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Mohammed Gamal 
Supervisor Of 
Cairo 
Mohammed.gl@gmail.com
A PEST analysis is an analysis of the external macro-environment 
that affects all firms. P.E.S.T. is an acronym 
for the Political, Economic, Social, and Technological 
factors of the external macro-environment. Such external 
factors usually are beyond the firm's control and 
sometimes present themselves as threats. For this reason, 
some say that "pest" is an appropriate term for these 
factors. However, changes in the external environment 
also create new opportunities and the letters sometimes 
are rearranged to construct the more optimistic term of 
STEP analysis.
Many macro-environmental factors are country-specific 
and a PEST analysis will need to be 
performed for all countries of interest. The following 
are examples of some of the factors that might be 
considered in a PEST analysis.
Political Analysis 
 Political stability 
 Risk of military invasion 
 Legal framework for contract enforcement 
 Intellectual property protection 
 Trade regulations & tariffs 
 Favored trading partners 
 Anti-trust laws 
 Pricing regulations 
 Taxation - tax rates and incentives 
 Wage legislation - minimum wage and overtime 
 Work week 
 Mandatory employee benefits 
 Industrial safety regulations 
 Product labeling requirements
Economic Analysis 
 Type of economic system in countries of operation 
 Government intervention in the free market 
 Comparative advantages of host country 
 Exchange rates & stability of host country currency 
 Efficiency of financial markets 
 Infrastructure quality 
 Skill level of workforce 
 Labor costs 
 Business cycle stage (e.g. prosperity, recession, recovery) 
 Economic growth rate 
 Discretionary income 
 Unemployment rate 
 Inflation rate 
 Interest rates
Social Analysis 
 Demographics 
 Class structure 
 Education 
 Culture (gender roles, etc.) 
 Entrepreneurial spirit 
 Attitudes (health, environmental consciousness, etc.) 
 Leisure interests
Technological Analysis 
 Recent technological developments 
 Technology's impact on product offering 
 Impact on cost structure 
 Impact on value chain structure 
 Rate of technological diffusion
The number of macro-environmental factors is virtually 
unlimited. In practice, the firm must prioritize and 
monitor those factors that influence its industry. Even so, 
it may be difficult to forecast future trends with an 
acceptable level of accuracy. In this regard, the firm may 
turn to scenario planning techniques to deal with high 
levels of uncertainty in important macro-environmental 
variables.
Mohammed Gamal 
01097778595 
Mohammed.gl@gmail.com

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Pest analysis

  • 1. Mohammed Gamal Supervisor Of Cairo Mohammed.gl@gmail.com
  • 2. A PEST analysis is an analysis of the external macro-environment that affects all firms. P.E.S.T. is an acronym for the Political, Economic, Social, and Technological factors of the external macro-environment. Such external factors usually are beyond the firm's control and sometimes present themselves as threats. For this reason, some say that "pest" is an appropriate term for these factors. However, changes in the external environment also create new opportunities and the letters sometimes are rearranged to construct the more optimistic term of STEP analysis.
  • 3. Many macro-environmental factors are country-specific and a PEST analysis will need to be performed for all countries of interest. The following are examples of some of the factors that might be considered in a PEST analysis.
  • 4. Political Analysis  Political stability  Risk of military invasion  Legal framework for contract enforcement  Intellectual property protection  Trade regulations & tariffs  Favored trading partners  Anti-trust laws  Pricing regulations  Taxation - tax rates and incentives  Wage legislation - minimum wage and overtime  Work week  Mandatory employee benefits  Industrial safety regulations  Product labeling requirements
  • 5. Economic Analysis  Type of economic system in countries of operation  Government intervention in the free market  Comparative advantages of host country  Exchange rates & stability of host country currency  Efficiency of financial markets  Infrastructure quality  Skill level of workforce  Labor costs  Business cycle stage (e.g. prosperity, recession, recovery)  Economic growth rate  Discretionary income  Unemployment rate  Inflation rate  Interest rates
  • 6. Social Analysis  Demographics  Class structure  Education  Culture (gender roles, etc.)  Entrepreneurial spirit  Attitudes (health, environmental consciousness, etc.)  Leisure interests
  • 7. Technological Analysis  Recent technological developments  Technology's impact on product offering  Impact on cost structure  Impact on value chain structure  Rate of technological diffusion
  • 8. The number of macro-environmental factors is virtually unlimited. In practice, the firm must prioritize and monitor those factors that influence its industry. Even so, it may be difficult to forecast future trends with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this regard, the firm may turn to scenario planning techniques to deal with high levels of uncertainty in important macro-environmental variables.
  • 9. Mohammed Gamal 01097778595 Mohammed.gl@gmail.com