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Project cost management

Mohammad Ashraf Khan, PMP
Mohammad Ashraf Khan, PMP
Mohammad Ashraf Khan, PMPProject Management Advisor at JSSP

Project Cost Management as described in PMBOK Guide 5th Edition

Project cost management

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Ch.7 Project Cost
Management
Pages 193-226 of PMBOK Guide 5th
Edition
Ch.7 Project Cost Management
Here we study all those process that deal with planning, managing, and
controlling the cost of the project.
In small project cost
costing and
budgeting are
closely related
processes and can
be performed by a
single person
Budget is the
approved cost and
cost baseline the
time phase budget
The cost related decision can affect
the future costs of maintaining the
product of your project .
For example reducing the number
of iteration for a software
development project may reduce
the cost of the project but increase
the cost of maintaining the product.
Sometimes you may be required to
calculate the financial benefits of
your product. In such a case Project
Cost Management may include
financial management techniques
e.g return on investment,
discounted cash flow, etc.
Cost and staffing is highest
at the execution stage
Ch.7 Processes of Cost Management
• Here we establish the policies, procedures, and documentation for
planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs.
7.1 Plan Cost Management
• The process of estimating costs for project activities
7.2 Estimate Costs
• The process of aggregating individual activity or work package cost in order
to establish the cost baseline.
7.3 Determine Budget
• The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project
costs and managing changes to the cost baseline.
7.4 Control Costs
7.1 Plan Cost Management: ITTOs
1. Project Management
Plan
2. Project Charter
3. EEF
4. OPA
1. Expert Judgments
2. Analytical Techniques
3. Meetings
1. Cost Management
Plan
Input Tools & Techniques Output
Here we develop policies and procedures as well as documentation for managing
and controlling project cost.
7.1 Plan Cost Management: Data Flow Diagram
• Elements of PMP used are Scope Baseline, Schedule Baseline, and cost
related risk and communication decisions.
7.1.1.1 Project Management Plan
• Contains high level budget and project approval requirements
7.1.1.2 Project Charter
• Currency exchange rates, market conditions, published commercial data,
• Financial control procedures, financial database, lesson learned, exiting
policies
7.1.1.3 EEF/OPA
7.1 Plan Cost Management: Inputs
Ad

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Project cost management

  • 1. Ch.7 Project Cost Management Pages 193-226 of PMBOK Guide 5th Edition
  • 2. Ch.7 Project Cost Management Here we study all those process that deal with planning, managing, and controlling the cost of the project. In small project cost costing and budgeting are closely related processes and can be performed by a single person Budget is the approved cost and cost baseline the time phase budget The cost related decision can affect the future costs of maintaining the product of your project . For example reducing the number of iteration for a software development project may reduce the cost of the project but increase the cost of maintaining the product. Sometimes you may be required to calculate the financial benefits of your product. In such a case Project Cost Management may include financial management techniques e.g return on investment, discounted cash flow, etc. Cost and staffing is highest at the execution stage
  • 3. Ch.7 Processes of Cost Management • Here we establish the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs. 7.1 Plan Cost Management • The process of estimating costs for project activities 7.2 Estimate Costs • The process of aggregating individual activity or work package cost in order to establish the cost baseline. 7.3 Determine Budget • The process of monitoring the status of the project to update the project costs and managing changes to the cost baseline. 7.4 Control Costs
  • 4. 7.1 Plan Cost Management: ITTOs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Project Charter 3. EEF 4. OPA 1. Expert Judgments 2. Analytical Techniques 3. Meetings 1. Cost Management Plan Input Tools & Techniques Output Here we develop policies and procedures as well as documentation for managing and controlling project cost.
  • 5. 7.1 Plan Cost Management: Data Flow Diagram
  • 6. • Elements of PMP used are Scope Baseline, Schedule Baseline, and cost related risk and communication decisions. 7.1.1.1 Project Management Plan • Contains high level budget and project approval requirements 7.1.1.2 Project Charter • Currency exchange rates, market conditions, published commercial data, • Financial control procedures, financial database, lesson learned, exiting policies 7.1.1.3 EEF/OPA 7.1 Plan Cost Management: Inputs
  • 7. • Experts in the area making use of their expertise and historical information 7.1.2.1 Expert Judgment • Using techniques such Payback period, Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and discounted Cash Flow • We use these techniques to choose between strategic options for acquiring resource need for project activates such as self funding, funding with equity, renting, leasing, buying, etc. 7.1.2.2 Analytical Technique • Meetings that are attended by project manger, project team members involved with costing, sponsor, and other related stakeholders 7.1.2.3 Meetings 7.2 Plan Cost Management: ITTOs
  • 8. • The cost management plan describes how the project cost will be structure, planned, and managed 7.1.3.1 Cost Management Plan 7.3 Plan Cost Management: outputs Cost Management Plan establishes the following Unit of measure: E.g staff hours, staff days, liters, meters, tons, etc. Level of precision: the level of round up values e.g 10.51 to 11.00 Level of accuracy: The acceptable range for accepting cost estimation e. g ± 10% Organizational Procedure Link: As each work package in WBS is having unique account identifier, activity cost is directly linked through this account identifier to organizations accounting system. Control thresholds: Specifying acceptable threshold for cost variance before action is needed. The threshold is usually shown in percentage of variance. Rules of Performance Measurement: Rules for Earned Value Management (EVM) are set. For example 1. At which point in the project measurements will be made 2. What techniques to be used for EVM 3. How to calculate EAC In the Cost Management Plan we also specify the frequency of reporting, and any other additional process needed for cost estimation
  • 9. 7.2 Estimate Costs: ITTOs 1. Cost Management Plan 2. HR Magtm Plan 3. Scope Baseline 4. Project Schedule 5. Risk Register 6. EEF/OPA 1. Expert Judgments 2. Analogous estimating 3. Parametric estimating 4. Bottom-up estimating 5. Three-point estimating 6. Reserve Analysis 7. Cost of Quality 8. Project Magtm software 9. Vendor bid analysis 10. Group Decision Making 1. Activity cost estimates 2. Bases of estimates 3. Project document updates Input Tools & Techniques Output The process of estimating monetary resources of the project activities. Costs are estimated for all the resources that will be charged to the project
  • 10. 7.2 Estimate Costs: Data Flow Diagram Cost estimation is usually measurement of some currency but can also be measured as a unit of staff hours, staff days, etc to eliminate the risk of currency fluctuation. Cost estimating should be an iterative process and refined as activities become more clear with progress in work. At the begging our estimates might be just a rough order of magnitude (ROM) which is -25% to +75% of the real cost. Later on we can reach to definitive estimates which are -5% to +10 In some Orgs there might be guidelines about when to make such refinements
  • 11. • It tells us about how to estimate, manage, and control project cost 7.2.1.1 Cost Management Plan • It tells us about the skill level of the staff needed and the reward and recognition planned for the staff 7.2.1.2 Human Resource Management Plan • Scope statement may tell us whether both direct and indirect costs or only direct costs are estimated • WBS and WBS dictionary will give us more info about the scope • There might be constraints documented in the scope baseline e. g regulations related to safety, security, environment, and health. 7.2.1.3 Scope Baseline 7.2 Estimate Costs: Inputs
  • 12. • It tells us about the resources and duration of activities • Also some of the resources may be at higher or lower rate at some specific time of the year 7.2.1.4 Project Schedule • It tells us about the future risks and their implication on the activity costs • During the project we should be sensitive about both positive and negative risks 7.2.1.5 Risk Register • Market condition: the availability of certain resource and products and who have it. • Published Data: Telling us about resource costs • Historical information, template, policies 7.2.1.6 EEF/OPA 7.2 Estimate Costs: Inputs
  • 13. • Industry specific expertise together with using historical information 7.2.2.1 Expert Judgment • Estimating activity duration, cost, based on historical information • In this technique we use the size, duration, budget, and complexity of an activity carried out in previous project as base for estimating cost and duration of new activities. • Analogues estimating is less costly and less time consuming than other techniques but also less accurate. 7.2.2.2 Analogues Estimating 7.2.2 Estimate Costs: T&Ts
  • 14. • In Parametric Estimating technique we use statistical relationship between historical data and other variables e. g square foot or labor hours per work unit. 7.2.2.3 Parametric Estimating • To count for uncertainty in estimation and risk we use three point estimation • The estimation used are: Most likely (cM), Optimist (cO), and Pessimistic (cP) • Estimate time (cE) is achieved through the following two formulas: 7.2.2.4 Three point Estimation 7.2.2 Estimate Costs: T&T Triangular Distribution: cE= (cO+cM+cP)/3 Beta Distribution: cE = (cO+4cM+cP)/6
  • 15. • Estimating costs at lower level for better estimation and then adding it up to the higher level for better reporting ad tracking 7.2.2.5 Bottom up Estimating • Contingency Reserves uncertainty in estimating the activity cost • Contingency reserves are allocated to identified risk or “known unknowns”. For example we know that there will some rework (Known) but we do not know the amount of the rework (unknown) • Contingencies reserves can be a percentage of work, a fixed cost, or developed using quantitative analysis. • As the project progress contingency reserves may be increase or decreased • While contingency reserve is part of project baseline another type of reserves called Management reserves is associated with managerial control of the project work, unforeseen work that is included in the project scope, and unidentified risks or “unknown unknowns” • Originally the management reserve is not part of Cost Baseline but when we start using the reserves we do include them in the Cost Baseline through Change Control System 6.5.2.6 Reserve Analysis 7.2.2 Estimate Costs: T&Ts
  • 16. • Assumption about the costs related to the quality of product should be included in the cost estimates 7.2.2.7 Cost of Quality • Using software to estimate tools 7.2.2.8 Project Management Software • Analyzing bids received from other successful bidders for the same project 7.2.2.9 Vendor Bid Analysis • Group techniques such as brainstorming, Delphi Technique, and Nominal Group Techniques are used for better estimation and commitment to those estimations 7.2.2.10 Group Decision Making Technique 7.2.2 Estimate Costs: T&Ts
  • 17. • Activity Cost Estimates are the quantitative assessments of the costs required to complete an activity • Cost estimates are related to all the activity resource such as direct labor, materials, equipment, services, IT, interest rates, inflation rate, exchange rates, contingency reserves etc. 7.2.3.1 Activity Cost Estimates • Here we document how we achieved the estimation about activity costs • For example the bases on which we developed the costs, the assumption we made, the constraint we had, the confidence level we have in our estimates, and the range of estimates (±10%) 7.2.3.2 Bases of Estimation • Risk register is updated 7.2.3.3 Project Documents Updates 7.2.3 Estimate Costs: Outputs
  • 18. 7.3 Determine Budget: ITTOs 1. Cost Management Plan 2. Scope Baseline 3. Activity cost estimation 4. Basis of estimates 5. Project Schedule 6. Resource Calendar 7. Risk Register 8. Agreements 9. OPA 1. Cost aggregation 2. Reserve Analysis 3. Expert Judgment 4. Historical Relationships 5. Funding limit reconciliations 1. Cost Baseline 2. Project Funding Requirements 3. Project Docs update Input Tools & Techniques Output In this process we aggregate all the costs and develop cost baseline for the project which is the approved project budget except for the management reserves
  • 19. 7.3 Determine Budget: Data Flow Diagram
  • 20. 7.3.1 Determine Budget: Inputs • It tells us how the project cost will be managed and controlled 7.3.1.1 Cost Management Plan • Scope Statement: Indicating the budget related constraints • WBS: indicating the relationship between various works of the project • WBS Dictionary: Gives details about the WBS components 7.3.1.2 Project Scope Baseline • Giving us the cost estimates about each activity which will be aggregated to calculate estimated cost for each work package 7.3.1.3 Activity Cost Estimates • This Doc will tell us about the assumptions for including or excluding the indirect or any other costs for a given activity 7.3.1.4 Bases for estimation
  • 21. 7.3.1 Determine Budget: Inputs • The project schedule will tell us about start and finish dates of activities, information necessary for developing a budget 7.3.1.5 Project Schedule • Resource calendar tells us about the resources used during a specific time for project activities. • As most of the costs will go to resources, having this info is critical 7.3.1.6 Resource Calendar • It tells us about all the risk and their expected time of occurrence 7.3.1.7 Risk Register • Agreements related to the product that is going to be purchased is included when determining budget. • This may help us know how and when the seller is going to be paid 7.3.1.8 Agreements
  • 22. 7.3.2 Determine Budget: T&Ts • Costs are first aggregated by work packages and then higher components of the WBS. The estimates are ultimately aggregated for the whole project 7.3.2.1 Cost Aggregation • Here we establish both contingency reserves and the management reserves related to project budget 7.3.2.2 Reserve Analysis • Experts in the subject area consisting of consultants, sponsor, stakeholder 7.3.2.3 Expert Judgment
  • 23. 7.3.2 Determine Budget: T&Ts • Using historical information to establish a mathematical model through analogous or parametric estimation • The mathematical model is then used to determine budget for the whole project • The model can be simple as (basing budget of a residential home construction based on square foot) or complex as (having a model where multiple factors can be adjusted 7.3.2.4 Historical Relationships • The project expenditure should be reconciled with the funding limits. • If the planned expenditure is above the funding limits at any time, project work should be rescheduled 7.3.2.5 Funding limit reconciliation
  • 24. 7.3.3 Determine Budget: Outputs • Cost Baseline is the approved time-phased project budget • The cost baseline can only be changed through proper change control system • Cost Baseline does not include management reserve 7.3.3.1 Cost Baseline Project Budget is Cost Baseline + Management Reserves Many work packages coming together makes as single control account When managements reserves are about to be used, they are included in the cost baseline The summation of Control Accounts makes up the Cost Baseline
  • 25. 7.3.3 Determine Budget: Outputs • Risk Register, Activity Cost Estimates, and Project Schedule may be updated 7.3.3.2 Project Documents Updates • Funding requirements are derived from the cost baseline • Funding requirements also include the management reserves • The source of funding may also be identified in the funding requirement doc 7.3.3.3 Funding Requirement Funding can not be provided on regular bases therefore funding requirements are asked on incremental bases
  • 26. 7.4 Control Costs: ITTOs 1. Project Management Plan 2. Project Funding Requirement 3. Work Performance Data 4. OPA 1. Earned Value Management 2. Forecasting 3. To-complete Performance Index (TCPI) 4. Performance reviews 5. Project Management Software 6. Reserve analysis 1. Work Performance Information 2. Cost forecasts 3. Change requests 4. Project management plan updates 5. Project Docs update 6. OPA updates Input Tools & Techniques Output In this process we monitor the status of the project to update the project costs plus we manage changes to cost baseline. Here we mainly compare the expenditure and the physical work completed.
  • 27. 7.4 Control Cost: Data Flow Diagram In the process we also: • Monitor work performance against funds expended; • Prevent unapproved changes from being included in the reported cost • Bring expected cost overruns within acceptable limits.
  • 28. 7.4.1 Control Costs: Inputs • Project Cost Mamgt Plan: Specifying how to manage & control the costs • Cost Baseline: The baseline is compared with the actual results 7.4.1.1 Project Management Plan • It specifies the project cost plus the liabilities associated with securing the funds 7.4.1.2 Project Funding Limits • WPI include all the information about work progress, e. g which activities have completed and which have started and the cost authorized or spent for these activities 7.4.1.3 Work Performance Information • Including policies, procedures, and cost control mechanism 7.4.1.4 OPA
  • 29. 7.4.2 Control Costs: T&Ts • Earned Value Management (EVM) is a technique that combines scope, schedule and resource measurement in order to assess project performance • EVM measures project performance and progress through performance baseline • The performance baseline is formed through integrating project scope baseline, cost baseline, and schedule baseline 7.4.2.1 Earned Value Management Using the Earned Value Management technique we develop and manage the three key dimensions for each work package or control account. The three dimensions are Planned Value, Earned Value, and the Actual Cost
  • 30. 7.4.2.1 Control Costs: EVM • PV is the value of physical work that should have been accomplished against the planned cost. • E. g you planned that for 10,000 USD you will complete 5% work Planned Value (PV) • EV is the value of physical work that is actually completed against the planned cost. • E. g you have actually completed 4% of the work after spending the 10,000 USD that were planned to be spent for completing 5% work. Earned Value (EV) • AC is the amount of expenditure spent on completing a work during specific time period or percentage of work. • E. g to complete 5% of the planned work you spent 12,000 USD. The 12K spent is the AC. Actual Cost (AC)
  • 31. 7.4.2 Control Costs: T&Ts • SV is a measure of schedule performance • SV is measured by subtracting the PV from EV or SV= EV-PV Schedule Variance (SV) • CV is a measure of cost performance for a project • CV is measured by subtracting the AC from EV or CV = EV - AC Cost Variance (CV) • SPI measures the efficiency of the time used by the project team or simply shows schedule efficiency • SPI is measured as a ratio of the EV to the PV, or SPI = EV/PV • If SPI is greater than 1 we are ahead of the schedule • If SPI is less than 1 we are behind the schedule Schedule Performance Index (SPI) 7.4.2.1 Earned Value Management Continues….
  • 32. 7.4.2 Control Costs: T&Ts • CPI measure the budget efficiency in a project • CPI is measured as the EV to AC or CPI = EV/AC • CPI greater than 1 indicates we are under budget • CPI less than 1 indicate we are over budget Cost Performance Index (CPI) 7.4.2.1 Earned Value Management Continues…. So far, all the equations involve Earned Value (EV). When calculating SV, CV, SPI, or CPI, you always start with EV and find its relation to the required equation. Estimate At Completion (EAC) means how much will the project cost if we continue as the current situation. Budget At Completion (BAC) means how much budget we had planned for the whole project. What is going on with this project?
  • 33. 7.4.2 Control Costs: T&Ts • Based on the project performance we may develop a forecast for the Estimate At Completion (EAC) for the cost. • To forecast EAC we consider the current performance and any information relate to the project’s future performance. Such information can be found in WPI • The basic formula for calculating for EAC is: EAC= AC+ bottom-up ETC (Estimate to completion) 7.4.2.2 Forecasting Since (EAC = AC + bottom-up) involves manual estimation, the result may be compared with various results obtained from other equations used for calculating the EAC. 1. If the future work is performed the same as the budgeted rate or the way we had planned it at the very begging, we calculate EAC as: EAC = AC + (BAC – EV) 2. If we believe that the current performance will continue in the future we calculate EAC as: EAC = BAC/CPI 3. If want to take both the current cost and schedule performance into account then we calculate EAC as: EAC = AC + [(BAC – EV) / (CPI x SPI)] . The CPI and SPI can be counted as 80/20 or 50/50 or any other values as desired by the project manager.
  • 34. 7.4.2 Control Costs: T&Ts • TCPI is used to calculate future Performance Index if we want to achieve some specific managerial goals, e. g completing the project within the planned budget (BAC) or within our new estimation (EAC). • To calculate TCPI we can use two different equations shown below 7.4.2.3 To Complete Performance Index (TCPI) If we want to complete the project within the planned budget (BAC) then the formula is: TCPI = (BAC-EV) / (BAC – AC) But if we think that it is no longer possible to complete the project in the planned budget (BAC) which might be the case in this example where the current performance index is below 1, then we calculate TCPI by using EAC: TCPI = (BAC-EV)/ (EAC – AC)
  • 35. 7.4.2 Control Costs: T&Ts • Through Performance Reviews we compare the cost performance, indentifying the activities or work packages that are over budget or under budget and estimated funds needed to complete the work. • If EVM is used the followings information is determined: 7.4.2.4. Performance Reviews Variance Analysis: Cost Variance (CV = EV – AC), Schedule Variance (SV = EV – PV), and Variance At Completion (VAC = BAC – EAC) are determined. And find the cause and degree for variance and decide whether corrective or preventive action is needed. Trend Analysis: In Trend Analysis we analysis project performance over time to know the performance is improving or deteriorating.
  • 36. 7.4.2 Control Costs: T&Ts • Project Management Software is used monitor the three dimensions of EVM (PV, AC, and EV). • The software is also used to show different forecast for the project completion. 7.4.2.5 Project Management Software • Analyzing contingency and management reserves • If the reserves are not used, we take them out of the project budget • We may possible allocate more reserves 7.4.2.6 Reserve Analysis
  • 37. 7.4.3 Control Costs: Outputs • Calculated CV, SV, CPI, SPI, VAC, and TCPI for each control account and work package are documented and communicated to the stakeholders 7.4.3.1 Work Performance Information • EAC is documented and communicated to the stakeholders 7.4.3.2 Forecasts • As with most of Monitoring and Controlling process change request is made • Change request can be preventive or corrective action or changes into one of the three baselines 7.4.3.3 Change Requests
  • 38. 7.4.3 Control Costs: Outputs • Cost Baseline: Changes to cost baseline is made due to variances or new estimates • Cost Management Plan: Some of the stakeholders may request changes to things like level of control thresholds, or level of accuracy. 7.4.3.4 Project Management Plan Updates • Cost Estimates and Bases of Estimation 7.4.3.5 Project Documents Updates • Causes of Variance, corrective action selected and the reason for them to be selected, financial database, and lesson learned are updated. 7.4.3.6 OPA Updates