Investigation on Lipid Composition of Exotic Oilseeds


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Investigation on Lipid Composition of Exotic Oilseeds

  1. 1. Untersuchung zur Zusammensetzung der Lipide exotischer Ölsaaten Investigation on Lipid Composition of Exotic Oilseeds Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan Hassanien 19.02.2004
  2. 2. Vegetable Oils : Production and Consumption .1- The production of oil plants takes World production of fats and oilsthe third place in world productionafter starch plants and fruits. Animal 25%2- More than 90% of the oil plantsare produced in the tropical andsubtropical areas. Vegetable 75%4- The major oil crops ofinternational importance: i.e., World consumption of fats and oilssoybean (Glycine max), oil palm(Elaeis guineenis), rapeseed (Brassica Animal feedspp.), sunflower (Helianthus 7% Chemical industryannuus), cottonseed (Gossypium 13%spp.), and groundnut (Arachishypogaeo), together accounting for Edible usesabout 84% of world vegetable oil 80%production.
  3. 3. Information on Black Cumin, Coriander and Niger Oilseeds Black cumin Coriander Niger (Nigella sativa L.) (Coriandrum sativum L.) (Guizotia abyssinica Cass). Family Ranonculaceae Family Umbelliferea Family CompositaeCountry of Mediterranean countries Mediterranean countries, Eastern -Ethiopia: (50-60% of totalsource: and India. Europe, and India. production). -India (2% of total production).World Production: Not available 100 ton per year 400.000 ton per year (not involved in the world oilseeds trade).Uses of oilseeds 1- Edible uses: Sweet dish, 1- Edible uses: Ingredient of curry 1- Edible uses.and/or seed oils: pastry, flavoring of food, powder, Flavoring agent of certain 2- Manufacture of soap and stomachic, carmanitive, and alcoholic beverages. paints. diuretic agent. 2-Industrial uses: Coriander produce 3- Lubricant of illuminant. 2- Medicinal uses: a high petroselinic acid of potential 4- Defatted Protein-rich meal Antibacterial, Antifungal, uses (fine chemicals, softeners, used as feed or fuel. Antineoplastic, soaps, emulsifiers and nylon). Antihelmenthic.Total lipids 40% 30% 30-40%(fresh weight):
  4. 4. Goals of The Study Black cumin, coriander and niger seed oils have been part of a diet in many parts of the world and their consumption is also becoming increasingly popular in the non-producer countries. However, information on their composition and bioactives is limited.1. To analyze the crude seed oils, their fractions and their bioactive compounds. Adaptation of fast methods2. To compare the Radical Scavenging Activity (RSA) of the crude oils and their fractions and to study the effect of minor components in oils, Health Impact especially polar lipids, on their RSA.3. To assess oxidative stability of both crude and stripped crude seed oils and to evaluate the efficacy of a combination of polar lipids, in Information for the Market delaying the oxidation of crude oils.
  5. 5. Experimental Oilseeds Procedures Black cumin Coriander Niger From Turkey From Hungary From India Grounding (Particle size = 1-2 mm) Fatty acid methyl estersRadical Scavenging Activity GLC/FID ESR (galvinoxyl) Photometric (DPPH radical). Extraction of crude seed oils Fat-soluble vitamins using n-hexane or NP-HPLC/UV Chloroform:Methanol (2:1, v/v) Oxidative Stability Saponification Oven Test (21 days) Peroxide Value, p-anisidine Value Column Chromatography UV (230 and 270 nm) Phytosterols (Silica gel 60) GLC/FID Chloroform Acetone Methanol Glycolipids Phospholipids Neutral lipids HPLC/UV, TLC HPLC/UV, TLC TLC and GLC and GLC and GLC
  6. 6. Levels of Fatty Acids in Crude Seed Oils 70 Black cumin seed oil 60 Coriander seed oil 50Relative Niger seed oilcontent 40 (%) 30 20 10 0 C16:0 C18:0 C18:1n-12 C18:1n-9 C18:2n-6 C18:3n-6 C20:2n-6 C22:0 C22:1n-9 C20:5n-3 C22:6n-3 Fatty acid
  7. 7. NP-HPLC/UV Analysis of Glycolipid Subclasses. C H 2O H C H 2O H O O HO O CH2 HO OH CH-O-COR O HO CH-O-COR HO O O OH HO O -C O R 1 OH O -C O R 2 Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) OH R2 Digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) HO C H2 OHR1 O O O R1 O O N H -C O R 2 HO H O HO HO HO HO Compound Black Coriander Niger Cerebroside R1= H, Steryl glucoside (SG) (CER) cumin seed R1= Acyl, Acylated steryl glucoside (ASG) C H 2S O 3H Acylated steryl glucoside (ASG) 9.95 25.1 38.5 O Monoglucosyldiacylglycerol 7.88 nd nd (MGD) OH HO O Steryl glucoside (SG) 9.45 34.9 29.5 O -C O R 1 HO Cerebroside (CER) 11.9 38.4 31.0 O -C O R 2 Diglucosyldiacylglycerol (DGD) 55.6 nd nd Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQD) Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol 5.08 nd nd (SQD)
  8. 8. NP-HPLC/UV Analysis of Phospholipid Subclasses. CH2-O-R CH-OR1 = -Form O CH2-O-P-O-R2 = -Form OH R2 = CH2-CH2-N+(CH3)3 Phosphatidylcholine. R2 = CH2-CH2-NH3+ Phosphatidylethanolamine. R2 = CH2-CH(NH3)+ CO2H Phosphatidylserine. R2 = (CH)6 (OH)5 Phosphatidylinositol. Compound Black Coriander Niger seed cuminPhosphatidylglycerol (PG) 1.51 0.48 2.91Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) 25.1 27.1 22.5Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 9.56 19.2 14.6Lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) 1.20 2.50 TracesPhosphatidylserine (PS) 12.3 7.20 8.74Phosphatidylcholine (PC) 46.1 40.3 48.7Lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC) 4.23 3.22 2.55
  9. 9. Levels of Phytosterols and Tocopherols (g/kg) in Seed Oils. Compound Black cumin seed oil Coriander seed oil Niger seed oilCampesterol 0.226 0.735 0.713Stigmasterol 0.314 1.512 0.667Lanosterol 0.106 0.152 0.113-Sitosterol 1.182 1.553 2.035∆5-Avenasterol 1.025 1.466 0.530∆7-Avenasterol 0.809 0.365 0.164Total Sterols 3.662 5.973 4.222α -Tocopherol 0.284 0.086 0.861α -Tocopherol 0.040 0.672 0.331α -Tocopherol 0.225 0.162 0.162α -Tocopherol 0.048 0.347 0.185Total Tocopherols 0.597 1.267 1.947
  10. 10. Radical Scavenging Activity of Crude Seed Oils 100 A 100 B 90 90 80 80 % Remaining Galvinoxyl 70 70% Remaining DPPH 60 60 50 50 40 40 Black cumin TL Black cumin TL 30 30 Coriander TL Coriander TL 20 20 10 Niger TL 10 Niger TL 0 0 1 30 60 0 0 B 1 30 60 Time (min) Time (min) Scavenging effect at different incubation times of crude seed oils on (A) DPPH radical as measured by changes in absorbance values at 515 nm and on (B) galvinoxyl radical as recorded by ESR. PUFA Polar lipids Total Color intensity Total Total Unsaponifiables (420 nm) Tocopherols Phenolics + + + + - -
  11. 11. Comparison Between Antioxidant potential of Crude Seed Oils under Study and Crude Vegetable Oils Available in the Market. 30 25 20Exhausted DPPH % 15 (After 60 min). 10 5 0 l l l l l l l l l oi oi oi t oi r oi t oi oi oi gin) oi d d d d d d see see see anu owe alnu see see vir see Pe unfl a der in tton W emp Lin xtr ge r n m e i r ia cu Co S H il( N Co lack eo B liv O
  12. 12. Oxidative Stability of Crude and Stripped Seed Oils Crude Seed oils Triacylglycerols 120 120 Black cumin seed oil Black cumin seed oil Coriander seed oil 100 Coriander seed oil 100 Niger seed oil Niger seed oil 80 80 meq/kg oilmeq/kg oil 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Storage period at 60 °C (day) Storage period at 60 °C (day) Changes in peroxide levels of crude (A) and stripped (B) seed oils during oven test.
  13. 13. Conclusions1- Information on the bioactive compounds in black cumin, coriander and niger seed oils waslimited. Yet these phytochemicals may bring nutraceutical and functional benefits to food systems.Therefore, the results will be of importance in processing and utilizing these seed oils and theirby-products as a new source of vegetable oils.2- High levels of oils recovered from the studied oilseeds and their superior level of triacylglycerols(ca. 90% of total lipid) make them a suitable source of vegetable oils and encourage theircommercial production.3- Black cumin and coriander seed oils could be produced as a crude seed oil, but niger seedshould be refined before marketing.4- Seed oils under study, are a rich source of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble bioactives. Thus,utilization of these seed oils and their polar lipids is expected to be realized A- As Additives to poor sources of FSB oils, mixed dishes and dessert. B- As a source of lecithin (especially, coriander and black cumin seed oils). C- As a row material for cosmetic (high levels of antioxidants).Further Research1- The link, if there any, between the antioxidnat properties of seed oils and their biological effectsunder physiological conditions.2- Oilseeds residues as a source of protein, fiber and water-soluble bioactives.3- Structure-antioxidant action relationship of phytoglycolipids !?4- The effect of processing (e.g. refining, microwave or roasting..etc) on the structure andantioxidant properties of seed oils.
  14. 14. DankeDr. Jörg-Thomas MörselProf. Dr. Lothar W. KrohFrau K. SeifertFrau K. WilcopolskiHerr W. SeidlFrau W. JalyschkoAlle Mitarbeitern und Kollegen (Doktoraten und Diplomanten).OrganizationsTechnische Universität Berlin (Institut für Lebensmittelchemie).Zagazig University (Agricultural Biochemistry Dept.)
  15. 15. Zagazig: City and University . One of the oldest cities in EgyptZagazig (about 4000 years old). . The old name was POBASTA which was the capital of Egypt. . Population: 1 Million. . Zagazig University was established 1974. . Faculty of Agriculture was also established 1974 and it contain 16 departments including Food Science and Agricultural Biochemistry.