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Head and Neck
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
Dr. Mohamed El fiky
Professor of anatomy and Embryology
Thyroid Gland
Mohamed el fiky
T1
C7
C6
C5
T1
C7
C6
C5
Site, Shape and Extent of Thyroid Gland
Right Lobe of The Thyroid GlandLeft Lobe of The Thyroid Gland
Isthmus
True Capsule
False Capsule
Fascia of the Thyroid Gla...
Thyroid Gland
Site : in the lower part of the front and sides of the neck.
Shape : It is roughly H-shaped; the vertical li...
(B) Base : is on the level with the 4th or 5th tracheal rings.
(C) lateral (superficial) surface : is convex and is covere...
q Connects the lower parts to the lobes
q Has (a) two surfaces, anterior and posterior; and (b)two borders superior and
in...
Right Lobe Left Lobe
Isthmus
Pyramidal Lobe
Apex
Base
Oblique line of
Thyroid cartilage
Divisions of the Thyroid Gland
Moh...
Relations of the Thyroid Gland
A- Relations of The Lobes
T1
C7
C6
C5
T1
C7
C6
C5
Oblique Line of Thyroid
Cartilage
5TH or ...
Superior Belly of Omohyoid
Sternohyoid
Sternothyroid
c- Relations of The Surfaces
1- Relations of Lateral (Superficial) su...
Anteriorly
Thyroid cartilage
Cricoid cartilage
Cricothyroid muscle
Inferior constrictor
of pharynx
External laryngeal nerv...
Right
Thyroid
Lobe
Posterior Surface of Thyroid Gland
Prevertebral
Muscles
3- Relations of Posterior surface
Mohamed el fi...
Anterior border related to
Anterior division of superior thyroid artery
Posterior border related to
Posterior division of ...
Isthmus of Thyroid Gland
Skin and Fascia
Sternothyroid
and
Sternohyoid Muscles
Anterior Jugular Veins
a- Anterior Relation...
The Isthmus of The Thyroid Gland is Related Posteriorly to
2nd ,3rd and 4TH Tracheal Rings
b- Posterior Relations of The I...
Anastomotic Branches
between
Superior Thyroid Arteries Pyramidal Lobe
and
Levator
Glandulae
Thyroidae
(If Present)
Inferio...
Pyramidal Lobe
and
Levator
Glandulae
Thyroidae
(If Present)
Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid Gland
Mohamed el fiky
Blood Supply of the Thyroid Gland
1. Superior thyroid artery:
q is a branch of external carotid artery.
q Runs downwards a...
Infrahyoid artery
Superior Laryngeal artery
Sternomastoid artery
Cricothyroid artery
Glandular arteries
Thyroidae ima arte...
Venous Drainage of Thyroid Gland
1) Superior thyroid vein:
q Emerges at the upper pol
q Accompanies the superior
thyroid a...
Upper deep cervical
Lymph nodes
Lower deep cervical
Lymph nodes
Pretracheal
Lymph nodes
Lymph Drainage of Thyroid Gland
1....
Superior Parathyroid
Gland
Inferior Parathyroid
Gland
Parathyroid Gland
The superior parathyroid : lies at the middle of
t...
Examination of thyroid gland
Mohamed el fiky
Massive Thyroid Enlargement
Goitre
Mohamed el fiky
Goitre
Mohamed el fiky
Thank You
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Thyroid gland

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Dr. Mohamed el fiky

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Thyroid gland

  1. 1. Head and Neck Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands Dr. Mohamed El fiky Professor of anatomy and Embryology
  2. 2. Thyroid Gland Mohamed el fiky T1 C7 C6 C5 T1 C7 C6 C5 Site, Shape and Extent of Thyroid Gland
  3. 3. Right Lobe of The Thyroid GlandLeft Lobe of The Thyroid Gland Isthmus True Capsule False Capsule Fascia of the Thyroid Gland (Capsules) Mohamed el fiky
  4. 4. Thyroid Gland Site : in the lower part of the front and sides of the neck. Shape : It is roughly H-shaped; the vertical limbs represent the two lobes and the horizontal limb, the isthmus. Extent: 1.Lies opposite 5th, 6th, 7th, cervical and 1st thoracic vertebrae. 2.Each lobe extends from the middle of the thyroid cartilage to the fourth or 3.fifth tracheal rings. 4.The isthmus lies opposite the second, third and fourth tracheal rings. Parts : The gland has : 1. Two lobes (right and left). 2. Isthmus: connecting the two lobes. 3. Pyramidal lobe : is often present. Lobes Each lobe is conical in shape having : (a) apex ; (b) base ; (c) three surfaces , lateral , medial and posterior and (d) two borders , anterior and posterior. (a) Apex : • directed upwards • limited superiorly by the attachment of the sternothyroid muscle to the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage. Mohamed el fiky
  5. 5. (B) Base : is on the level with the 4th or 5th tracheal rings. (C) lateral (superficial) surface : is convex and is covered by : 1.Sternothyroid 2. Sternohyoid. 3. Superior belly of omohyoid 4. Anterior border of the sternomastoid (D) Medial surface : related to : a.Two tubes : trachea and oesophagus b. The upwards continuation of the two tubes : larynx and pharynx. c. Two muscles : inferior constrictor and cricothyroid. d. Two nerves : external laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal. (E) Posterior surface: is related to the carotid sheath and parathyroid glands. (F) Anterior border : is thin and related to the anterior branch of superior thyroid artery. (G) Posterior border : is thick and rounded and separates the the medial and posterior branch between the superior and inferior thyroid arteries ; and prathyroid glands. Mohamed el fiky
  6. 6. q Connects the lower parts to the lobes q Has (a) two surfaces, anterior and posterior; and (b)two borders superior and inferior. Anterior surface : is covered by : (a) strenothyroids; (b)strenohyoids; (c) anterior jugular veins and (d) fascia and skin. Posterior surface: related to 2nd , 3rd and 4th tracheal rings. Upper border : is related to the anastomosing branches between the two superior thyroid arteries. Lower border : • The inferior thyoid veins leave the gland at this border. • Related to the anastomosing branches between the two inferior thyroid arteries. Pyramidal lobe q Is a small conical process which extends from the upper border of the isthmus. q Is usuall connected to the hyoid bone by a fibromuscular band called levator glandulae thyroideae which is remnant of thyroglossal duct. The Isthmus Mohamed el fiky
  7. 7. Right Lobe Left Lobe Isthmus Pyramidal Lobe Apex Base Oblique line of Thyroid cartilage Divisions of the Thyroid Gland Mohamed el fiky
  8. 8. Relations of the Thyroid Gland A- Relations of The Lobes T1 C7 C6 C5 T1 C7 C6 C5 Oblique Line of Thyroid Cartilage 5TH or 6TH Tracheal Ring a- Relations of Apex b- Relations of The Base Mohamed el fiky
  9. 9. Superior Belly of Omohyoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid c- Relations of The Surfaces 1- Relations of Lateral (Superficial) surface Mohamed el fiky
  10. 10. Anteriorly Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Cricothyroid muscle Inferior constrictor of pharynx External laryngeal nerve (In the middle) a- Anteriorly 1- Upper part b- Posteriorly 2- Lower part a- Anteriorly b- Posteriorly Trachea Esophagus Recurrent laryngeal nerve (in the middle) 2- Relations of Medial surface Mohamed el fiky
  11. 11. Right Thyroid Lobe Posterior Surface of Thyroid Gland Prevertebral Muscles 3- Relations of Posterior surface Mohamed el fiky
  12. 12. Anterior border related to Anterior division of superior thyroid artery Posterior border related to Posterior division of superior thyroid artery Inferior thyroid artery, Parathyroid glands D- Relations of The Borders Mohamed el fiky
  13. 13. Isthmus of Thyroid Gland Skin and Fascia Sternothyroid and Sternohyoid Muscles Anterior Jugular Veins a- Anterior Relations of the Isthmus Mohamed el fiky
  14. 14. The Isthmus of The Thyroid Gland is Related Posteriorly to 2nd ,3rd and 4TH Tracheal Rings b- Posterior Relations of The Isthmus Mohamed el fiky
  15. 15. Anastomotic Branches between Superior Thyroid Arteries Pyramidal Lobe and Levator Glandulae Thyroidae (If Present) Inferior Thyroid Veins c- Relations of Upper and Lower Borders Of the Isthmus Mohamed el fiky
  16. 16. Pyramidal Lobe and Levator Glandulae Thyroidae (If Present) Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid Gland Mohamed el fiky
  17. 17. Blood Supply of the Thyroid Gland 1. Superior thyroid artery: q is a branch of external carotid artery. q Runs downwards and forwards with intimate relation to the external laryngeal nerve. q Divides into anterior and posterior branches (2) Inferior thyroid artery: q Is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk from the subclavian artery q Runs first upwards , then medially and finally downwards to reach the lower pole of the thyroid lobe. q Its terminal part is intimately related to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (3) Thyroidea ima artery (in 3% individuals): q Arises from the brachiocephalic artery or the aortic arch Ascends in front of the trachea to reach the isthmus. (4) Accessory thyroid arteries : come from the tracheal and esophageal vessels. Arterial supply Mohamed el fiky
  18. 18. Infrahyoid artery Superior Laryngeal artery Sternomastoid artery Cricothyroid artery Glandular arteries Thyroidae ima artery The Superior Thyroid Artery The Inferior Thyroid Artery Arteries from Trachea and Esophagus to The Thyroid Gland Mohamed el fiky
  19. 19. Venous Drainage of Thyroid Gland 1) Superior thyroid vein: q Emerges at the upper pol q Accompanies the superior thyroid artery q Ends in the internal jugular vein 2) Middle thyroid vein: q Emerges at the middle of the lobe. q Ends in the internal jugular vein 3) Inferior thyroid veins: q Emerge at the lower border of the isthmus q Descend in front of the trachea and drain into the left brachiocephalic vein. Mohamed el fiky
  20. 20. Upper deep cervical Lymph nodes Lower deep cervical Lymph nodes Pretracheal Lymph nodes Lymph Drainage of Thyroid Gland 1.The upper part : drains into the upper deep cervical lymph nodes 2.The lower part : drains into the lower deep cervical lymph nodes 3.The isthmus : drains into the brachiocephalic lymph nodes Mohamed el fiky
  21. 21. Superior Parathyroid Gland Inferior Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Gland The superior parathyroid : lies at the middle of the posterior border of the lobe of the thyroid gland within the capsule of the thyroid gland. The inferior parathyroid : is variable in position . it may lie (1) within the thyroid capsule , below the inferior thyroid artery and near the lower pole of the thyroid lobe; (2) (2) behind and outside the thyroid capsule, immediately above the inferior thyroid artery ; or (3) (3) within the substance of the lobe near its posterior border Shape and size : oval or lentiform in shape , measures 6x4x2 mm . each one weighs 50 mg. Arterial supply : from the inferior thyroid arteries and the anastomosis between the superior and inferior thyroid arteries. Mohamed el fiky
  22. 22. Examination of thyroid gland Mohamed el fiky
  23. 23. Massive Thyroid Enlargement Goitre Mohamed el fiky
  24. 24. Goitre Mohamed el fiky
  25. 25. Thank You

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