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DOC-20221212-WA0035..pptx

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DOC-20221212-WA0035..pptx

  1. 1. Slide 1 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. The Family and Human Sexuality 12 • Ten edition
  2. 2. Slide 2 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Group two 1. Abdikadir Ali Yabarow 2. Mohamed Hassan Abdi 3. Sadia Abdullah Abdi 4. Abdiwali Ali Mohamed 5. Asma Ibrahim Hassan 6. Mohamed Hassan Omar 7. Abdiaziz Muktar Abdullah
  3. 3. Slide 3 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Global View of the Family  Universal Principles  Family as social institution exists in all cultures  Family: set of people related by blood, marriage or other agreed-upon relatio nship, or adoption, who share primary responsibility for reproduction and cari ng for members of society
  4. 4. Slide 4 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Composition: What Is the Family?  Nuclear family: nucleus or core upon which larger famil y groups are built  Extended family: family in which relatives live in same home as parents and children
  5. 5. Slide 5 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Composition: What Is the Family?  Monogamy: form of marriage in which one woman and o ne man are married only to each other  Serial monogamy: when a person has several spouses in his or her lifetime, but only one spouse at a time
  6. 6. Slide 6 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Composition: What Is the Family?  Polygamy: when an individual has several husbands or w ives simultaneously  Polygyny: marriage of a man to more than one woman at t he same time  Polyandry: marriage of a woman to more than one husban d at the same time; extremely rare
  7. 7. Slide 7 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Kinship Patterns: To Whom Are We Related?  Kinship: state of being related to others  Bilateral descent: both sides of a person’s family are regarded as equally important  Patrilineal descent: only the father’s relatives are important  Matrilineal descent: only the mother’s relatives are impor tant
  8. 8. Slide 8 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Authority Patterns: Who Rules ?  Patriarchy: males are expected to dominate in all famil y decision making  Matriarchy: women have greater authority than men  Egalitarian family: family in which spouses are regarded as equals
  9. 9. Slide 9 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Functionalist Perspective  Family serves six functions for society:  Reproduction  Protection  Socialization  Regulation of sexual behavior  Affection and companionship  Provision of social status
  10. 10. Slide 10 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Conflict Perspective  Family reflects inequality in wealth and power found within society  In wide range of societies, husbands exercise power and authority within the family  View family as economic unit that contributes to social injustice
  11. 11. Slide 11 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Interactionist Perspective  Focuses on micro level of family and other intimate relationships  Interested in how individuals interact with each other, whether they are cohabiting partners or longtime married couples
  12. 12. Slide 12 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Feminist Perspective  Interest in family as social institution  Looked particularly closely at how women’s work outside the home impacts their child care and housework duties  Urge social scientists and agencies to rethink notion that f amilies in which no adult male is present are automatically cause for concern  Feminists stress need to investigate neglected topics in family studies
  13. 13. Slide 13 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Marriage and Family  Over 95% of all men and women in U.S. marry at least once during their lifetimes  Most consistent aspect of family life in the U.S. is the hi gh rate of marriage
  14. 14. Slide 14 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Courtship and Mate Selection  Internet is latest courtship practice  Process of mate selection is taking longer today than in past  Aspects of Mate Selection  Endogamy: specifies groups within which spouse must be f ound; prohibits marriage with members of other groups  Exogamy: requires mate selection outside certain groups, usually family or certain kin
  15. 15. Slide 15 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Courtship and Mate Selection  Aspects of Mate Selection (continued)  Incest taboo: social norm common to all societies prohibiting sexual relationshi ps between certain culturally specified relationships  Homogamy: conscious or unconscious tendency to select mate with personal characteristics similar to one’s own
  16. 16. Slide 16 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Courtship and Mate Selection  The Love Relationship  Coupling of love and marriage not universal  U.S. parents and peers expected to help child confine search for a mate to “socially acceptable” m embers of opposite sex  Many world cultures give priority to factors other than romantic feelings
  17. 17. Slide 17 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Variations in Family Life and Intimate Relationships  Racial and Ethnic Differences  Subordinate status of racial and ethnic minorities in U.S. affects family lives  Black single mothers often rely on strong kin networks  Native American families cushion hardships  Mexican Americans are more familistic  Machismo: sense of virility, personal worth, and pride in one’s maleness  Familism: pride in extended family
  18. 18. Slide 18 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Child-Rearing Patterns  Parenthood and Grandparenthood  One of most important roles of parents is socialization of children  Little anticipatory socialization  Limited learning during pregnancy  Transition to parenthood is abrupt  Lack of clear and helpful guidelines for successful parenthood  In some homes, the full nest holds grandchildren
  19. 19. Slide 19 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Child-Rearing Patterns  Adoption  Transfer of legal rights, responsibilities, privileges of paren thood to new legal parent or parents  Functionalist: government has a strong interest in encoura ging adoption  Interactionist: adoption may require child to adjust to very different family environment and parental approach to chi ld rearing
  20. 20. Slide 20 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Child-Rearing Patterns  Dual-Income Families  Among married people between 25 and 64, 96% of men and 69% of women in labor force  Rise due to economic need, coupled with desire to pursue car eers
  21. 21. Slide 21 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Child-Rearing Patterns  Single-Parent Families  Only one parent present to care for children  In 2010, single parents headed about 24% of White families with children under 18  24% of White families with children  37% of Hispanic families with children  62% of African American families with children  Households headed by single fathers more than quadrupled from 1987 to 2011
  22. 22. Slide 22 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Child-Rearing Patterns  Stepfamilies  Approximately 45% of all people in U.S. will marry, divorce, and remarry  Nature of blended families has social significance for adults and children  Cherlin: children whose parents have remarried do not hav e higher levels of well-being than children in divorced single-parent families
  23. 23. Slide 23 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Alternatives to Traditional Fa milies  Divorce  U.S. family life includes competing commitments  To marriage  To self-expression and personal growth
  24. 24. Slide 24 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Statistical Trends in Divorce  Divorce rates increased in late 1960s, then leveled off  Since late 1980s, declined by 30%  Partly due to aging baby-boomer population and decline in proportion of people of marriageable age  About 63% of all divorcees have remarried
  25. 25. Slide 25 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Factors Associated with Divor ce  Greater social acceptance of divorce  More liberal divorce laws  Fewer children  Greater family income  Greater opportunities for women
  26. 26. Slide 26 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Impact of Divorce on Children  National study that tracked 6,332 children before and af ter divorce found behavior did not suffer  Other studies have shown greater unhappiness among ch ildren who live amidst parental conflict  Still, too simplistic to assume children are automatically better off following breakup
  27. 27. Slide 27 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Diverse Lifestyles  Marriage has lost much of its social significance as rite o f passage  Decline in U.S. marriage rates since 1960  Marriage often postponed until later  Partnerships without marriage formed
  28. 28. Slide 28 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Diverse Lifestyles  Cohabitation  Male-female couples who choose to live together without marrying  About half of currently married couples in U.S. lived together before marriage  Remaining Single  More and more people in the U.S. postponing entry into a first marriage  Inaccurate view that single adult always lonely, is a workaholic, or is immature
  29. 29. Slide 29 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Diverse Lifestyles  Marriage without Children  Modest increase in childlessness in U.S.  About 16–17% of women will complete childbearing years without bearing children  Economic considerations have contributed
  30. 30. Slide 30 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. Human Sexuality  Sexuality not limited to physical behaviors  Includes beliefs, values, and social norms that collectively govern its expression  Ways human sexuality sanctioned differ widely geographically and historically  Sexual attitudes and practices change over time

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