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Mohamed Sharique Page 1
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
Report on the Five Dimensions of Culture of
India Vs Canada
Overvie...
Mohamed Sharique Page 2
1. Power/Distance (PD)
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are no...
Mohamed Sharique Page 3
2. Individualism (IDV)
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdep...
Mohamed Sharique Page 4
3. Masculinity (MAS)
A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be...
Mohamed Sharique Page 5
4. Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI)
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way th...
Mohamed Sharique Page 6
5. Long Term Orientation (LTO)
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some lin...
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Canada vs India Hofstede

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Armed with a large database of cultural statistics, Hofstede analyzed the results and found clear patterns of similarity and difference amid the responses along these five dimensions. Interestingly, his research was done on employees of IBM only, which allowed him to attribute the patterns to national differences in culture, largely eliminating the problem of differences in company culture.

Published in: Data & Analytics

Canada vs India Hofstede

  1. 1. Mohamed Sharique Page 1 Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Report on the Five Dimensions of Culture of India Vs Canada Overview Armed with a large database of cultural statistics, Hofstede analyzed the results and found clear patterns of similarity and difference amid the responsesalong these five dimensions.Interestingly, his research was done on employeesof IBM only, which allowed him to attribute the patterns to national differences inculture, largely eliminating the problem of differencesin company culture.
  2. 2. Mohamed Sharique Page 2 1. Power/Distance (PD) This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not equal – it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities amongst us. Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. India:India scores high on this dimension, 77, indicating an appreciation for hierarchy and a top-down structure in society and organizations. If one were to encapsulate the Indian attitude, one could use the following words and phrases dependent on the boss or the power holder for direction, acceptance of un-equal rights between the power-privileged and those who are lesser down in the pecking order, immediate superiors accessible but one layer above less so, paternalistic leader, management directs, gives reason / meaning to ones work life and rewards in exchange for loyalty from employees. Real Power is centralized even though it may not appear to be and managers count on the obedience of their team members. Employees expect to be directed clearly as to their functions and what is expected of them. Control is familiar, even a psychological security, and attitude towards managers are formal even if one is on first name basis. Communication is top down and directive in its style and often feedback which is negative is never offered up the ladder Canada: With a score of 39 on this dimension, Canadian culture is marked by interdependence among its inhabitants and there is value placed on egalitarianism. This is also reflected by the lack of overt status and/or class distinctions in society. Typical of other cultures with a low score on this dimension, hierarchy in Canadian organisations is established for convenience, superiors are always accessible and managers rely on individual employees and teams for their expertise. It is customary for managers and staff members to consult one another and to share information freely. With respect to communication, Canadians value a straightforward exchange of information. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 India Canada
  3. 3. Mohamed Sharique Page 3 2. Individualism (IDV) The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with whether people´s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “We”. In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to ‘in groups’ that take care of them in exchange for loyalty. India: India, with a rather intermediate score of 48, is a society with both collectivistic and individualistic traits. The collectivist side means that there is a high preference for belonging to a larger social framework in which individuals are expected to act in accordance to the greater good of one’s defined in-group(s). In such situations, the actions of the individual are influenced by various concepts such as the opinion of one’s family, extended family, neighbours, work group and other such wider social networks that one has some affiliation toward. For a collectivist, to be rejected by one’s peers or to be thought lowly of by one’s extended and immediate in-groups, leaves him or her rudderless and with a sense of intense emptiness. The individualistic aspect of Indian society is seen as a result of its dominant religion/philosophy - Hinduism. The Hindus believe in a cycle of death and rebirth, with the manner of each rebirth being dependent upon how the individual lived the preceding life. Canada: Canada scores 80 on this dimension (its highest dimension score) and can be characterized as an individualistic culture. Similar to its American neighbor to the south, this translates into a loosely-knit society in which the expectation is that people look after themselves and their immediate families. Similarly, in the business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display initiative. Also, within the exchange-based world of work, hiring and promotion decisions are based merit or evidence of what one has done or can do. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 India Canada
  4. 4. Mohamed Sharique Page 4 3. Masculinity (MAS) A high score (masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the winner / best in field – a value system that starts in school and continues throughout organisational behaviour. India: A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people, wanting to be the best (masculine) or liking what you do (feminine). India scores 56 on this dimension and is thus considered a masculine society. India is actually very masculine in terms of visual display of success and power. The designer brand label, the flash and ostentation that goes with advertising one’s success, is widely practiced. However, India is also a spiritual country with millions of deities and various religious philosophies. Canada: A low score (feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in society are caring for others and quality of life. A feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,wanting to be the best (masculine) or liking what you do (feminine). Canada scores 52 on this dimension and can be characterized as a moderately “masculine” society. While Canadians strive to attain high standards of performance in both work and play (sports), the overall cultural tone is more subdued with respect to achievement, success and winning, when compared to the US. Similarly, Canadians also tend to have a work-life balance and are likely to take time to enjoy personal pursuits, family gatherings and life in general. This is not to say that Canadians are not hard workers. As a general rule, Canadians strive to attain high standards of performance in all endeavours. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 India Canada Masculanity Masculanity
  5. 5. Mohamed Sharique Page 5 4. Uncertainty/Avoidance Index (UAI) The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the UAI score. India: India scores 40 on this dimension and thus has a medium low preference for avoiding uncertainty. In India, there is acceptance of imperfection; nothing has to be perfect nor has to go exactly as planned. India is traditionally a patient country where tolerance for the unexpected is high ; even welcomed as a break from monotony. People generally do not feel driven and compelled to take action-initiatives and comfortably settle into established rolls and routines without questioning. Rules are often in place just to be circumvented and one relies on innovative methods to “bypass the system”. Canada: The Canadian score on this dimension is 48 and Canadian culture is more “uncertainty accepting.” This is indicative of the easy acceptance of new ideas, innovative products and a willingness to try something new or different, whether it pertains to technology, business practic es, or consumer products. Canadians are also tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone and allow the freedom of expression. At the same time, Canadian culture is not rules-oriented and Canadians tend to be less emotionally expressive than cultures scoring higher on this dimension. 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 India Category 2 Column2 Column1 UAI
  6. 6. Mohamed Sharique Page 6 5. Long Term Orientation (LTO) This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently. Normative societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time- honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future. India: India has a score of 51 on this dimension, which indicates a preference for a more long-term, pragmatic culture. In India the concept of “karma” dominates religious and philosophical thought. Time is not linear, and thus is not as important as to western societies which typically score low on this dimension. Countries like India have a great tolerance for religious views from all over the world. Hinduism is often considered a philosophy more than even a religion; an amalgamation of ideas, views, practices and esoteric beliefs. In India there is an acceptance that there are many truths and often depends on the seeker. Societies that have a high score on pragmatism typically forgive a lack of punctuality, a changing game-plan based on changing reality and a general comfort with discovering the fated path as one goes along rather than playing to an exact plan. Canada: Canada scores 36 in this dimension, marking it as a normative society. People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results. Business Suggestions: India: Highly Segmented Market, Agro Based Business, Family Business, Manufacturing Business, Traditionally Focussed, Situational processes, Less Women Employment. Canada: Moderately Segmented Market, Service Based Business, Technologically Focussed, Systematic processes, Equal Employment for Women. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 India Canada LTO LTO

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