Microbial resources

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as a partial fulfilment for the course Env. 704
Pre. M.Sc. In environmental sciences
Dec. 2012
Faculty of science
Alexandria University.

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Microbial resources

  1. 1. Microbial resources Mohamed WahbyPowerPoint presentation as a partial fulfilment for the course Env. 704 Pre. M.Sc. In environmental sciences Dec. 2012
  2. 2. Contents• Introduction• In industry• Microbial insecticides (Biological control)• Water borne pathogens in developing countries• Biodegradation• Genetic engineering associated questioning• Climatic change effect on microorganism’s Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 2 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  3. 3. Contents• Introduction• In industry• Microbial insecticides (Biological control)• Water borne pathogens in developing countries• Biodegradation• Genetic engineering associated questioning• Climatic change effect on microorganism’s Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 3 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  4. 4. Microorganisms• Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, archaea or protists, but not viruses and prions, which are generally classified as http://tbi.montana.edu/outreach/hotscience non-living. /materials/resources/TreeofLife_TBI.jpghttp://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/m/microorganism.htm Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 4 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  5. 5. Microorganisms• Harmful or beneficial?http://meadfamilydental.com/wp- http://www.interactive-biology.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Photo-Mar-27- content/uploads/2012/08/Probiotic-12-45-02-AM.jpg Yogurt-862x1024.jpg Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 5 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  6. 6. Microorganisms• Their role in nature: Carbon cycle Brock – Biology- of microorganisms – 13th edition - Chapter 24 Mohamed Wahby Alexandria University - 6 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  7. 7. Microorganisms • Their role in nature: Nitrogen cyclehttp://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/the-nitrogen-cycle/trend10-2s-soer2010-eps/TREND10-2S-nitrogen-cycle.eps.75dpi.gif/image Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 7 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  8. 8. Microorganisms • Their role in nature: Nitrogen cycleBrock – Biology of microorganisms –13th edition - Chapter 24 Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 8 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  9. 9. Microorganisms• Their role in nature: Sulphur cycle http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/120991179.png Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 9 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  10. 10. Microorganisms • Their role in nature: Sulphur cycleBrock – Biology of microorganisms –13th edition - Chapter 24 Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 10 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  11. 11. Microorganisms• Bacteria http://www.scilogs.com/import-data/images/11/bacteria.jpg Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 11 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  12. 12. Microorganisms• Why bacteria?• Oldest on earth• Nothing works without them• Basic and most studied organism• Everywhere http://tbi.montana.edu/outreach/hotscience /materials/resources/TreeofLife_TBI.jpg Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 12 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  13. 13. Microorganisms• Why bacteria genetically?Simplicity and Polymerization rate Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - http://barleyworld.org/sites/default/files/figure-08-01_0.jpg 13 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  14. 14. Microorganisms• Why bacteria physiologically? • Primary metabolites • Secondary metaboliteshttp://ebsbiowizard.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/bacterial-growth-curve.png Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 14 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  15. 15. Contents• Introduction• In industry• Microbial insecticides (Biological control)• Water borne pathogens in developing countries• Biodegradation• Genetic engineering associated questioning• Climatic change effect on microorganism’s Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 15 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  16. 16. Production of antibiotics • Are produced from actinomycetes • Are naturals, semi-synthetics or synthetics • Classified according to their “mode of action”http://www.armradio.am/en/wp- http://muirbiology.files.wordpress.com/2012/1content/uploads/2012/11/antibiotik.jpg - Alexandria University - Mohamed Wahby 1/2012-11-01-14-41-22.jpg 16 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  17. 17. DiscoverySir Alexander Fleming(National Library of Medicine/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Image taken from: “Deadly diseases and epidemics, antibiotics-resistant bacteria”. Patrick G. Guilfoile, Ph.D. FOUNDING EDITOR, The Late I. Edward Alcamo. Distinguished Teaching Professor of Microbiology, SUNY Farmingdale. FOREWORD BY David Heymann. World Health Organization. Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data. ISBN: 978-0-7910-9188-3 Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 17 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  18. 18. Photograph of the originalculture plate of the fungusPenicillium notatum madeby Sir Alexander Fleming (St.Mary’sHospital MedicalSchool/Photo Researchers,Inc.) Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 18 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  19. 19. Production of antibiotics • Principle: Substitutability test (in lab)• Bacterial susceptibility test. Practical section of course “General bacteriology ” Mic.311. Department of Microbiology, faculty of science, Alexandria University. Semester Autumn 2010. Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 19 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  20. 20. Production of vinegar• Principle: AcetobacterOkafor - Modernindustrial microbiologyand biotechnology –Chapter 14 –Production of vinegar http://www.foodsketches.com/_media/_suppliers/_pics/10.jpg Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 20 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  21. 21. Production of single cell protein • Dairy wastes: Whey Okafor - Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology – Chapter 15 – Single cell proteinhttp://www.eplantscience.com/botanical_biotechnology_biology_chemistry/biotechnology/microbial_biotechnology/single_cell_protein_scp_and_mycoprotein/biotech_scp_production_of_yeast_biomass.php Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 21 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  22. 22. Production of E162http://www.ajinomoto.com/amino/eng/img/1_5_image.gif Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 22 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  23. 23. Contents• Introduction• In industry• Microbial insecticides (Biological control)• Water borne pathogens in developing countries• Biodegradation• Genetic engineering associated questioning• Climatic change effect on microorganism’s Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 23 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  24. 24. Microbial bio-control• Bacillus thuringiensishttp://www.biocontrol.entomology.cornell.edu/pathogens/bacteria.html Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 24 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  25. 25. Contents• Introduction• In industry• Microbial insecticides (Biological control)• Water borne pathogens in developing countries• Biodegradation• Genetic engineering associated questioning• Climatic change effect on microorganism’s Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 25 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  26. 26. Water borne diseaseshttp://www.righttoplay.com/International/news-and-media/PublishingImages/GOOD.png Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 26 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  27. 27. • Guidelines for drinking- water quality - 4th edition – WHO – Chapter 7, Microbial aspects Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 27 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  28. 28. Contents• Introduction• In industry• Microbial insecticides (Biological control)• Water borne pathogens in developing countries• Biodegradation• Genetic engineering associated questioning• Climatic change effect on microorganism’s Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 28 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  29. 29. Biodegradation of plastic Ralstonia eutropha http://techcrunch.com/2011/03/08/sodastream- coca-cola-sustainable-packaging/http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Rals Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 29tonia_eutropha Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  30. 30. Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 30 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  31. 31. Effect of genetically modified plants on soil microorganisms• “… Overall, the GM crops investigated so far seem to have little or no effect on soil microbial communities. The methods used, although suitable in different ways for the analysis of multiple sample numbers, were sensitive enough to detect changes due to environmental factors such as plant growth development, soil type, and year… ”From Mitchell and Dong – environmental microbiology – 2nd edition – Chapter 10 - 2010 Wiley-Blackwell. Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 31 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  32. 32. Biodegradation and phytoremediation http://nac.unl.edu/bufferguidelines/guidelines /3_productive_soils/5.htmlhttp://newspaper.li/static/e9b7c973691655ac2c84aecdae6a8dc5.jpg Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 32 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  33. 33. Contents• Introduction• In industry• Microbial insecticides (Biological control)• Water borne pathogens in developing countries• Biodegradation• Genetic engineering associated questioning• Climatic change effect on microorganism’s Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 33 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  34. 34. The effect of climatic change on microorganism’shttp://www.emlab.com/m/media/TempRanges_ER0807_Fig1.jpg Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 34 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  35. 35. In Egypthttp://www.narg.org.uk/images/egypt_satphoto_google.jpg Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 35 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  36. 36. Conclusion• Microorganisms are the main player in every process takes place on earth• Microorganisms are an important (could be essential in some cases) source of food and products• Every living being on earth is affected by climate change, even the unseen ones. Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 36 Faculty of science - Microbial resources
  37. 37. References• Ralph Mitchell and Ji-Dong Gu – Environmental microbiology – 2nd edition - Wiley-Blackwell, 2010• Jacquelyn G. Black – Microbiology, principles and explortaions – 7th edition - Wiley-Blackwell, 2008• Nduka Okafor – Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology – Science publisher, 2007• Brock – Biology of microorganisms – 13th edition - Pearson Education 2012, 2009, 2006• Promila Parihar – Microbiology and immunology – Swastik Publisher & distributors, 2009• Naill A. Logan – Bacterial systematic - Wiley-Blackwell, 1994 Mohamed Wahby - Alexandria University - 37 Faculty of science - Microbial resources

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