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh [Jumu'ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salât (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing), that is better for you if you did but know!” (Al-Jumu'ah 62:9) • Upon whom salatul Jumuah is obligatory: • Women and children • Prophet(SAW) said: “Jumu’ah is a duty that is required of every Muslim in congregation, except four: a slave, a woman, a child or one who is sick.” Narrated by Abu Dawood 91067). Saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’ (3111). • The women during the time of the Prophet sallallahu alehi wasallam, attended the mosque and used to pray al-Jumu'ah with him • For the traveller it is not obligatory • Salaat al-Jumuah (Friday prayer) is not obligatory on the traveller. This is the opinion of the majority of scholars, including the followers of the four schools of Abu Haneefah, Maalik, al-Shaafa’i and Ahmad
    49. 49. Jumua’h • Pillars of Jumua’h • Two Sermon(Khutbah) • Two Unit of Prayers • Evidence: “O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salât (prayer) on the day of Friday (Jumu'ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh [Jumu'ah religious talk (Khutbah) and Salât (prayer)] and leave off business (and every other thing), that is better for you if you did but know!” (Al-Jumu'ah 62:9) • Forbidden to speak during the khutbah • Allah's Messenger (SAW) Said: If you (even) ask your companion to be quiet on Friday while the Imam is delivering the sermon, you have in fact talked irrelevance [ie. engaged in idle talk]. [Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 1846]very other thing), that is better for you if you d • Prohibition on stepping over people who are sitting in the mosque on Friday • Abd-Allaah ibn Busr (ra) said: A man came and started stepping over the people one Friday when the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was delivering the khutbah, and the Prophet (saw) said to him: “Sit down, for you have annoyed (people).” [Abu Dawood (1118) and Ibn Maajah (1115) Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.]
    50. 50. Jumua’h • Performing Tahayyatul Masjid before Salatul Jumuah • Jabir bin Abdullah: A person entered the mosque while the Prophet was delivering the Khutba on a Friday. The Prophet said to him, "Have you prayed?" The man replied in the negative. The Prophet said, "Get up and pray two Rakahs (of tahayyatul masjid)." [Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 13, Number 52] • Sunnah After Jumuah (2, 4, 6) • Allah's Messenger (saw) said: When any one amongst you observes prayer after Jumua, he should observe four rakahs. [Sahih Muslim, Book 004, Number 1917] • 5 Different of Opinions either 2, 4 or 6
    51. 51. Witr Prayer • Technical Definition • Odd number of units of prayer performed between Isha and Fajr • The Witr prayer is the last prayer of the night. The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: "The Witr prayer is offered in units of 2 raka'at. If you fear that dawn is near, conclude with a single rak'ah so the night prayer will be of an odd number." Al-Bukhari, vol. 2, book 16, #105 • Status of Obligation • It is obligatory(Wajib) - Abu Hanifah • It is Sunnah mu’akkadah( a confirmed Sunnah) – Majority Opinion • Description of Salat Al-Witr • The Witr prayer is commonly 3, 5, 7 or 9 raka'at but can also be just the single rak'ah. It is authentically related that the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, prayed it in a number of different ways, so the worshipper can choose to pray it in any of the following ways: • 1. By praying two raka'at at a time (i.e. completely with the salam at the end of each pair) to the desired number and then a single complete rak'ah; • 2. By praying all the raka'at together but without sitting in any rak'ah (i.e. without the julus in which the tashahhud is recited) except for in the final ra'kah; or
    52. 52. Witr Prayer • 3. By praying all the raka'at together and sitting only in the unit before the final rak'ah and then in the final rak'ah again. So, for example, a worshipper praying 5 raka'at would only sit and recite tashahhud in the 4th rak'ah and then complete the prayer with a single complete unit (including another recitation of the tashahhud). • When praying 3 raka'at it is preferable to use method 1 or 2 above as the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, said: "Do not pray Witr with three raka'at that resemble Maghrib.“ Al-Hakim (1/304), Al- Bayhaqi (3/31) and Ad-Daraqutni (p. 172) • 3 Units of prayer which are not separated by Taslim – According to Abu Hanifah • Prof: Hadith of A’isha • A Single unit of prayer that is observed after even number of prayer units - Maliki/Hanbali • Witr prayer is 11 units Maximum and 1 unit Minimum, it is also permissible to offer the witr in 3, 5, 7 or 9 – Shafi’iyah • Is there any recommended method of performance? • The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, would recite the following chapters when praying Witr in 3 raka'at: after reciting Al-Fatihah, he would recite Al-A'la (87) in the first rak'ah, Al-Kafirun (109) in the second and Al-Ikhlas (112) in the third. [An-Nasa'i & Al-Hakim] Sometimes, he would additionally recite Al-Falaq (113) and An-Nas (114) in the final rak'ah also. [Tirmidhi, Abu'l-'Abbas al-Asam in Al- Hadith (vol. 2 no. 117) & Al-Hakim] • Whilst this is what the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, performed on occasion it is acceptable to recite any part of the Qur'an in the Witr prayer.
    53. 53. Witr Prayer • What about reciting du'a in the qunut (standing)? • It is a sunnah action of the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, to recite the du'a of qunut in the final (odd) rak'ah of the Witr prayer either before going into ruku' (having recited Al- Fatihah and some other verses) or after ruku' during i'tidal. A worshipper may raise his hands in supplication to his Lord whilst making this du'a. • "Allahumma Ihdeni Fiman Hadayt, Wa A’feni Fiman A’fayt, Watawallani Fiman Tawallayt, Wabarek li Fima A’atayt, Waqeni Sharra Ma Qadayt, Fainaka Taqdi WalaYuqda 'Alayk, Wainnahu La Yadhilu Man Walayt, Tabarakta Rabbana Wat’alayt.” • • This means: “O Allah, guide me among those whom You have guided. Grant me safety among those whom You have granted safety. Take me into Your charge among those whom You have taken into Your charge. Bless me in what You have given me. Protect me from the evil that You have decreed, for You decree and nothing is decreed for You. And there is no humiliation for whom You take as a ward. Blessed and exalted are You, our Lord.” •
    54. 54. Salat al-Musaafir (Traveler Salah) • Al-Qasr (shortening the salah) • Imam Abu Hanifah: It is wajib • Imam Malik: It is highly recommended • Imams Shafi’ee, Ahmad: It is permissible concession [ Surah Al-Nisa 4:101] • Minimum Distance to allow Qasr : • Imams Abu Hanifah, Shafi’ee, Malik, Ahmad: Distance of traveling approximately 81 km / 50 miles • Group of Pious Predecessors: There is no specific distance, as long as it is called ‘safar’ • Time-period that constitutes residency • Imam Abu Hanifah: 15+ days • Imams Shafi’ee, Malik, Ahmad: 4+ days
    55. 55. Combining Fard Salah • According to Imam Abu Hanifah, there is no such thing as combining between salawat except Day of Arafah. The majority of the fuqaha allow you to combine between salawat for different reasons, but differ on the reasons. • Because of the rain: This cannot be done if you are going to be in the same place for dhur and asr. • Because of excessive fear: If there is a situation that prevents people from going to the masjid, then they can combine the salawat. • Because of excessive pressing need. Imam Shaafi’ee and Maalik: rain and extreme fear only, and Imam Shaafi’ee adds: cold weather. Imam Ahmad allows for any extreme need such as a woman who has an extreme situation in the house or the sick person.
    56. 56. Voluntary Prayer • Virtues of Voluntary Prayer • The Prophet said: “The first thing that the people will be called to account for on the Day of Resurrection will be the prayers. Our Lord will say to the angels although He knows better: ‘Look into the prayer (formal obligatory prayer) of my servant to see if he observed it perfectly or has been negligent in it.’ So if he observed it perfectly it will be recorded to his credit, but if he had been negligent in it in any way, Allah would say: ‘See if My servant has any extra prayers.’ Then if he has any extra prayers, Allah would say: ‘Make up the deficiency in My servant’s obligatory prayer with his supererogatory prayers.’ Thereafter all his actions will be examined in like manner” (Abu Dawud). • Types of Supererogatory(Sunan Al-Rawatib) • The Restricted Prayer (Sunan Ratibah) • Stressed Restricted Prayer(Mu’akkadah) • Non-Stressed Restricted Prayer(Ghayr Mu’akkadah) • Unrestricted Prayer • The Messenger of Allah Said: You should pray in your houses, for the best prayer of a man is that which he prays in his house except the obligatory prayers(Bukhari, Muslim)
    57. 57. Stressed Restricted Prayer(Mu’akkadah) • Ar-Rawaatib: Regular : • 10 Rak’at • Abdullah ibn Omar narrated, I mastered from the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) ten (voluntary) Rak’aat, two Rak’aat before the Dhuhr Salat and two after it; two Rak’aat after Maghrib Salat in his house and two Rak’aat after ‘Isha Salat in his house, and two Rak’aat before Fajr Salat.” [Bukhari and Muslim] • 12 Rak’at • Umm Habeeba narrated, she heard the Messenger say: “Whoever Prays twelve (voluntary) Rak’aat in a day and a night, a house will be built for him/her in Paradise.” [Muslim] • In another version: “Four Rak’aat before Dhuhr and two after it; and two Rak’aat after Maghrib and two after ’Isha and two Rak’aat before Fajr.” [Tirmidhi] • 14 Rak’at • Aisha narrated, the Prophet (sal Allahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “Whoever Prays regularly four Rak’aat before Dhuhr and four Rak’aat after Dhuhr, Allah will forbid him Hell-Fire.” [Ahmad]
    58. 58. Non Stressed Prayer(Ghayr Mu’akkadah) • 4 Rak’at Before Asr • 2 Rak’at Before Maghrib • 2 Rak’at Before Isha
    59. 59. The Night Prayer (15. Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in the midst of Gardens and Springs,) (16. Taking joy in the things which their Lord has given them. Verily, they were before this doers of good.) (17. They used to sleep but little by night.) (18. And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness.) [ 51 : 15-18] (15. Only those believe in Our Ayat, who, when they are reminded of them, fall down prostrate, and glorify the praises of their Lord, and they are not proud.) (16. Their sides forsake their beds, to invoke their Lord in fear and hope, and they spend out of what We have bestowed on them.) (17. No person knows what is kept hidden for them of delights of eyes as a reward for what they used to do.)[35:15-17] The Prophet(SAW) was asked which prayer was most excellent after the prescribed prayers. He said, Performing prayer in the middle of the night [muslim 2748]
    60. 60. The Forenoon Prayer(Duha) Abu Dhar reports that the Prophet said: “Charity is required from every part of your body daily. Every saying of ‘Subhanallah - Far removed is Allah from every imperfection’ is charity. Every saying of ‘Alhamdulilah - Praise be to Allah’ is charity. Every saying of ‘La ilaha illa Allah - There is no (true) deity but Allah’ is charity. Every saying of ‘Allah Akbar - Allah is the Greatest’ is charity. Ordering the good is charity. Eradicating the evil is charity. And what suffices for that (as a charity) are the two rakah of Duha.” (Saheeh Muslim)
    61. 61. Tahiyya-tul-Masjid The Messenger said, “If anyone of you enters a mosque, he should pray two rakah before sitting.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)
    62. 62. Salat at-Tawba (Prayer of Repentance) Allah’s Messenger said, “There is no man who, upon committing a sin, purifies himself and performs two rakah, then asks for forgiveness from Allah, but Allah forgives him” (Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah)
    63. 63. Salat al-Ishraq (Post-Sunrise Prayer) Ishraq Prayer is a nafl prayer which is performed about 45 minutes (three quarters) after sunrise (according to the Hanafi school of thought) or 20 minutess after sunrise (according to the Shafi school). RasulAllah (salAllahu alayhi wasalam) is reported to have said, 'He who performs Fajr Salat with Jamaat and remains seated in the same place while engaging in Dhikr until after sunrise and thereafter performs 2 Rakats Nafil Salat, (Ishraq), he will obtain the reward of one Hajj and one Umrah.' [at-Tirmidhi]
    64. 64. Salat al-Istikhara (Prayer for asking for Guidance/Advice) This prayer requires 2 units with the intention to ask Allah for guidance in a matter. According to a traditional report transmitted on the authority of Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir, it was Jabir ibn 'Abdillah (radiAllahu anhum) who said: "Allah's Messenger (salAllahu alayhi wasalam) used to teach us how to seek guidance in choosing the best option available in a practical enterprise [al-istikhara fi'l- amr], just as he would sometimes teach us a Chapter (Surah) from the Qur'an: "'If one of you is concerned about some practical undertaking, or about making plans for a journey, he should perform two cycles of ritual prayer [rak'atain], not as an obligatory observance [farida], but voluntarily. Then he should say: Allahumma inni astakhiruka bi ilmika wa-astaqdiruka biqudratika wa-as'aluka min fadhlika al-adheem. Fa innaka taqdiru wala' aqdiru. Wa ta'lamu wala a'alamu wa anta allaamul ghuyub. Allahumma in kunta ta'lamu anna [hadhal-amr] khayrun li fi deeni wa-ma'ashi wa-aqibat amri, fa'qdruhli wa-yasirh li thumma barik li feehi. Wa in-kunta ta'lamu anna [hadhal amr] sharrun li fi deeniy wa-ma'ashi was-'aqibat amri. Fa asrifh anni wa-srif 'anhu. Wa aqdurh liyal khayr hayth kana thumma a-rdhini bihi. O Allah! I seek Your counsel by Your knowledge and by Your power I seek strength and I ask You from Your immense favour, for verily You are able while I am not and verily You know while I do not and You are the Knower of the unseen. O Allah! If You know this affair [this matter] to be good for me in relation to my religion, my life, and end, then decree and facilitate it for me, and bless me with it. But if in Your Knowledge, You know [this matter] to be ill for me towards my religion, my life, and end, then drive it away from me and drive me away from it, and decree for me what is good wherever it be and make me satisfied with such.
    65. 65. Salat at-Tahiyatul Wudu (Prayer of the Oft-Repentant) After performing wudu, one should pray 2 rak’at of nafl, known as Tahiyyat al-Wudu. Several hadith have mentioned the blessings and benefit of doing so. For example: “There is no Muslim who performs wudu and performs it well and then stands and offers 2 units of prayer with devotion of heart and mind in the two of them, except that Paradise becomes guaranteed for him” [Muslim #288]
    66. 66. The Eclipse Prayer “It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light and measured out for it stages that you might know the number of years and the reckoning. Allaah did not create this but in truth. He explains the Ayaat in detail for people who have knowledge.” [Yoonus 10:5] “And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate yourselves not to the sun” nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allaah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him” (Fussilat 41:37)
    67. 67. Summary A Practical Example of Salah